Secondary tropical forests that are in a state of regeneration following clearing for agriculture are now more abundant than primary forests. Yet, despite their large spatial extent and important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, secondary tropical forests are understudied, which challenges our ability to predict how tropical landscapes will respond to future disturbance and global change. We summarize research advances on alterations to C and nutrient dynamics during reforestation and how these are influenced by ecosystem state factors. During forest succession, aboveground biomass stocks and litter fluxes increase in a predictable way, but patterns in soil C dynamics are highly variable. The heterogeneous response of nutrients to reforestation is influenced by multiple factors, including losses incurred during prior land use and management. In contrast to primary tropical forests, where productivity is often limited by rock-derived nutrients, secondary forest growth may be more limited by nutrients from the atmosphere. Future research should identify which nutrients constrain forest regrowth.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Adedeji F. 1984. Nutrient cycles and successional changes following shifting cultivation practice in moist semi-deciduous forests in Nigeria. For. Ecol. Manag. 9:87–99 [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson K, Allen A, Gillooly J, Brown J. 2006. Temperature-dependence of biomass accumulation rates during secondary succession. Ecol. Lett. 9:673–82 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson-Teixeira KJ, Miller AD, Mohan JE, Hudiburg TW, Duval BD, DeLucia EH. 2013. Altered dynamics of forest recovery under a changing climate. Glob. Change Biol. 19:2001–21 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson-Teixeira KJ, Vitousek PM, Brown JH. 2008. Amplified temperature dependence in ecosystems developing on the lava flows of Mauna Loa, Hawai'i. PNAS 105:228–33 [Google Scholar]
  5. Aryal DR, De Jong BHJ, Ochoa-Gaona S, Mendoza-Vega J, Esparza-Olguin L. 2015. Successional and seasonal variation in litterfall and associated nutrient transfer in semi-evergreen tropical forests of SE Mexico. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 103:45–60 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barlow J, Gardner TA, Ferreira LV, Peres CA. 2007. Litter fall and decomposition in primary, secondary and plantation forests in the Brazilian Amazon. For. Ecol. Manag. 247:91–97 [Google Scholar]
  7. Batterman S, Hedin L, van Breugel M, Ransijn J, Craven D, Hall J. 2013. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession. Nature 502:224–27 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bautista-Cruz A, del Castillo R. 2005. Soil changes during secondary succession in a tropical montane cloud forest area. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69:906–14 [Google Scholar]
  9. Becknell JM, Kucek LK, Powers JS. 2012. Aboveground biomass in mature and secondary seasonally dry tropical forests: a literature review and global synthesis. For. Ecol. Manag. 276:88–95 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhaskar R, Porder S, Balvanera P, Edwards EJ. 2016. Ecological and evolutionary variation in community nitrogen use traits during tropical dry forest secondary succession. Ecology 97:1194–1206 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brearley FQ. 2011. Below-ground secondary succession in tropical forests of Borneo. J. Trop. Ecol. 27:413–20 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown S, Lugo AE. 1990a. Effects of forest clearing and succession on the carbon and nitrogen content of soils in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands. Plant Soil 124:53–64 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brown S, Lugo AE. 1990b. Tropical secondary forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 6:1–32 [Google Scholar]
