1932

Abstract

2-Oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases (2OGXs) catalyze a remarkably diverse range of oxidative reactions. In animals, these comprise hydroxylations and -demethylations proceeding via hydroxylation; in plants and microbes, they catalyze a wider range including ring formations, rearrangements, desaturations, and halogenations. The catalytic flexibility of 2OGXs is reflected in their biological functions. After pioneering work identified the roles of 2OGXs in collagen biosynthesis, research revealed they also function in plant and animal development, transcriptional regulation, nucleic acid modification/repair, fatty acid metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including of medicinally important antibiotics. In plants, 2OGXs are important agrochemical targets and catalyze herbicide degradation. Human 2OGXs, particularly those regulating transcription, are current therapeutic targets for anemia and cancer. Here, we give an overview of the biochemistry of 2OGXs, providing examples linking to biological function, and outline how knowledge of their enzymology is being exploited in medicine, agrochemistry, and biocatalysis.

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2018-06-20
2024-06-19
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