Iontronics is an emerging technology based on sophisticated control of ions as signal carriers that bridges solid-state electronics and biological system. It is found in nature, e.g., information transduction and processing of brain in which neurons are dynamically polarized or depolarized by ion transport across cell membranes. It suggests the operating principle of aqueous circuits made of predesigned structures and functional materials that characteristically interact with ions of various charge, mobility, and affinity. Working in aqueous environments, iontronic devices offer profound implications for biocompatible or biodegradable logic circuits for sensing, ecofriendly monitoring, and brain-machine interfacing. Furthermore, iontronics based on multi-ionic carriers sheds light on futuristic biomimic information processing. In this review, we overview the historical achievements and the current state of iontronics with regard to theory, fabrication, integration, and applications, concluding with comments on where the technology may advance.


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