  14. Campo J, Solis E, Gallardo JF. 2012. Effects of fertilisation on soil nutrient characteristics and the growth of tree stand in secondary seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico. J. Trop. For. Sci. 24:408–15 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chadwick OA, Derry LA, Vitousek PM, Huebert BJ, Hedin LO. 1999. Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development. Nature 397:491–97 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chazdon RL. 2014. Second Growth: The Promise of Tropical Forest Regeneration in an Age of Deforestation Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Chazdon RL, Broadbent EN, Rozendaal DMA, Bongers F, Zambrano AMA. et al. 2016. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics. Sci. Adv. 2:e1501639 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chazdon RL, Letcher SG, van Breugel M, Martinez-Ramos M, Bongers F, Finegan B. 2007. Rates of change in tree communities of secondary Neotropical forests following major disturbances. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 362:273–89 [Google Scholar]
  19. Clements FE. 1916. Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation Washington, DC: Carnegie Instit. Wash. [Google Scholar]
  20. Cleveland CC, Townsend AR, Taylor P, Alvarez-Clare S, Bustamante MMC. et al. 2011. Relationships among net primary productivity, nutrients and climate in tropical rain forest: a pan-tropical analysis. Ecol. Lett. 14:939–47 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cole LES, Bhagwat SA, Willis KJ. 2014. Recovery and resilience of tropical forests after disturbance. Nat. Comm. 5:3906 [Google Scholar]
  22. Corlett RT, Primack RB. 2006. Tropical rainforests and the need for cross-continental comparisons. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21:104–10 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cusack DF, Karpman J, Ashdown D, Cao Q, Ciochina M. et al. 2016. Global change effects on humid tropical forests: evidence for biogeochemical and biodiversity shifts at an ecosystem scale. Rev. Geophys. 54:523–610 [Google Scholar]
  24. Davidson EA, De Carvalho CJ, Figueira AM, Ishida FY, Ometto JPHB. et al. 2007. Recuperation of nitrogen cycling in Amazonian forests following agricultural abandonment. Nature 447:995–98 [Google Scholar]
  25. Davidson EA, Martinelli LA. 2009. Nutrient limitations to secondary forest regrowth. Amazonia and Global Change M Keller, M Bustamante, J Gash, PS Dias 299–309 Geophys. Monogr. Ser 186 Washington, DC: Am. Geophys. Union [Google Scholar]
  26. Davidson EA, Reis de Carvalho CJ, Vieira ICG, Figueiredo RDO, Moutinho P. et al. 2004. Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of biomass growth in a tropical secondary forest. Ecol. Appl. 14:S150–63 [Google Scholar]
  27. de Koning GHJ, Veldkamp E, López-Ulloa M. 2003. Quantification of carbon sequestration in soils following pasture to forest conversion in northwestern Ecuador. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycl. 17:9–12 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dent DH, Wright SJ. 2009. The future of tropical species in secondary forests: a quantitative review. Biol. Conserv. 142:2833–43 [Google Scholar]
  29. Derroire G, Balvanera P, Castellanos-Castro C, Decocq G, Kennard DK. et al. 2016. Resilience of tropical dry forests—a meta-analysis of changes in species diversity and composition during secondary succession. Oikos 125:1386–97 [Google Scholar]
  30. Detwiler RP. 1986. Land use change and the global carbon cycle: the role of tropical soils. Biogeochemistry 2:67–93 [Google Scholar]
  31. Eaton J, Lawrence D. 2009. Loss of carbon sequestration potential after several decades of shifting cultivation in the Southern Yucatán. For. Ecol. Manag. 258:949–58 [Google Scholar]
  32. Elmore AJ, Asner GP. 2006. Effects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry tropical forest. Glob. Change Biol. 12:1761–72 [Google Scholar]
  33. Erb KH, Luyssaert S, Meyfroidt P, Pongratz J, Don A. et al. 2017. Land management: data availability and process understanding for global change studies. Glob. Change Biol. 23:512–33 [Google Scholar]
  34. Erickson H, Keller M, Davidson E. 2001. Nitrogen oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling during postagricultural succession and forest fertilization in the humid tropics. Ecosystems 4:67–84 [Google Scholar]
  35. Ewel JJ. 1976. Litterfall and lead decomposition in a tropical forest succession in eastern Guatemala. J. Ecol. 64:293–308 [Google Scholar]
  36. FAO (Food Agric. Organ.). 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment—Main Report Rome: Food Agric. Organ. United Nations [Google Scholar]
