1932

Abstract

Fracking is a popular term referring to hydraulic fracturing when it is used to extract hydrocarbons. We distinguish between low-volume traditional fracking and the high-volume modern fracking used to recover large volumes of hydrocarbons from shales. Shales are fine-grained rocks with low granular permeabilities. During the formation of oil and gas, large fluid pressures are generated. These pressures result in natural fracking, and the resulting fracture permeability allows oil and gas to escape, reducing the fluid pressures. These fractures may subsequently be sealed by mineral deposition, resulting in tight shale formations. The objective of modern fracking is to reopen these fractures and/or create new fractures on a wide range of scales. Modern fracking has had a major impact on the availability of oil and gas globally; however, there are serious environmental objections to modern fracking, which should be weighed carefully against its benefits.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-060115-012537
2016-06-29
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/earth/44/1/annurev-earth-060115-012537.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-060115-012537&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adachi J, Siebrits E, Peirce A, Desroches J. 2007. Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 44:739–57 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aguilera R. 1995. Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Tulsa, OK: PennWell [Google Scholar]
  3. Allen DT. 2014. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use. Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 5:55–75 [Google Scholar]
  4. Armor JN. 2013. Emerging importance of shale gas to both the energy & chemicals landscape. J. Energy Chem. 22:21–26 [Google Scholar]
  5. Arthur MA, Sageman BB. 1994. Marine black shales: depositional mechanisms and environments of ancient deposits. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 22:499–551 [Google Scholar]
  6. Atkinson GM, Ghofrani H, Assatourians K. 2015. Impact of induced seismicity on the evaluation of seismic hazard: some preliminary considerations. Seismol. Res. Lett. 86:1009–21 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aydin A. 2014. Failure modes of shales and their implications for natural and man-made fracture assemblages. AAPG Bull. 98:2391–409 [Google Scholar]
  8. Barker C. 1990. Calculated volume and pressure changes during the thermal cracking of oil to gas in reservoirs. AAPG Bull. 74:1254–61 [Google Scholar]
  9. Behl RJ. 1999. Since Bramlette (1946): the Miocene Monterey Formation of California revisited. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 338:301–13 [Google Scholar]
  10. Berg RR, Gangi AF. 1999. Primary migration by oil-generation microfracturing in low-permeability source rocks: application to the Austin Chalk, Texas. AAPG Bull. 83:727–56 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bernard S, Horsfield B. 2014. Thermal maturation of gas shale systems. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42:635–51 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bowker KA. 2007. Barnett Shale gas production, Fort Worth Basin: issues and discussion. AAPG Bull. 91:523–33 [Google Scholar]
  13. Braccini E, de Boer W, Hurst A, Huuse M, Vigorito M, Templeton G. 2008. Sand injectites. Oilfield Rev. 20:34–49 [Google Scholar]
  14. Brodsky EE, Lajoie LJ. 2013. Anthropogenic seismicity rates and operational parameters at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Science 341:543–46 [Google Scholar]
  15. Brodsky EE, van der Elst NJ. 2014. The uses of dynamic earthquake triggering. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42:317–39 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bunger AP, McLennan J, Jeffrey R. 2013. Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing Rijeka, Croat: InTech [Google Scholar]
