1932

Abstract

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend the consumption of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables as part of a healthy diet. However, current consumption patterns suggest that most Americans are not meeting these recommendations. The challenge remains to align the DGA guidance with the food environment and consumers’ expectations for product quality, availability, and affordability. Currently, processed foods play an increasingly important role in American diets. Often characterized as unhealthy, processed foods are contributors to both food and nutritional security. When the alignment of processing strategies with DGA principles exists, achieving DGA goals is more likely, regardless of processing level. In this review, select processing strategies for whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are described to show how DGA principles can guide processing efforts to create healthier products. Although whole grains, supported by industry-wide innovation and guidance, have had some success with consumers, improving intake of fruit and vegetable products remains a challenge. Closing consumption gaps requires new innovations and products aligned with consumer preferences and DGA principles.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-032818-121330
2019-03-25
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/food/10/1/annurev-food-032818-121330.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-032818-121330&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abuajah CI, Ogbonna AC, Osuji CM 2015. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review. J. Food Sci. Technology 52:2522–29
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Am. Assoc. Cereal Chem. Int. (AACCI). 2018. Definitions of whole grains and whole grain products by AACCI Rep., Am. Assoc. Cereal Chem. Int., St. Paul, MN. http://www.aaccnet.org/initiatives/definitions/pages/wholegrain.aspx
  3. Anson NM, Selinheimo E, Havenaar R, Aura AM, Mattila I et al. 2009. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:6148–55
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Albertson AM, Reicks M, Joshi N, Gugger CK 2016. Whole grain consumption trends and associations with body weight measures in the United States: results from the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2012. Nutr. J. 15:8
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Auerbach BJ, Wolf FM, Hikida A, Vallila-Buchman P, Littman A et al. 2017. Fruit juice and change in BMI: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 139:4e20162454
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Aune D, Keum N, Giovannucci E, Fadnes LT, Boffetta P et al. 2016. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Br. Med. J. 353:i2716
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Awuah GB, Ramaswamy HS, Economides A 2007. Thermal processing and quality: principles and overview. Chem. Eng. Process. 46:584–602
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bakke A, Vickers Z 2007. Consumer liking of refined and whole wheat breads. J. Food Sci. 72:S473–80
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bates RP, Morris JR, Crandall PG 2001. Principles and practices of small- and medium-scale fruit processing Food Agric. Organ. U. N. Bull. 146, FAO New York:
  10. Beleggia R, Platani C, Papa R, Di Chio A, Barros E et al. 2011. Metabolomics and food processing: from semolina to pasta. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:9366–77
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Berendsen AAM, Kang JH, van de Rest O, Jankovic N, Kampman E et al. 2017. Association of adherence to a healthy diet with cognitive decline in European and American older adults: a meta-analysis within the CHANCES consortium. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 43:215–27
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blanda G, Cerretani L, Cardinali A, Bendini A, Lercker G 2008. Effect of frozen storage on the phenolic content of vacuum impregnated Granny Smith and Stark Delicious apple cvv. Eur. Food Res. Technol 227:961–64
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D et al. 2012. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur. J. Nutr. 51:637–63
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bouzari A, Holstege D, Barrett DM 2015. Vitamin retention in eight fruits and vegetables: a comparison of refrigerated and frozen storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63:957–62
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bruce SJ, Guy PA, Rezzi S, Ross AB 2010. Quantitative measurement of betaine and free choline in plasma, cereals and cereal products by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:2055–61
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Burgess-Champoux T, Marquart L, Vickers Z, Reicks M 2006. Perceptions of children, parents, and teachers regarding whole-grain foods, and implications for a school-based intervention. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav. 38:230–37
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Byrd-Bredbenner C, Ferruzzi MG, Fulgoni VL, Murray R, Pivonka E, Wallace TC 2017. Satisfying America's fruit gap: summary of an expert roundtable on the role of 100% fruit juice. J. Food Sci. 82:1523–34
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cai LM, Choi I, Hyun JN, Jeong YK, Baik BK 2014. Influence of bran particle size on bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour and starch retrogradation. Cereal Chem 91:65–71