  37. Feldpausch T, Rondon M, Fernandes E, Riha S, Wandelli E. 2004. Carbon and nutrient accumulation in secondary forests regenerating on pastures in central Amazonia. Ecol. Appl. 14:164–76 [Google Scholar]
  38. Fisher MJ, Rao IM, Ayarza MA, Lascano CE, Sanz JI. et al. 1994. Carbon storage by introduced deep-rooted grasses in the South America savannas. Nature 371:236–38 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gehring C, Vlek PLG, de Souza LAG, Denich M. 2005. Biological nitrogen fixation in secondary regrowth and mature rainforest of central Amazonia. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 111:237–52 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gorham E, Vitousek PM, Reiners WA. 1979. The regulation of chemical budgets over the course of terrestrial ecosystem succession. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10:53–84 [Google Scholar]
  41. Greenland DJ, Nye PH. 1959. Increases in the carbon and nitrogen contents of tropical soils under natural fallows. J. Soil Sci. 10:284–99 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova SA. et al. 2013. High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342:850–53 [Google Scholar]
  43. Harcombe PA. 1977. Influence of fertilization on some aspects of succession in a humid tropical forest. Ecology 58:1375–83 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hedin LO, Armesto JJ, Johnson AH. 1995. Patterns of nutrient loss from unpolluted, old-growth temperate forests—evaluation of biogeochemical theory. Ecology 76:493–509 [Google Scholar]
  45. Herrera R, Jordan CF, Medina E, Klinge H. 1981. How human activities disturb the nutrient cycles of a tropical rainforest in Amazonia. Ambio 10:109–14 [Google Scholar]
  46. Holscher D, Moller RF, Denich M, Folster H. 1997. Nutrient input-output budget of shifting agriculture in Eastern Amazonia. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 47:49–57 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hughes RF, Kauffman JB, Jaramillo VJ. 1999. Biomass, carbon, and nutrient dynamics of secondary forests in a humid tropical region of Mexico. Ecology 80:1892–907 [Google Scholar]
  48. Jenny H. 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology New York: McGraw-Hill [Google Scholar]
  49. Johnson EA, Miyanishi K. 2008. Testing the assumptions of chronosequences in succession. Ecol. Lett. 11:419–31 [Google Scholar]
  50. Kaspari M, Powers JS. 2016. Biogeochemistry and geographical ecology: embracing all twenty-five elements required to build organisms. Am. Nat. 188:S62–73 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kauffman JB, Hughes RF, Heider C. 2009. Carbon pool and biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, land use, and agricultural abandonment in the neotropics. Ecol. Appl. 19:1211–22 [Google Scholar]
  52. Keller M, Reiners WA. 1994. Soil atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane under secondary succession of pasture to forest in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycl. 8:399–409 [Google Scholar]
  53. Lawrence D. 2005. Biomass accumulation after 10–200 years of shifting cultivation in Bornean rain forest. Ecology 86:26–33 [Google Scholar]
  54. Lawrence D, D'Odorico P, Diekmann L, DeLonge M, Das R, Eaton J. 2007. Ecological feedbacks following deforestation create the potential for a catastrophic ecosystem shift in tropical dry forest. PNAS 104:20696–701 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lawrence D, Schlesinger WH. 2001. Changes in soil phosphorus during 200 years of shifting cultivation in Indonesia. Ecology 82:2769–80 [Google Scholar]
  56. Lebrija-Trejos E, Meave JA, Poorter L, Pérez-García EA, Bongers F. 2010. Pathways, mechanisms and predictability of vegetation change during tropical dry forest succession. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 12:267–75 [Google Scholar]
  57. Lebrija-Trejos E, Pérez-García EA, Meave JA, Poorter L, Bongers F. 2011. Environmental changes during secondary succession in a tropical dry forest in Mexico. J. Trop. Ecol. 27:477–89 [Google Scholar]
  58. Lewis SL, Edwards DP, Galbraith D. 2015. Increasing human dominance of tropical forests. Science 349:827–32 [Google Scholar]