  17. Busetti S, Jiao W, Reches Z. 2014. Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity. Part 1. Shear, hybrid, and tensile events. AAPG Bull. 98:2439–57 [Google Scholar]
  18. Busetti S, Reches Z. 2014. Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity. Part 2. Stress state determination. AAPG Bull. 98:2459–76 [Google Scholar]
  19. Calif. Counc. Sci. Technol 2014. Advanced well stimulation technologies in California: an independent review of scientific and technical information Tech. Rep., Calif. Counc. Sci. Technol., Sacramento, CA [Google Scholar]
  20. Candela T, Brodsky EE, Marone C, Elsworth D. 2014. Laboratory evidence for particle mobilization as a mechanism for permeability enhancement via dynamic stressing. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 392:279–91 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chuprakov D, Melchaeva O, Prioul R. 2014. Injection-sensitive mechanics of hydraulic fracture interaction with discontinuities. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 47:1625–40 [Google Scholar]
  22. Curtis JB. 2002. Fractured shale-gas systems. AAPG Bull. 86:1921–38 [Google Scholar]
  23. Das I, Zoback MD. 2013. Long-period, long-duration seismic events during hydraulic stimulation of shale and tight-gas reservoirs. Part 1. Waveform characteristics. Geophysics 78:KS97–108 [Google Scholar]
  24. Davies RJ, Brumm M, Manga M, Rubiandini R, Swarbrick R, Tingay M. 2008. The East Java mud volcano (2006 to present): an earthquake or drilling trigger?. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 272:627–38 [Google Scholar]
  25. Davies RJ, Mathias SA, Moss J, Hustoft S, Newport L. 2012. Hydraulic fractures: How far can they go?. Mar. Pet. Geol. 37:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dimitrov LI. 2002. Mud volcanoes—the most important pathway for degassing deeply buried sediments. Earth-Sci. Rev. 59:49–76 [Google Scholar]
  27. Eaton DW, Davidsen J, Pedersen PK, Boroumand N. 2014. Breakdown of the Gutenberg-Richter relation for microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing: influence of stratabound fractures. Geophys. Prospect. 62:806–18 [Google Scholar]
  28. Ebrahimi F. 2010. Invasion percolation: a computational algorithm for complex phenomena. Comput. Sci. Eng. 12:84–93 [Google Scholar]
  29. Elkhoury JE, Brodsky EE, Agnew DC. 2006. Seismic waves increase permeability. Nature 441:1135–38 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ellsworth WL. 2013. Injection-induced earthquakes. Science 341. doi: 10.1126/science.1225942 [Google Scholar]
  31. Engelder T, Lacazette A. 1990. Natural hydraulic fracturing. Rock Joints N Barton, O Stephansson 35–44 Rotterdam, Neth: A.A. Balkema [Google Scholar]
  32. Etiope G, Feyzullayev A, Baciu CL. 2009. Terrestrial methane seeps and mud volcanoes: a global perspective of gas origin. Mar. Pet. Geol. 26:333–44 [Google Scholar]
  33. Finkbeiner T, Barton CA, Zoback MD. 1997. Relationships among in-situ stress, fractures and faults, and fluid flow: Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin, California. AAPG Bull. 81:1975–99 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fjaer E, Holt R, Horsrud P, Raaen A, Risnes R. 2008. Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  35. Flewelling SA, Tymchak MP, Warpinski N. 2013. Hydraulic fracture height limits and fault interactions in tight oil and gas formations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40:3602–6 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gale JFW, Holder J. 2010. Natural fractures in some US shales and their importance for gas production. Petroleum Geology: From Mature Basins to New Frontiers—Proceedings of the 7th Petroleum Geology Conference BA Vining, SC Pickering 1131–40 London: Geol. Soc. [Google Scholar]
