After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles—the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated—present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10–13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14–18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington, VA: Am. Psychiatr. Assoc, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  2. Andrews DA. 2011. The risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of correctional assessment and treatment. Applying Social Science to Reduce Violent Offending JA Dvoskin, JL Skeem, RW Novaco, KL Douglas 127–56 New York: Oxford [Google Scholar]
  3. Andrews DA, Zinger I, Hoge RD, Bonta J, Gendreau P, Cullen FT. 1990. Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis. Criminology 28:369–404 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barnoski R. 2003. Changes in Washington State's Jurisdiction of Juvenile Offenders: Examining the Impact Olympia: Wash. State Inst. Public Policy [Google Scholar]
  5. Bishop DM, Frazier E. 2000. Consequences of transfer. The Changing Borders of Juvenile Justice J Fagan, E Zimmerman 227–76 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  6. Blair RJ. 2010. Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 12:176–82 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bonnie R, Coughlin A, Jeffries J, Low P. 2010. Criminal Law New York: Found. Press [Google Scholar]
  8. Borum R, Bartel P, Forth A. 2006. SAVRY: Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth: Professional Manual Lutz, FL: Psychol. Assess. Resourc. [Google Scholar]
  9. Broidy LM, Nagin DS, Tremblay RE, Bates JE, Brame B. et al. 2003. Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: a six-site, cross-national study. Dev. Psychol. 39:2222–45 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bronfenbrenner U, Morris P. 1998. The ecology of developmental processes. Handbook of Child Psychology W Damon 993–1028 New York: Wiley, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  11. Butler S, Baruch G, Hickey N, Fonagy P. 2011. A randomized controlled trial of multisystemic therapy and a statutory therapeutic intervention for young offenders. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 50:1220–35 [Google Scholar]
  12. Caldwell M, Skeem J, Salekin R, Van Rybroek G. 2006a. Treatment response of adolescent offenders with psychopathy features: a 2-year follow-up. Crim. Justice Behav. 33:5571–96 [Google Scholar]
  13. Caldwell MF, Vitacco M, Van Rybroek GJ. 2006b. Are violent delinquents worth treating? A cost-benefit analysis. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 43:2148–68 [Google Scholar]
  14. Capaldi DM, Patterson GR. 1996. Can violent offenders be distinguished from frequent offenders: Prediction from childhood to adolescence. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 33:2206–31 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chamberlain P. 2003. Treating Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Advances Made Through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care Model Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc. [Google Scholar]
  16. Clark LA. 2007. Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder: perennial issues and an emerging reconceptualization. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 58:227–57 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cohen MA, Piquero AR. 2009. New evidence on the monetary value of saving a high risk youth. J. Quant. Criminol. 25:125–49 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cottle CC, Lee RJ, Heilbrun K. 2001. The prediction of criminal recidivism in juveniles: a meta-analysis. Crim. Justice Behav. 28:3367–94 [Google Scholar]
  19. Crone EA, Dahl RE. 2012. Understanding adolescence as a period of social-affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 13:9636–50 [Google Scholar]
  20. Curtis NM, Ronan KR, Borduin CM. 2004. Multisystemic treatment: a meta-analysis of outcome studies. J. Fam. Psychol. 18:3411–19 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dadds MR, Cauchi AJ, Wimalaweera S, Hawes DJ, Brennan J. 2012. Outcomes, moderators, and mediators of empathic-emotion recognition training for complex conduct problems in childhood. Psychiatry Res. 199:201–7 [Google Scholar]
  22. Dadds MR, Perry Y, Hawes DJ, Merz S, Riddell AC. et al. 2006. Attention to the eyes and fear-recognition deficits in child psychopathy. Br. J. Psychiatry 189:3280–81 [Google Scholar]
  23. Dadds MR, Rhodes T. 2008. Aggression in young children with concurrent callous-unemotional traits: Can the neurosciences inform progress and innovation in treatment approaches?. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:15032567–76 [Google Scholar]