  59. Locatelli B, Catterall CP, Imbach P, Kumar C, Lasco R. et al. 2015. Tropical reforestation and climate change: beyond carbon. Restor. Ecol. 23:337–43 [Google Scholar]
  60. Lohbeck M, Lebrija-Trejos E, Martínez-Ramos M, Meave JA, Poorter L, Bongers F. 2015a. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession. PLOS ONE 10:e0123741 [Google Scholar]
  61. Lohbeck M, Poorter L, Lebrija-Trejos E, Martinez-Ramos M, Meave JA. et al. 2013. Successional changes in functional composition contrast for dry and wet tropical forest. Ecology 94:1211–16 [Google Scholar]
  62. Lohbeck M, Poorter L, Martínez-Ramos M, Bongers F. 2015b. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Ecology 96:1242–52 [Google Scholar]
  63. López-Ulloa M, Veldkamp E, de Koning G. 2005. Soil carbon stabilization in converted tropical pastures and forests depends on soil type. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69:1110–17 [Google Scholar]
  64. Lu D, Moran E, Mausel P. 2002. Linking Amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degrad. Dev. 13:331–43 [Google Scholar]
  65. Marín-Spiotta E, Cusack DF, Ostertag R, Silver WL. 2008. Trends in above and belowground carbon with forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment in the Neotropics. Post-Agricultural Succession in the Neotropics RW Myster 22–72 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  66. Marín-Spiotta E, Sharma S. 2013. Carbon storage in successional and plantation forest soils: a tropical analysis. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 22:105–17 [Google Scholar]
  67. Marín-Spiotta E, Silver WL, Swanston CW, Ostertag R. 2009. Soil organic matter dynamics during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures. Glob. Change Biol. 15:1584–97 [Google Scholar]
  68. Markewitz D, Figueiredo RD, de Carvalho CJR, Davidson EA. 2012. Soil and tree response to P fertilization in a secondary tropical forest supported by an Oxisol. Biol. Fertil. Soils 48:665–78 [Google Scholar]
  69. Martin P, Newton A, Bullock J. 2013. Carbon pools recover more quickly than plant biodiversity in tropical secondary forests. Proc. R. Soc. B 280:20132236 [Google Scholar]
  70. McDonald MA, Healey JR. 2000. Nutrient cycling in secondary forests in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. For. Ecol. Manag. 139:257–78 [Google Scholar]
  71. McDonald MA, Healey JR, Stevens PA. 2002. The effects of secondary forest clearance and subsequent land-use on erosion losses and soil properties in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 92:1–19 [Google Scholar]
  72. Meiners SJ, Cadotte MW, Fridley JD, Pickett STA, Walker LR. 2015. Is successional research nearing its climax? New approaches for understanding dynamic communities. Funct. Ecol. 29:154–64 [Google Scholar]
  73. Mora F, Martínez-Ramos M, Ibarra-Manríquez G, Pérez-Jiménez A, Trilleras J, Balvanera P. 2015. Testing chronosequences through dynamic approaches: time and site effects on tropical dry forest succession. Biotropica 47:38–48 [Google Scholar]
  74. Moreno F, Oberbauer S. 2008. Dynamics of soil carbon in primary and secondary tropical forests in Colombia. Managing Forest Ecosystems: The Challenge of Climate Change F Bravo, V LeMay, R Jandl, K von Gadow 283–96 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  75. Morford SL, Houlton BZ, Dahlgren RA. 2016. Direct quantification of long-term rock nitrogen inputs to temperate forest ecosystems. Ecology 97:54–64 [Google Scholar]
  76. Nagy RC, Rastetter EB, Neill C, Porder S. 2017. Nutrient limitation in tropical secondary forests following different management practices. Ecol. Appl. 27:734–55 [Google Scholar]
  77. Norden N, Angarita HA, Bongers F, Martínez-Ramos M, Granzow-De La Cerda Í. et al. 2015. Successional dynamics in Neotropical forests are as uncertain as they are predictable. PNAS 112:8013–18 [Google Scholar]
  78. Odum EP. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262–70 [Google Scholar]
  79. Orihuela-Belmonte DE, de Jong BHJ, Mendoza-Vega J, Van der Wal J, Paz-Pellat F. et al. 2013. Carbon stocks and accumulation rates in tropical secondary forests at the scale of community, landscape and forest type. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 171:72–84 [Google Scholar]
