Ice mantles play a crucial role in shaping the astrochemical inventory of molecules during star and planet formation. Small-scale molecular processes have a profound impact on large-scale astronomical evolution. The areas of solid-state laboratory astrophysics and computational chemistry involve the study of these processes. We review laboratory efforts in ice spectroscopy, methodological advances and challenges, and laboratory and computational studies of ice physics and ice chemistry. We place the last of these in context with ice evolution from clouds to disks. Three takeaway messages from this review are:

  • ▪  Laboratory and computational studies allow interpretation of astronomical ice spectra in terms of identification, ice morphology, and local environmental conditions as well as the formation of the involved chemical compounds.
  • ▪  A detailed understanding of the underlying processes is needed to build reliable astrochemical models to make predictions about abundances in space.
  • ▪  The relative importance of the different ice processes studied in the laboratory and computationally changes during the process of star and planet formation.


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