  24. Davis S, Scott E, Wadlington W, Whitebread C. 2009. Children in the Legal System New York: Found. Press, 4th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  25. DiIulio JJ Jr. 1995. The coming of the super-predators. Wkly. Stand. 1:Nov. 2723–28 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dowden C, Andrews DA. 1999. What works in young offender treatment: a meta-analysis. Forum Correct. Res. 11:21–24 [Google Scholar]
  27. Eddy JM, Whaley RB, Chamberlain P. 2004. The prevention of violent behavior by chronic and serious male juvenile offenders: a 2-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. J. Emot. Behav. Disord. 12:12–8 [Google Scholar]
  28. Edens JF, Campbell JS, Weir JM. 2007. Youth psychopathy and criminal recidivism. Law Hum. Behav. 31:153–75 [Google Scholar]
  29. Edens JF, Marcus DK, Vaughn MG. 2011. Exploring the taxometric status of psychopathy among youthful offenders: Is there a juvenile psychopath taxon?. Law Hum. Behav. 35:113–24 [Google Scholar]
  30. Elliott DS, Mihalic S. 2004. Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prev. Sci. 5:147–53 [Google Scholar]
  31. Forth AE, Kosson DS, Hare RD. 2003. Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) Towanda, NY: Multi-Heath Syst. [Google Scholar]
  32. Fowles DC, Dindo L. 2009. Temperament and psychopathy: a dual-pathway model. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 18:3179–83 [Google Scholar]
  33. Frick PJ, Ray JV, Thornton LC, Kahn RE. 2014. Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychol. Bull. 14011–57 [Google Scholar]
  34. Gendreau P, Andrews DA. 1996. Correctional Program Assessment Inventory CPAI New Brunswick, Can.: Univ. N. Brunsw, 6th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  35. Gibbs N, Grace J, Hull J. 1994. Crime: murder in miniature. TIME Mag. Sept. 19 54–59 [Google Scholar]
  36. Goldstein AP, Glick B, Reiner S, Zimmerman D, Coultry TM, Gold D. 1986. Aggression Replacement Training: a comprehensive intervention for the acting-out delinquent. J. Correct. Educ. 37:3120–26 [Google Scholar]
  37. Goldweber A, Dmitrieva J, Cauffman E, Piquero AR, Steinberg L. 2011. The development of criminal style in adolescence and young adulthood: separating the lemmings from the loners. J. Youth Adolesc. 40:3332–46 [Google Scholar]
  38. Graham v. Florida 130 S. Ct. 2011 (2010)
  39. Griffin P, Addie S, Adams B, Firestone K. 2011. Trying Juveniles as Adults: An Analysis of State Transfer Laws and Reporting Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev. [Google Scholar]
  40. Han T, Alders GL, Greening SG, Neufeld RW, Mitchell DG. 2012. Do fearful eyes activate empathy-related brain regions in individuals with callous traits?. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 7:8958–68 [Google Scholar]
  41. Harden KP, Quinn PD, Tucker-Drob EM. 2012. Genetically influenced change in sensation seeking drives the rise of delinquent behavior during adolescence. Dev. Sci. 15:1150–63 [Google Scholar]
  42. Harris G, Rice M. 2005. Treatment of psychopathy. Handbook of Psychopathy C Patrick 555–72 New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  43. Hart HL. 1968. Punishment and Responsibility Oxford, UK: Clarendon [Google Scholar]
  44. Haslam N, Holland E, Kuppens P. 2012. Categories versus dimensions in personality and psychopathology: a quantitative review of taxometric research. Psychol. Med. 42:5903–20 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hawkins J, Herrenkohl T, Farrington D, Brewer D, Catalano R. et al. 2000. Predictors of Youth Violence Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev. [Google Scholar]
  46. Henggeler SW, Schoenwald SK, Borduin CM, Rowland MD, Cunningham PB. 1998. Multisystemic Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  47. Henggeler SW, Sheidow AJ. 2012. Empirically supported family-based treatments for conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents. J. Marital Fam. Ther. 38:130–58 [Google Scholar]
  48. Herrenkohl TI, Maguin E, Hill KG, Hawkins JD, Abbott RD, Catalano RF. 2000. Developmental risk factors for youth violence. J. Adolesc. Health 26:3176–86 [Google Scholar]
  49. Hilterman EL, Nicholls TL, van Nieuwenhuizen C. 2013. Predictive validity of risk assessments in juvenile offenders: comparing the SAVRY, PCL: YV, and YLS/CMI with unstructured clinical assessments. Assessment In press [Google Scholar]
  50. Hirschi T, Gottfredson MR. 1983. Age and the explanation of crime. Am. J. Sociol. 89:552–84 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hofmann W, Gschwendner T, Friese M, Wiers RW, Schmitt M. 2008. Working memory capacity and self-regulatory behavior: toward an individual differences perspective on behavior determination by automatic versus controlled processes. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 95:4962–77 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hoge RD, Andrews DA. 2011. Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory 2.0 (YLS/CMI 2.0): User's Manual Towanda, NY: Multi-Health Syst. [Google Scholar]