  80. Ostertag R, Marín-Spiotta E, Silver W. 2008. Litterfall and decomposition in relation to soil carbon pools along a secondary forest chronosequence in Puerto Rico. Ecosystems 11:701–14 [Google Scholar]
  81. Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi PE. et al. 2011. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests. Science 333:988–93 [Google Scholar]
  82. Peay KG, Kennedy PG, Davies SJ, Tan S, Bruns TD. 2010. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone. New Phytol 185:529–42 [Google Scholar]
  83. Ponette-González AG, Marín-Spiotta E, Brauman KA, Farley KA, Weathers KC, Young KR. 2014. Hydrologic connectivity in the high-elevation tropics: heterogeneous responses to land change. BioScience 64:92–104 [Google Scholar]
  84. Poorter L, Ongers FB, Aide TM, Zambrano AMA, Balvanera P. et al. 2016. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests. Nature 530:211–14 [Google Scholar]
  85. Powers JS, Corre MD, Twine TE, Veldkamp E. 2011. Geographic bias of field observations of soil carbon stocks with tropical land-use changes precludes spatial extrapolation. PNAS 108:6318–22 [Google Scholar]
  86. Powers JS, Perez-Aviles D. 2013. Edaphic factors are a more important control on surface fine roots than stand age in secondary tropical dry forests Biotropica. 451–9
  87. Raich J, Clark D, Schwendenmann L, Wood T. 2014. Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment. PLOS ONE 9:e100275 [Google Scholar]
  88. Read DJ, Perez-Moreno J. 2003. Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystems—a journey towards relevance. New Phytol 157:475–92 [Google Scholar]
  89. Reich PB. 2014. The world-wide ‘fast–slow’ plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. J. Ecol. 102:275–301 [Google Scholar]
  90. Rejou-Mechain M, Flores O, Pelissier R, Fayolle A, Fauvet N, Gourlet-Fleury S. 2014. Tropical tree assembly depends on the interactions between successional and soil filtering processes. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 23:1440–49 [Google Scholar]
  91. Richter DD, Babbar LI. 1991. Soil diversity in the tropics. Adv. Ecol. Res. 21:315–89 [Google Scholar]
  92. Robertson GP. 1984. Nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in a lowland rainforest succession in Costa Rica, Central America. Oecologia 61:99–104 [Google Scholar]
  93. Robertson GP. 1989. Nitrification and denitrification in humid tropical ecosystems: potential controls on nitrogen retention. Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems J Proctor 55–69 Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific [Google Scholar]
  94. Robertson GP, Rosswall T. 1986. Nitrogen in West Africa: the regional cycle. Ecol. Monogr. 56:43–72 [Google Scholar]
  95. Robertson GP, Tiedje JM. 1988. Deforestation alters denitrification in a lowland tropical rain forest. Nature 336:756–59 [Google Scholar]
  96. Russell AE, Raich JW. 2012. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species. PNAS 109:10398–402 [Google Scholar]
  97. Salimon C, Davidson E, Victoria R. 2004. CO2 flux from soil in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia. Glob. Change Biol. 10:833–43 [Google Scholar]
  98. Sanchez PA, Logan TJ. 1992. Myths and science about the chemistry and fertility of soils in the tropics. Myths and Science of Soils of the Tropics, SSSA Special Publication No. 2935–46 Madison, WI: Soil Sci. Soc. Am. and Am. Soc. Agron. [Google Scholar]
  99. Saynes V, Hidalgo C, Etchevers JD, Campo JE. 2005. Soil C and N dynamics in primary and secondary seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico. Appl. Soil Ecol. 29:282–89 [Google Scholar]
  100. Schilling EM, Waring BG, Schilling JS, Powers JS. 2016. Forest composition modifies effects of litter chemistry on decomposition in regenerating tropical dry forests. Oecologia 182:287–97 [Google Scholar]
  101. Sierra CA, del Valle JI, Orrego SA, Moreno FH, Harmon ME. et al. 2007. Total carbon stocks in a tropical forest landscape of the Porce region, Colombia. For. Ecol. Manag. 243:299–309 [Google Scholar]
  102. Silver WL, Ostertag R, Lugo A. 2000. The potential for carbon sequestration through reforestation of abandoned tropical agricultural and pasture lands. Restor. Ecol. 8:394–407 [Google Scholar]