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Candel M 2001. Consumers' convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement. Appetite 36:15–28
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Casagrande SS, Wang Y, Anderson C, Gary TL 2007. Have Americans increased their fruit and vegetable intake? The trends between 1988 and 2002. Am. J. Prev. Med. 32:257–63
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cerhan JR, Saag KG, Merlino LA, Mikuls TR, Criswell LA 2003. Antioxidant micronutrients and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a cohort of older women. Am. J. Epidemiol. 157:4345–54
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Challacombe CA, Abdel-Aal ESM, Seetharaman K, Duizer LM 2012. Influence of phenolic acid content on sensory perception of bread and crackers made from red or white wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 56:181–88
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Chanson-Rolle A, Meynier A, Aubin F, Lappi J, Poutanen K et al. 2015. Systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies to support a quantitative recommendation for whole grain intake in relation to type 2 diabetes. PLOS ONE 10:6e0131377
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Chaplin MF 2003. Fibre and water binding. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 62:223–27
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Chassagne-Berces S, Fonseca F, Citeau M, Marin M 2010. Freezing protocol effect on quality properties of fruit tissue according to the fruit, the variety and the stage of maturity. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 43:1441–49
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cheng HM, Koutsidis G, Lodge JK, Ashor AW, Siervo M, Lara J 2017. Lycopene and tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 11:1–18
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Clemens R, Drewnowski A, Ferruzzi MG, Toner CD, Welland D 2015. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice. Adv. Nutr. 6:236S–43
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Corey ME, Kerr WL, Mulligan JH, Lavelli V 2011. Phytochemical stability in dried apple and green tea functional products as related to moisture properties. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 44:67–74
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Darmon N, Drewnowski A 2015. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis. Nutr. Rev. 73:643–60
    [Google Scholar]
  30. De Ancos BN, Sánchez-Moreno C, De Pascual‐Teresa S, Cano MP 2012. Freezing preservation of fruits. Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing NK Sinha, JS Sidhu, J Barta, JSB Wu, MP Cano 103–19 Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Decker EA, Rose DJ, Stewart D 2014. Processing of oats and the impact of processing operations on nutrition and health benefits. Br. J. Nutr. 112:S58–64
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Delcour JA, Rouau X, Courtin CM, Poutanen K, Ranieri R 2012. Technologies for enhanced exploitation of the health-promoting potential of cereals. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 25:78–86
    [Google Scholar]
  33. De Munter JS, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, van Dam RM 2007. Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLOS Med 4:8e261
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Deng ZY, Tian JC, Chen F, Li WJ, Zheng FF et al. 2015. Genetic dissection on wheat flour quality traits in two related populations. Euphytica 203:221–35
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Dewettinck K, Van Bockstaele F, Kuhne B, de Walle DV, Courtens TM, Gellynck X 2008. Nutritional value of bread: influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception. J. Cereal Sci. 48:243–57
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Drewnowski A 2013. New metrics of affordable nutrition: Which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 113:1182–87
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dwyer JT, Fulgoni VL, Clemens RA, Schmidt DB, Freedman MR 2012. Is “processed” a four-letter word? The role of processed foods in achieving dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations. Adv. Nutr. 3:536–48
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Eicher-Miller HA, Fulgoni VL, Keast DR 2012. Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003–2008: A report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council. J. Nutr. 142:2065S–72
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Eicher-Miller HA, Fulgoni VL, Keast DR 2015. Energy and nutrient intakes from processed foods differ by sex, income status, and race/ethnicity of US adults. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 115:907–18.e6
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Eisenhauer B, Natoli S, Liew G, Flood VM 2017. Lutein and zeaxanthin–food sources, bioavailability and dietary variety in age-related macular degeneration protection. Nutrients 9:E20
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Fardet A 2010. New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: What is beyond fibre?. Nutr. Res. Rev. 23:65–134
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Floros JD, Newsome R, Fisher W, Barbosa-Canovas GV, Chen HD et al. 2010. Feeding the world today and tomorrow: the importance of food science and technology. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 9:572–99