  53. Howell JC. 1995. Guide for Implementing the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Offenders Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev. [Google Scholar]
  54. Huebner BM. 2013. The Missouri model: a critical state of knowledge. Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach RJ Bonnie, RL Johnson, BM Chemers, JA Schuck, Append. B 411–30 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  55. Hughes T, Wilson D, Beck A. 2001. Trends in State Parole, 1990–2000 Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat. [Google Scholar]
  56. Jaffee SR, Odgers CL. 2013. Conduct disorder across the life course. Life Course Approach to Mental Disorders KC Koenen, S Rudenstine, E Susser, S Galea 165–72 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  57. Kazdin AE. 2007. Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 3:1–27 [Google Scholar]
  58. Kazdin AE. 2011. Evidence-based treatment research: advances, limitations, and next steps. Am. Psychol. 66:8685–98 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kerr M, Van Zalk M, Stattin H. 2012. Psychopathic traits moderate peer influence on adolescent delinquency. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 53:8826–35 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kimonis ER, Frick PJ, Barry CT. 2004. Callous-unemotional traits and delinquent peer affiliation. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 72:956–66 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kraemer HC. 2003. Current concepts of risk in psychiatric disorders. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 16:4421–30 [Google Scholar]
  62. Kroner DG, Yessine AK. 2013. Changing risk factors that impact recidivism: in search of mechanisms of change. Law Hum. Behav. 37:321–26 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lee S, Aos S, Drake E, Pennucci A, Miller M, Anderson L. 2012. Return on Investment: Evidence-Based Options to Improve Statewide Outcomes Olympia: Wash. State Inst. Public Policy [Google Scholar]
  64. Lipsey MW. 2009. The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: a meta-analytic overview. Vict. Offenders 4:2124–47 [Google Scholar]
  65. Lipsey MW, Derzon JH. 1998. Predictors of violent or serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: a synthesis of longitudinal research. Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions R Loeber, D Farrington 86–105 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  66. Lipsey MW, Howell JC, Kelly MR, Chapman G, Carver D. 2010. Improving the Effectiveness of Juvenile Justice Programs Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Cent. Juv. Justice Reform [Google Scholar]
  67. Lipsey MW, Wilson DB, Cothern L. 2000. Effective Intervention for Serious Juvenile Offenders Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev. [Google Scholar]
  68. Loeber R, Farrington DP. 1998. Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  69. Lowenkamp CT, Latessa EJ, Smith P. 2006. Does correctional program quality really matter? The impact of adhering to the principles of effective intervention. Criminol. Public Policy 5:3575–94 [Google Scholar]
  70. Lykken DT. 1995. The Antisocial Personalities Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  71. Lynam DR, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Loeber R, Stouthamer-Loeber M. 2007. Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 116:1155–65 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lynam DR, Gudonis L. 2005. The development of psychopathy. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 1:381–407 [Google Scholar]
  73. Matthys W, Vanderschuren LJ, Schutter DJ, Lochman JE. 2012. Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for interventions. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 15:3234–46 [Google Scholar]
  74. Miller v. Alabama. Supreme Court Rep (132):2255–90 (2012)
  75. Moffitt TE. 1993. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychol. Rev. 100:4674–701 [Google Scholar]
  76. Moffitt TE. 2006. Life-course persistent versus adolescence-limited antisocial behavior. Developmental Psychopathology: Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation 3 D Cicchetti, DJ Cohen 570–98 New York: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  77. Moffitt TE, Arseneault L, Jaffee SR, Kim-Cohen J, Koenen KC. et al. 2008. Research review: DSM-V conduct disorder: research needs for an evidence base. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 49:3–33 [Google Scholar]