  37. Gale JFW, Laubach SE, Olson JE, Eichhubl P, Fall A. 2014. Natural fractures in shale: a review and new observations. AAPG Bull. 98:2165–216 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gale JFW, Reed RM, Holder J. 2007. Natural fractures in the Barnett Shale and their importance for hydraulic fracture treatments. AAPG Bull. 91:603–22 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gasparrini M, Sassi W, Gale JFW. 2014. Natural sealed fractures in mudrocks: a case study tied to burial history from the Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA. Mar. Pet. Geol. 55:122–41 [Google Scholar]
  40. Goodfellow SD, Nasseri MHB, Maxwell SC, Young RP. 2015. Hydraulic fracture energy budget: insights from the laboratory. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42:3179–87 [Google Scholar]
  41. Gupta P, Duarte CA. 2014. Simulation of non-planar three-dimensional hydraulic fracture propagation. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 38:1397–430 [Google Scholar]
  42. Gyr A, Bewersdorff HW. 1995. Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flows by Additives Boston: Kluwer Acad. [Google Scholar]
  43. Hornafius JS, Quigley D, Luyendyk BP. 1999. The world's most spectacular marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California): quantification of emissions. J. Geophys. Res. 104:C920703–11 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hunt JM. 1996. Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology New York: W.H. Freeman, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  45. Jackson RB, Vengosh A, Carey JW, Davies RJ, Darrah TH. et al. 2014. The environmental costs and benefits of fracking. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 39:327–62 [Google Scholar]
  46. Jarvie DM, Hill RJ, Ruble TE, Pollastro RM. 2007. Unconventional shale-gas systems: the Mississippian Barnett Shale of north-central Texas as one model for thermogenic shale-gas assessment. AAPG Bull. 91:475–99 [Google Scholar]
  47. Jenkins OP. 1930. Sandstone dikes as conduits for oil migration through shales. AAPG Bull. 14:411–21 [Google Scholar]
  48. Jolly RJH, Linergan L. 2002. Mechanisms and controls on the formation of sand intrusions. J. Geol. Soc. 159:605–17 [Google Scholar]
  49. Jonk R. 2010. Sand-rich injectites in the context of short-lived and long-lived fluid flow. Basin Res. 22:603–21 [Google Scholar]
  50. Kanamori H, Anderson DL, Heaton TH. 1998. Frictional melting during the rupture of the 1994 Bolivian earthquake. Science 279:839–42 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kanamori H, Brodsky EE. 2004. The physics of earthquakes. Rep. Prog. Phys. 67:1429–96 [Google Scholar]
  52. Keranen KM, Savage HM, Abers GA, Cochran ES. 2013. Potentially induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA: links between wastewater injection and the 2011 Mw 5.7 earthquake sequence. Geology 41:699–702 [Google Scholar]
  53. Keranen KM, Weingarten M, Abers GA, Bekins BA, Ge S. 2014. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection. Science 345:448–51 [Google Scholar]
  54. King G. 2012. Hydraulic fracturing 101: what every representative, environmentalist, regulator, reporter, investor, university researcher, neighbor and engineer should know about estimating frac risk and improving frac performance in unconventional gas and oil wells Presented at Soc. Pet. Eng. Hydraul. Fract. Technol. Conf., Feb. 6–8, The Woodlands, TX. doi: 10.2118/152596-MS [Google Scholar]
  55. Klemme HD, Ulmishek GF. 1991. Effective petroleum source rocks of the world: stratigraphic distribution and controlling depositional factors. AAPG Bull. 75:1809–51 [Google Scholar]
  56. Kresse O, Weng X. 2013. Hydraulic fracturing in formations with permeable natural fractures. See Bunger et al. 2013 287–310
  57. Kresse O, Weng X, Chuprakov D, Prioul R, Cohen C. 2013. Effective and sustainable hydraulic fracturing. See Bunger et al. 2013 183–210
  58. Kuhn PP, di Primio R, Hill R, Lawrence JR, Horsfield B. 2012. Three-dimensional modeling study of the low-permeability petroleum system of the Bakken Formation. AAPG Bull. 96:1867–97 [Google Scholar]