  103. Smith AP, Marín-Spiotta E, Balser T. 2015. Successional and seasonal variations in soil and litter microbial community structure and function during tropical postagricultural forest regeneration: a multiyear study. Glob. Change Biol. 21:3532–47 [Google Scholar]
  104. Steidinger BS, Turner BL, Corrales A, Dalling JW. 2015. Variability in potential to exploit different soil organic phosphorus compounds among tropical montane tree species. Funct. Ecol. 29:121–30 [Google Scholar]
  105. Styger E, Rakotondramasy H, Pfeffer M, Fernandes E, Bates D. 2007. Influence of slash-and-burn farming practices on fallow succession and land degradation in the rainforest region of Madagascar. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 119:257–69 [Google Scholar]
  106. Sullivan BW, Alvarez-Clare S, Castle SC, Porder S, Reed SC. et al. 2014. Assessing nutrient limitation in complex forested ecosystems: alternatives to large-scale fertilization experiments. Ecology 95:668–81 [Google Scholar]
  107. Townsend AR, Asner GP, Cleveland CC. 2008. The biogeochemical heterogeneity of tropical forests. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23:424–31 [Google Scholar]
  108. Townsend AR, Cleveland CC, Houlton BZ, Alden CB, White JWC. 2011. Multi-element regulation of the tropical forest carbon cycle. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9:9–17 [Google Scholar]
  109. Turner MG. 2010. Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world. Ecology 91:2833–49 [Google Scholar]
  110. Uriarte M, Schwartz N, Powers JS, Marín-Spiotta E, Liao W, Werden LK. 2016. Impacts of climate variability on tree demography in second growth tropical forests: the importance of regional context for predicting successional trajectories. Biotropica 48:780–97 [Google Scholar]
  111. Valdespino P, Romualdo R, Cadenazzi L, Campo J. 2009. Phosphorus cycling in primary and secondary seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico. Ann. For. Sci. 66:107 [Google Scholar]
  112. Vargas R. 2012. How a hurricane disturbance influences extreme CO2 fluxes and variance in a tropical forest. Environ. Res. Lett. 7:035704 [Google Scholar]
  113. Vitousek PM, Farrington H. 1997. Nutrient limitation and soil development: experimental test of a biogeochemical theory. Biogeochemistry 37:63–75 [Google Scholar]
  114. Vitousek PM, Matson PA, Van Cleve K. 1989. Nitrogen availability and nitrification during succession: primary, secondary, and old-field seres. Plant Soil 115:229–39 [Google Scholar]
  115. Vitousek PM, Reiners WA. 1975. Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: a hypothesis. BioScience 25:376–81 [Google Scholar]
  116. Wadsworth G, Reisenauer H, Gordon D, Singer M. 1990. Effects of length of forest fallow on fertility dynamics in a Mexican ultisol. Plant Soil 122:151–56 [Google Scholar]
  117. Walker TW, Syers JK. 1976. The fate of phosphorus during pedogenesis. Geoderma 15:1–19 [Google Scholar]
  118. Wang YP, Zhang Q, Pitman AJ, Dai YJ. 2015. Nitrogen and phosphorous limitation reduces the effects of land use change on land carbon uptake or emission. Environ. Res. Lett. 10:014001 [Google Scholar]
  119. Waring BG, Powers JS. 2017. Overlooking what is underground: root:shoot ratios and coarse root allometric equations for tropical forests. For. Ecol. Manag. 385:10–15 [Google Scholar]
  120. Wieder WR, Cleveland CC, Smith WK, Todd-Brown K. 2015. Future productivity and carbon storage limited by terrestrial nutrient availability. Nat. Geosci. 8:441–44 [Google Scholar]
  121. Yahara T, Javadi F, Onoda Y, de Queiroz LP, Faith DP. et al. 2013. Global legume diversity assessment: concepts, key indicators, and strategies. Taxon 62:249–66 [Google Scholar]
  122. Yan J, Zhang D, Zhou G, Liu J. 2009. Soil respiration associated with forest succession in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41:991–99 [Google Scholar]
  123. Yang X, Richardson T, Jain A. 2010. Contributions of secondary forest and nitrogen dynamics to terrestrial carbon uptake. Biogeosciences 7:3041–50 [Google Scholar]
  124. Zarin DJ, Davidson EA, Brondizio E, Vieira ICG, Sa T. et al. 2005. Legacy of fire slows carbon accumulation in Amazonian forest regrowth. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3:365–69 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error