  78. Monahan J, Skeem J. 2013. Risk redux: the resurgence of risk assessment in criminal sentencing. Fed. Sentencing Rep. In press [Google Scholar]
  79. Morse SJ. 1984. Justice, mercy and craziness. Stanford Law Rev. 36:1485–560 [Google Scholar]
  80. Mulvey EP, Schubert CA. 2011. Youth in prison and beyond. Oxford Handbook on Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice BC Feld, DM Bishop 843–67 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  81. Mulvey EP, Schubert CA, Chassin L. 2010a. Substance Use and Offending in Serious Adolescent Offenders Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev. [Google Scholar]
  82. Mulvey EP, Steinberg L, Piquero AR, Besana M, Fagan J. et al. 2010b. Trajectories of desistance and continuity in antisocial behavior following court adjudication among serious adolescent offenders. Dev. Psychopathol. 22:2453–75 [Google Scholar]
  83. Nagin D, Tremblay RE. 1999. Trajectories of boys' physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Dev. 70:51181–96 [Google Scholar]
  84. Natl. Res. Counc 2012. Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach. Strengthening the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  85. Nieuwbeerta P, Blokland AA, Piquero AR, Sweeten G. 2011. A life-course analysis of offense specialization across age: introducing a new method for studying individual specialization over the life course. Crime Delinq. 57:13–28 [Google Scholar]
  86. Odgers CL, Caspi A, Broadbent JM, Dickson N, Hancox RJ. et al. 2007. Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64:4476–84 [Google Scholar]
  87. Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev 2011. Upper Age of Original Juvenile Court Jurisdiction, 2011 Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/qa04101.asp [Google Scholar]
  88. Olver ME, Stockdale KC, Wong SC. 2012. Short and long-term prediction of recidivism using the youth level of service/case management inventory in a sample of serious young offenders. Law Hum. Behav. 36:4331–44 [Google Scholar]
  89. Olver ME, Stockdale KC, Wormith JS. 2011. A meta-analysis of predictors of offender treatment attrition and its relationship to recidivism. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 79:16–21 [Google Scholar]
  90. Olver ME, Stockdale KC, Wormith JS. 2009. Risk assessment with young offenders: a meta-analysis of three assessment measures. Crim. Justice Behav. 36:4329–53 [Google Scholar]
  91. Patrick CJ, Drislane LE, Strickland C. 2012a. Conceptualizing psychopathy in triarchic terms: implications for treatment. Int. J. Forensic Mental Health 11:4253–66 [Google Scholar]
  92. Patrick CJ, Durbin CE, Moser JS. 2012b. Reconceptualizing antisocial deviance in neurobehavioral terms. Dev. Psychopathol. 24:31047–71 [Google Scholar]
  93. Pealer JA, Latessa EJ. 2004. Applying the principles of effective intervention to juvenile correctional programs. Correct. Today 66:26–29 [Google Scholar]
  94. Penton-Voak IS, Thomas J, Gage SH, McMurran M, McDonald S, Munafò MR. 2013. Increasing recognition of happiness in ambiguous facial expressions reduces anger and aggressive behavior. Psychol. Sci. 24:5688–97 [Google Scholar]
  95. Piquero AR. 2008. Taking stock of developmental trajectories of criminal activity over the life course. The Long View of Crime: A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research A Liberman 23–78 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  96. Piquero AR, Cullen ET, Unnever JD, Piquero NL, Gordon JA. 2010. Never too late: public optimism about juvenile rehabilitation. Punishm. Soc.-Int. J. Penol. 12:2187–207 [Google Scholar]
  97. Piquero AR, Diamond B, Jennings WG, Reingle JM. 2013. Adolescence-limited offending. Handbook of Life-Course Criminology CL Gibson, MD Krohn 129–42 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  98. Piquero AR, Farrington DP, Blumstein A. 2003. The criminal career paradigm. Crime Justice 30:359–506 [Google Scholar]
  99. Piquero AR, Steinberg L. 2010. Public preferences for rehabilitation versus incarceration of juvenile offenders. J. Crim. Justice 1:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  100. Posner RA. 1985. An economic theory of the criminal law. Columbia Law Rev. 85:1193–231 [Google Scholar]
  101. Redding R. 2008. Juvenile Transfer Laws: An Effective Deterrent to Delinquency? Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev. [Google Scholar]
  102. Redpath DP, Brander JK. 2010. The Arizona Standardized Program Evaluation Protocol (SPEP) for Assessing the Effectiveness of Programs for Juvenile Probationers: SPEP Rating and Relative Recidivism Reduction. Phoenix: Ariz. Supreme Court http://cjjr.georgetown.edu/pdfs/ebp/pres_AZspep2010.pdf [Google Scholar]