  59. Lacazette A, Engelder T. 1992. Fluid-driven cyclic propagation of a joint in the Ithaca Siltstone, Appalachian Basin, New York. Int. Geophys. 51:297–323 [Google Scholar]
  60. Lash GG, Blood DR. 2014. Organic matter accumulation, redox, and diagenetic history of the Marcellus Formation, southwestern Pennsylvania, Appalachian basin. Mar. Pet. Geol. 57:244–63 [Google Scholar]
  61. Lash GG, Engelder T. 2011. Thickness trends and sequence stratigraphy of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation, Appalachian Basin: implications for Acadian foreland basin evolution. AAPG Bull. 95:61–103 [Google Scholar]
  62. Lash GG, Loewy S, Engelder T. 2004. Preferential jointing of Upper Devonian black shale, Appalachian Plateau, USA: evidence supporting hydrocarbon generation as a joint-driving mechanism. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 231:129–51 [Google Scholar]
  63. Laubach SE. 2003. Practical approaches to identifying sealed and open fractures. AAPG Bull. 87:561–79 [Google Scholar]
  64. Løseth H, Wensaas L, Arntsen BR, Hanken NM, Basire C, Graue K. 2011. 1000 m long gas blow-out pipes. Mar. Pet. Geol. 28:1047–60 [Google Scholar]
  65. Mack MG, Warpinski NR. 2000. Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing. Reservoir Stimulation MJ Economides, KG Nolte 6–16-26 Chichester, UK: Wiley, 3rd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  66. Marquez XM, Mountjoy EW. 1996. Microfractures due to overpressures caused by thermal cracking in well-sealed Upper Devonian reservoirs, deep Alberta Basin. AAPG Bull. 80:570–88 [Google Scholar]
  67. Maxwell S. 2011. Microseismic hydraulic fracture imaging: the path toward optimizing shale gas production. Lead. Edge 30:340–46 [Google Scholar]
  68. McClure MW, Horne RN. 2011. Investigation of injection-induced seismicity using a coupled fluid flow and rate/state friction model. Geophysics 76:WC181–98 [Google Scholar]
  69. McGarr A. 2014. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 119:1008–19 [Google Scholar]
  70. Milkov AV, Sassen R, Apanasovich TV, Dadashev FG. 2003. Global gas flux from mud volcanoes: a significant source of fossil methane in the atmosphere and the ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30:1037 [Google Scholar]
  71. Montgomery C. 2013a. Fracturing fluid components. See Bunger et al. 2013 25–45
  72. Montgomery C. 2013b. Fracturing fluids. See Bunger et al. 2013 3–24
  73. Montgomery CT, Smith MB. 2010. Hydraulic fracturing: history of an enduring technology. J. Pet. Technol. 62:26–32 [Google Scholar]
  74. Montgomery SL, Jarvie DM, Bowker KA, Pollastro RM. 2005. Mississippian Barnett Shale, Fort Worth basin, north-central Texas: gas-shale play with multi-trillion cubic foot potential. AAPG Bull. 89:155–75 [Google Scholar]
  75. Nelson RA. 2001. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Boston: Gulf Prof, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  76. Norris JQ, Turcotte DL, Moores EM, Rundle JB. 2016. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) in California. AEG Spec. Publ. 26:In press [Google Scholar]
  77. Norris JQ, Turcotte DL, Rundle JB. 2014. Loopless nontrapping invasion-percolation model for fracking. Phys. Rev. E 89:022119 [Google Scholar]
  78. Norris JQ, Turcotte DL, Rundle JB. 2015a. A damage model for fracking. Int. J. Damage Mech. 24:1227–38 [Google Scholar]
  79. Norris JQ, Turcotte DL, Rundle JB. 2015b. Anisotropy in fracking: a percolation model for observed microseismicity. Pure Appl. Geophys. 172:7–21 [Google Scholar]
  80. Norris RM, Webb RW. 1990. Geology of California New York: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  81. Olson JE, Laubach SE, Lander RH. 2009. Natural fracture characterization in tight gas sandstones: integrating mechanics and diagenesis. AAPG Bull. 93:1535–49 [Google Scholar]
  82. Osborn SG, Vengosh A, Warner NR, Jackson RB. 2011. Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing. PNAS 108:8172–76 [Google Scholar]