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Frølich W, Aman P, Tetens I 2013. Whole grain foods and health: a Scandinavian perspective. Food Nutr. Res https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v57i0.18503
    [Crossref]
  44. Furrer AN, Chegeni M, Ferruzzi MG 2018. Impact of potato processing on nutrients, phytochemicals, and human health. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 58:146–68
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gan Y, Tong X, Li L, Cao S, Yin X et al. 2015. Consumption of fruit and vegetable and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int. J. Cardiol. 183:129–37
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Gartner C, Stahl W, Sies H 1997. Lycopene is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66:116–22
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gylling H, Plat J, Turley S, Ginsberg HN, Ellegard L et al. 2014. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis 232:346–60
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hedemann MS, Theil PK, Laeke HN, Knudsen KEB 2015. Distinct difference in absorption pattern in pigs of betaine provided as a supplement or present naturally in cereal dietary fiber. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63:2725–33
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Heinio RL, Liukkonen KH, Myllymaki O, Pihlava JM, Adlercreutz H et al. 2008. Quantities of phenolic compounds and their impacts on the perceived flavour attributes of rye grain. J. Cereal Sci. 47:566–75
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Heinio RL, Noort MWJ, Katina K, Alam SA, Sozer N et al. 2016. Sensory characteristics of wholegrain and bran-rich cereal foods: a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 47:25–38
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hemdane S, Jacobs PJ, Dornez E, Verspreet J, Delcour JA, Courtin CM 2016. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bran in bread making: a critical review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 15:28–42
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hemery Y, Lullien-Pellerin V, Rouau X, Abecassis J, Samson MF et al. 2009. Biochemical markers: efficient tools for the assessment of wheat grain tissue proportions in milling fractions. J. Cereal Sci. 49:55–64
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hirawan R, Ser WY, Arntfield SD, Beta T 2010. Antioxidant properties of commercial, regular- and whole-wheat spaghetti. Food Chem 119:258–64
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Hu D, Huang J, Wang Y, Zhang D, Qu Y 2014. Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Stroke 45:61619–19
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Huth PJ, Fulgoni VL, Keast DR, Park K, Auestad N 2013. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2006). Nutr. J. 12:116
    [Google Scholar]
  56. IFIC (Int. Food Inf. Counc.). 2018. 2018 Food and Health Survey Washington, DC: Int. Food Inf. Counc. Found.
  57. Jakubczyk E, Linde M, Gondek E, Kaminska-Dworznicka A, Samborska K, Antoniuk A 2015. The effect of phytosterols addition on the textural properties of extruded crisp bread. J. Food Eng. 167:156–61
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Jensen MK, Koh-Banerjee P, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L et al. 2004. Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:61492–99
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jensen S, Oestdal H, Skibsted LH, Larsen E, Thybo AK 2011. Chemical changes in wheat pan bread during storage and how it affects the sensory perception of aroma, flavour, and taste. J. Cereal Sci. 53:259–68
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Jiang DS, Peterson DG 2010. Role of hydroxycinnamic acids in food flavor: a brief overview. Phytochem. Rev. 9:187–93
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Jiang X, Huang J, Song D, Deng R, Wei J, Zhang Z 2017. Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia: meta-analysis. Front. Aging Neurosci. 9:18
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Johnsen NF, Frederiksen K, Christensen J, Skeie G, Lund E et al. 2015. Whole-grain products and whole-grain types are associated with lower all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort. Br. J. Nutr. 114:4608–23
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kaluza J, Larsson SC, Orsini N, Linden A, Wolk A 2017. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of COPD: a prospective cohort study of men. Thorax 72:6500–9
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kaulmann A, Bohn T 2014. Carotenoids, inflammation, and oxidative stress-implications of cellular signaling pathways and relation to chronic disease prevention. Nutr. Res. 34:907–29
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Keast DR, O'Neil CE, Jones JM 2011. Dried fruit consumption is associated with improved diet quality and reduced obesity in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004. Nutr. Res. 31:460–67
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Keim NL, Forester SM, Lyly M, Aaron GJ, Townsend MS 2014. Vegetable variety is a key to improved diet quality in low-income women in California. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 114:430–35