  103. Regier DA, Narrow WE, Clarke DE, Kraemer HC, Kuramoto SJ. et al. 2013. DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada, part II: test-retest reliability of selected categorical diagnoses. Am. J. Psychiatry 170:159–70 [Google Scholar]
  104. Roper v. Simmons 125 S. Ct. 1183 (2005)
  105. Sampson RJ, Laub JH. 2003. Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology 41:3555–92 [Google Scholar]
  106. Schaeffer CM, Borduin CM. 2005. Long-term follow-up to a randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with serious and violent juvenile offenders. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 73:3445–53 [Google Scholar]
  107. Schubert CA, Mulvey EP, Glasheen C. 2011. Influence of mental health and substance use problems and criminogenic risk on outcomes in serious juvenile offenders. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 50:9925–37 [Google Scholar]
  108. Schubert CA, Mulvey EP, Loughran TA, Losoya SH. 2012. Perceptions of institutional experience and community outcomes for serious adolescent offenders. Crim. Justice Behav. 39:171–93 [Google Scholar]
  109. Scott ES. 2013a. Miller v. Alabama and the (past and) future of juvenile crime policy. Minn. J. Law Inequal. 31:535–58 [Google Scholar]
  110. Scott ES. 2013b. Children are different: constitutional values and justice policy. Ohio State J. Crim. Law. In press [Google Scholar]
  111. Scott ES, Steinberg L. 2008. Rethinking Juvenile Justice Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  112. Sedlak A, McPherson KS. 2010. Conditions of Confinement: Findings from the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement Washington, DC: Off. Juv. Justice Delinq. Prev. [Google Scholar]
  113. Sexton TL, Alexander JF. 2000. Functional Family Therapy New Jersey: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  114. Skeem JL, Barnoski R, Latessa E, Robinson D, Tjaden C. 2013. Youth risk assessment approaches: lessons learned and question raised by Baird et al.'s study (2013). http://riskreduction.soceco.uci.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/BairdRebuttal2013_FINALc1.pdf
  115. Skeem J, Mulvey E. 2002. Monitoring the violence potential of mentally disordered offenders being treated in the community. Care of the Mentally Disordered Offender in the Community A Buchanan 111–42 New York: Oxford [Google Scholar]
  116. Skeem JL, Polaschek DL, Patrick CJ, Lilienfeld SO. 2011. Psychopathic personality: bridging the gap between scientific evidence and public policy. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 12:395–162 [Google Scholar]
  117. Steinberg L. 2009. Adolescent development and juvenile justice. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 5:459–85 [Google Scholar]
  118. Steinberg LD, Chung HL, Little M. 2004. Reentry of young offenders from the justice system: a developmental perspective. Youth Violence Juv. Justice 2:121–38 [Google Scholar]
  119. Stockdale KC, Olver ME, Wong SC. 2010. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and adolescent and adult recidivism: considerations with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age. Psychol. Assess. 22:4768–81 [Google Scholar]
  120. Thornton LC. 2012. Adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and their roles in group crime PhD thesis, Univ. New Orleans. http://scholarworks.uno.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2570&context=td [Google Scholar]
  121. Tracy PE, Wolfgang ME, Figlio RM. 1990. Delinquency Careers in Two Birth Cohorts New York: Plenum [Google Scholar]
  122. Vincent GM, Guy LS, Grisso T. 2012. Risk Assessment in Juvenile Justice: A Guidebook for Implementation Chicago: MacArthur Found. [Google Scholar]
  123. Walters GD. 2011. The latent structure of life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: Is Moffitt's developmental taxonomy a true taxonomy?. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 79:196–105 [Google Scholar]
  124. Welsh BC, Rocque M, Greenwood PW. 2013. Translating research into evidence-based practice in juvenile justice: brand-name programs, meta-analysis, and key issues. J. Exp. Criminol. doi:10.1007/s11292-013-9182-3. In press [Google Scholar]
  125. White SF, Frick PJ, Lawing K, Bauer D. 2013. Callous-unemotional traits and response to functional family therapy in adolescent offenders. Behav. Sci. Law 31:271–85 [Google Scholar]
  126. Wiers RW, Eberl C, Rinck M, Becker ES, Lindenmeyer J. 2011. Retraining automatic action tendencies changes alcoholic patients' approach bias for alcohol and improves treatment outcome. Psychol. Sci. 22:4490–97 [Google Scholar]
  127. Yang M, Wong SC, Coid J. 2010. The efficacy of violence prediction: a meta-analytic comparison of nine risk assessment tools. Psychol. Bull. 136:5740–67 [Google Scholar]
  128. Zimring FE. 2005. American Juvenile Justice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error