  83. Paczuski M, Maslov S, Bak P. 1996. Avalanche dynamics in evolution, growth, and depinning models. Phys. Rev. E 53:414–43 [Google Scholar]
  84. Patzek T, Male F, Marder M. 2014. A simple model of gas production from hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales. AAPG Bull 98:2507–29 [Google Scholar]
  85. Rayleigh CB, Healy JH, Bredehoeft JD. 1976. An experiment in earthquake control at Rangely, Colorado. Science 191:1230–37 [Google Scholar]
  86. Roux JN, Wilkinson D. 1988. Resistance jumps in mercury injection in porous media. Phys. Rev. A 37:3921–26 [Google Scholar]
  87. Roux S, Guyon E. 1989. Temporal development of invasion percolation. J. Phys. A 22:3693–705 [Google Scholar]
  88. Rubin AM. 1995. Propagation of magma-filled cracks. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 23:287–336 [Google Scholar]
  89. Rubin AM, Gillard D, Got JL. 1998. A reinterpretation of seismicity associated with the January 1983 dike intrusion at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J. Geophys. Res. 103:B510003–15 [Google Scholar]
  90. Rubinstein JL, Mahani AB. 2015. Myths and facts on wastewater injection, hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and induced seismicity. Seismol. Res. Lett. 86:1060–67 [Google Scholar]
  91. Rutledge JT, Phillips WS. 2003. Hydraulic stimulation of natural fractures as revealed by induced micro-earthquakes, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, east Texas. Geophysics 68:441–52 [Google Scholar]
  92. Rutqvist J, Rinaldi AP, Cappa F, Moridis GJ. 2013. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 107:31–44 [Google Scholar]
  93. Sawolo N, Sutriono E, Istadi BP, Darmoyo AB. 2009. The LUSI mud volcano triggering controversy: Was it caused by drilling?. Mar. Pet. Geol. 26:1766–84 [Google Scholar]
  94. Secor DT. 1965. Role of fluid pressure in jointing. Am. J. Sci. 263:633–46 [Google Scholar]
  95. Shapiro SA. 2015. Fluid-Induced Seismicity Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  96. Shcherbakov R, Turcotte DL. 2003. Damage and self-similarity in fracture. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech. 39:245–58 [Google Scholar]
  97. Smart KJ, Ofoegbu GI, Morris AP, McGinnis RN, Ferrill DA. 2014. Geomechanical modeling of hydraulic fracturing: why mechanical stratigraphy, stress state, and pre-existing structure matter. AAPG Bull. 98:2237–61 [Google Scholar]
  98. Sovacool BK. 2014. Cornucopia or curse? Reviewing the costs and benefits of shale gas hydraulic fracturing (fracking). Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 37:249–64 [Google Scholar]
  99. Spence D. 1989. Fluid-drive fractures. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics P Germain, M Piau, D Caillerie 301–14 Amsterdam: North-Holland [Google Scholar]
  100. Spence DA, Turcotte DL. 1985. Magma-driven propagation of cracks. J. Geophys. Res. 90:B1575–80 [Google Scholar]
  101. Spence DA, Turcotte DL. 1990. Buoyancy-driven magma fracture: a mechanism for ascent through the lithosphere and the emplacement of diamonds. J. Geophys. Res. 95:B45133–39 [Google Scholar]
  102. Stark C. 1991. An invasion percolation model of drainage network evolution. Nature 352:423–25 [Google Scholar]
  103. Swarbrick RE, Osborne MJ. 1998. Mechanisms that generate abnormal pressures: an overview. AAPG Mem. 70:13–34 [Google Scholar]
  104. Swarbrick RE, Osborne MJ, Yardley GS. 2004. Comparison of overpressure magnitude resulting from the main generating mechanisms. AAPG Mem. 76:1–12 [Google Scholar]
  105. Thompson BJ, Garrison RE, Moore JC. 2007. A reservoir-scale Miocene injectite near Santa Cruz, California. AAPG Mem. 87:151–62 [Google Scholar]
  106. Toms BA. 1948. Some observations on the flow of linear polymer solutions through straight tubes at large Reynolds numbers. Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Rheology 2135–41 Amsterdam: North-Holland [Google Scholar]