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Kim SA, Moore LV, Galuska D, Wright AP, Harris D et al. 2014. Vital signs: fruit and vegetable intake among children: United States, 2003–2010. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 63:671–76
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kmiecik W, Lisiewska Z, Korus A 2007. Retention of mineral constituents in frozen brassicas depending on the method of preliminary processing of the raw material and preparation of frozen products for consumption. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224:573–79
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Jarvinen R, Rissanen H, Heliovaara M et al. 2002. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76:560–68
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE et al. 2002. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am. J. Med. 113:71–88
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Larsson SC, Giovannucci E, Bergkvist L, Wolk A 2005. Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60,000 women. Br. J. Cancer 92:9803–7
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Le Bourvellec C, Bouzerzour K, Ginies C, Regis S, Ple Y, Renard C 2011. Phenolic and polysaccharidic composition of applesauce is close to that of apple flesh. J. Food Compos. Anal. 24:537–47
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Leklem JE, Miller LT, Perera AD, Peffers DE 1980. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from wheat bread in humans. J. Nutr. 110:1819–28
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Li M, Hagerman AE 2013. Interactions between plasma proteins and naturally occurring polyphenols. Curr. Drug Metab. 14:432–45
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Li M, Koecher K, Hansen L, Ferruzzi MG 2016. Phenolic recovery and bioaccessibility from milled and finished whole grain oat products. Food Funct 7:3370–81
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Lu YJ, Fuerst EP, Lv JL, Morris CF, Yu L et al. 2015. Phytochemical profile and antiproliferative activity of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flours. Cereal Chem 92:271–77
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Lu YJ, Memon A, Fuerst P, Kizonas A, Morris C, Luthria D 2017. Changes in the phenolic acids composition during pancake preparation: whole and refined grain flour and processed food classification by UV and NIR spectral fingerprinting method—proof of concept. J. Food Compos. Anal. 60:10–16
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Majzoobi M, Farhoodi S, Farahnaky A, Taghipour MJ 2012. Properties of dough and flat bread containing wheat germ. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 14:1053–65
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Mancino L, Kuchler F, Leibtag E 2008. Getting consumers to eat more whole-grains: the role of policy, information, and food manufacturers. Food Policy 33:489–96
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Martínez I, Lattimer JM, Hubach KL, Case JA, Yang JY et al. 2013. Gut microbiome composition is linked to whole grain-induced immunological improvements. Isme J 7:269–80
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Marventano S, Vetrani C, Vitale M, Godos J, Riccardi G, Grosso G 2017. Whole grain intake and glycaemic control in healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients 9:7769
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Marx W, Kelly J, Marshall S, Nakos S, Campbell K, Itsiopoulos C 2017. The effect of polyphenol-rich interventions on cardiovascular risk factors in haemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 9:12E1345
    [Google Scholar]
  83. McTiernan A, Wactawski-Wende J, Wu L, Rodabough RJ, Watts NB et al. 2009. Low-fat, increased fruit, vegetable, and grain dietary pattern, fractures, and bone mineral density: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:61864–76
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Mellen PB, Walsh TF, Herrington DM 2008. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 18:4283–90
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Mercier C 1979. Structural modification of various starches by extrusion cooking with a twin screw French extruder. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 12:A15
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Miller SR, Knudson WA 2014. Nutrition and cost comparisons of select canned, frozen, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Am. J. Lifestyle Med. 8:430–37
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Moeller SM, Taylor A, Tucker KL, McCullough ML, Chylack LT et al. 2004. Overall adherence to the dietary guidelines for Americans is associated with reduced prevalence of early age-related nuclear lens opacities in women. J. Nutr. 134:71812–19
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Moore LV, Hamner HC, Kim SA, Dalenius K 2016. Common ways Americans are incorporating fruits and vegetables into their diet: intake patterns by meal, source and form, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Public Health Nutr 19:2535–39
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Neo JE, Brownlee IA 2017. Wholegrain food acceptance in young Singaporean adults. Nutrients 9:4E371
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Noort MWJ, van Haaster D, Hemery Y, Schols HA, Hamer RJ 2010. The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality: evidence for fibre protein interactions. J. Cereal Sci. 52:59–64
