1932

Abstract

Exposure of biological cells to high-voltage, short-duration electric pulses causes a transient increase in their plasma membrane permeability, allowing transmembrane transport of otherwise impermeant molecules. In recent years, large steps were made in the understanding of underlying events. Formation of aqueous pores in the lipid bilayer is now a widely recognized mechanism, but evidence is growing that changes to individual membrane lipids and proteins also contribute, substantiating the need for terminological distinction between electroporation and electropermeabilization. We first revisit experimental evidence for electrically induced membrane permeability, its correlation with transmembrane voltage, and continuum models of electropermeabilization that disregard the molecular-level structure and events. We then present insights from molecular-level modeling, particularly atomistic simulations that enhance understanding of pore formation, and evidence of chemical modifications of membrane lipids and functional modulation of membrane proteins affecting membrane permeability. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges to our full understanding of electroporation and electropermeabilization.

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2019-05-06
2024-04-23
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