  107. Tourtelot HA. 1979. Black shale; its deposition and diagenesis. Clays Clay Miner. 27:313–21 [Google Scholar]
  108. Trabucho-Alexandre J, Hay WW, de Boer PL. 2012. Phanerozoic environments of black shale deposition and the Wilson Cycle. Solid Earth 3:29–42 [Google Scholar]
  109. Turcotte DL, Moores EM, Rundle JB. 2014. Super fracking. Phys. Today 67:34–39 [Google Scholar]
  110. US EIA (US Energy Inf. Admin.) 2014. Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014) Tech. Rep., US EIA, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  111. US EIA (US Energy Inf. Admin.) 2015a. California Field Production of Crude Oil Washington, DC: US EIA http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=MCRFPCA1&f=A [Google Scholar]
  112. US EIA (US Energy Inf. Admin.) 2015b. Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Washington, DC: US EIA. http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9010mi2A.htm [Google Scholar]
  113. US EIA (US Energy Inf. Admin.) 2015c. North Dakota Field Production of Crude Oil Washington, DC: US EIA http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&s=mcrfpnd1&f=a [Google Scholar]
  114. US EIA (US Energy Inf. Admin.) 2015d. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Washington, DC: US EIA http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9010pa2a.htm [Google Scholar]
  115. US EIA (US Energy Inf. Admin.) 2015e. U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price Washington, DC: US EIA http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9190us3A.htm [Google Scholar]
  116. US EPA (US Env. Prot. Agency) 2012. Study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources: progress report Tech. Rep., US EPA, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  117. Valko P, Economides MJ. 1995. Hydraulic Fracture Mechanics Chichester, UK: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  118. Vengosh A, Jackson RB, Warner N, Darrah TH, Kondash A. 2014. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:8334–48 [Google Scholar]
  119. Walton I, McLennan J. 2013. The role of natural fractures in shale gas production. See Bunger et al. 2013 327–56
  120. Wang Q, Chen X, Jha AN, Rogers H. 2014. Natural gas from shale formation. The evolution, evidences and challenges of shale gas revolution in United States. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 30:1–28 [Google Scholar]
  121. Warpinski NR. 2013. Understanding hydraulic fracture growth, effectiveness, and safety through microseismic monitoring. See Bunger et al. 2013 123–35
  122. Warpinski NR. 2014. Microseismic monitoring—the key is integration. Lead. Edge 33:1098–106 [Google Scholar]
  123. Weingarten M, Ge S, Godt JW, Bekins BA, Rubinstein JLL. 2015. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity. Science 348:1336–40 [Google Scholar]
  124. Wilkinson D, Barsony M. 1984. Monte Carlo study of invasion percolation clusters in two and three dimensions. J. Phys. A 17:L129–35 [Google Scholar]
  125. Yew CH. 1997. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing Houston, TX: Gulf [Google Scholar]
  126. Zhang X, Jeffrey RG. 2012. Fluid-driven multiple fracture growth from a permeable bedding plane intersected by an ascending hydraulic fracture. J. Geophys. Res. 117:B12402 [Google Scholar]
  127. Zoback MD. 2010. Reservoir Geomechanics Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  128. Zoback MD, Harjes HP. 1997. Injection-induced earthquakes and crustal stress at 9 km depth at the KTB deep drilling site, Germany. J. Geophys. Res. 102:B818477–91 [Google Scholar]
  129. Zoback MD, Kohli A, Das I, McClure M. 2012. The importance of slow slip on faults during hydraulic fracturing stimulation of shale gas reservoirs Presented at Am. Unconv. Resour. Conf., June 5–7, Pittsburgh, PA. SPE 155476 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-060115-012537
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-060115-012537
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error