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Normen L, Bryngelsson S, Johnsson M, Evheden P, Ellegard L et al. 2002. The phytosterol content of some cereal foods commonly consumed in Sweden and in the Netherlands. J. Food Compos. Anal. 15:693–704
    [Google Scholar]
  92. O'Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Rampersaud GC, Fulgoni VL 2012. 100% orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006. Nutr. J. 11:107
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Omolola AO, Jideani AIO, Kapila PF 2017. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 57:95–108
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Palafox-Carlos H, Ayala-Zavala JF, Gonzalez-Aguilar GA 2011. The role of dietary fiber in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of fruit and vegetable antioxidants. J. Food Sci. 76:R6–15
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Papanikolaou Y, Fulgoni VL 2017. Grain foods are contributors of nutrient density for American adults and help close nutrient recommendation gaps: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Nutrients 9:8E873
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Papanikolaou Y, Jones JM, Fulgoni VL 2017. Several grain dietary patterns are associated with better diet quality and improved shortfall nutrient intakes in US children and adolescents: a study focusing on the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Nutr. J. 16:13
    [Google Scholar]
  97. PBHF (Prod. Better Health Found.). 2015. State of the plate: 2015 study on America's consumption of fruit and vegetables Rep., Prod. Better Health Found Brentwood, MO: http://www.pbhfoundation.org/pdfs/about/res/pbh_res/State_of_the_Plate_2015_WEB_Bookmarked.pdf
  98. Penella JMS, Collar C, Haros M 2008. Effect of wheat bran and enzyme addition on dough functional performance and phytic acid levels in bread. J. Cereal Sci. 48:715–21
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Piironen V, Toivo J, Lampi AM 2002. Plant sterols in cereals and cereal products. Cereal Chem 79:148–54
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Poti JM, Mendez MA, Ng SW, Popkin BM 2015. Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households?. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 101:1251–62
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Quiros-Sauceda AE, Chen CYO, Blumberg JB, Astiazaran-Garcia H, Wall-Medrano A, Gonzalez-Aguilar GA 2017. Processing ‘Ataulfo’ mango into juice preserves the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of its phenolic compounds. Nutrients 9:10E1082
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Ragaert P, Verbeke W, Devlieghere F, Debevere J 2004. Consumer perception and choice of minimally processed vegetables and packaged fruits. Food Qual. Preference 15:259–70
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Rehm CD, Penalvo JL, Afshin A, Mozaffarian D 2016. Dietary intake among US adults, 1999–2012. JAMA 315:2542–53
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Rickman JC, Barrett DM, Bruhn CM 2007.a Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:930–44
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Rickman JC, Bruhn CM, Barrett DM 2007.b Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables. II. Vitamin A and carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals and fiber. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:1185–96
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Rodriguez-Roque MJ, de Ancos B, Sanchez-Vega R, Sanchez-Moreno C, Cano MP et al. 2016. Food matrix and processing influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility and lipophilic antioxidant activity of fruit juice–based beverages. Food Funct 7:380–89
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Root WH, Barret DM 2004. Apples and apple processing. Processing Fruits Science and Technology DM Barret, L Somogyi, HS Ramaswamy 455–80 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Ross AB, Zangger A, Guiraud SP 2014. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet: analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake. Food Chem 145:859–65
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Rowe S, Alexander N, Almeida N, Black R, Burns R et al. 2011. Food science challenge: translating the dietary guidelines for Americans to bring about real behavior change. J. Food Sci. 76:R29–37
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Samec D, Piljac-Zegarac J 2015. Fluctuations in the levels of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of ten small fruits during one year of frozen storage. Int. J. Food Properties 18:21–32
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Santos PHS, Silva MA 2008. Retention of vitamin C in drying processes of fruits and vegetables: a review. Dry. Technol. 26:1421–37
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Satija A, Bhupathiraju SN, Spiegelman D, Chiuve SE, Manson JE et al. 2017. Healthful and unhealthful plant-based diets and the risk of coronary heart disease in US adults. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 70:411–22
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Schatzkin A, Mouw T, Park Y, Subar AF, Kipnis V et al. 2007. Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85:1353–60
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Schwartz MB, Just DR, Chriqui JF, Ammerman AS 2017. Appetite self-regulation: environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors. Obesity 25:S26–38
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Kalle-Uhlmann T, Arregui M, Buijsse B, Boeing H 2015. Fruit and vegetable consumption and changes in anthropometric variables in adult populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLOS ONE 10:10e0140846
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, Hiller R, Blair N et al. 1994. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 272:18413–20
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Seyedrezazadeh E, Pour Moghaddam M, Ansarin K, Reza Vafa M, Sharma S, Kolahdooz F 2014. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of wheezing and asthma: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Nutr. Rev. 72:7411–28
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Shahidi F, Ambigaipalan P 2015. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: antioxidant activity and health effects—a review. J. Funct. Foods 18:820–97
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Shewry PR, Piironen V, Lampi AM, Edelmann M, Kariluoto S et al. 2010. The HEALTHGRAIN wheat diversity screen: effects of genotype and environment on phytochemicals and dietary fiber components. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:9291–98
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Simpson HL, Campbell BJ 2015. Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 42:158–79
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Slavin JL, Lloyd B 2012. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv. Nutr. 3:506–16
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Stanyon P, Costello C 1990. Effects of wheat bran and polydextrose on the sensory characteristic of biscuits. Cereal Chem 67:545–47
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Storey M, Anderson P 2018. Total fruit and vegetable consumption increases among consumers of frozen fruit and vegetables. Nutrition 46:115–21
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Taranto F, Delvecchio LN, Mangini G, Del Faro L, Blanco A, Pasqualone A 2012. Molecular and physico-chemical evaluation of enzymatic browning of whole meal and dough in a collection of tetraploid wheats. J. Cereal Sci. 55:405–14
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Teuber R, Dolgopolova I, Nordstrom J 2016. Some like it organic, some like it purple and some like it ancient: consumer preferences and WTP for value-added attributes in whole grain bread. Food Qual. Preference 52:244–54
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP 1999. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69:4727–36
    [Google Scholar]
  127. USDA (US Dep. Agric.). 2018. USDA Food Composition Databases Beltsville, MD: US Dep. Agric. Agric. Res. Serv https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/
  128. USDA (US Dep. Agric.), DHHS (Dep. Health Hum. Serv.). 2015. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Rep., US Dep. Agric. Dep. Health Hum. Serv Washington, DC: https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf
  129. USDA ERS (US Dep. Agric. Econ. Res. Serv.). 2018. Food availability (per capita) data system. Rep., US Dep. Agric. Econ. Res. Serv., Washington, DC. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-per-capita-data-system/
  130. van het Hof KH, de Boer BCJ, Tijburg LBM, Lucius B, Zijp I et al. 2000. Carotenoid bioavailability in humans from tomatoes processed in different ways determined from the carotenoid response in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma after a single consumption and in plasma after four days of consumption. J. Nutr. 130:1189–96
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Wang JS, Rosell CM, de Barber CB 2002. Effect of the addition of different fibres on wheat dough performance and bread quality. Food Chem 79:221–26
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Wang MM, Huang WS, Hu YZ, Zhang LX, Shao YF et al. 2018. Phytosterol profiles of common foods and estimated natural intake of different structures and forms in China. J. Agric. Food Chem. 66:2669–76
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Weaver CM, Dwyer J, Fulgoni VL, King JC, Leveille GA et al. 2014. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 99:1525–42
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Wei DQS, Hossain M, Saleh ZS 2007. Separation of polyphenolics and sugar by ultrafiltration: effects of operating conditions on fouling and diafiltration Paper presented at 2007 Conference of the World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology Berlin:
  135. Wojdylo A, Nowicka P, Carbonell-Barrachina AA, Hernandez F 2016. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of different cultivars of Ficus carica L. fruits. J. Funct. Foods 25:421–32
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Woodside JV, McGrath AJ, Lyner N, McKinley MC 2015. Carotenoids and health in older people. Maturitas 80:63–68
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Wu L, Sun D, He Y 2016. Fruit and vegetables consumption and incident hypertension: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J. Hum. Hypertens. 30:10573–80
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Wu Y, Zhang D, Jiang X, Jiang W 2015. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 25:2140–47
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Yang TY, Bai YX, Wu FF, Yang NJ, Zhang YJ et al. 2014. Combined effects of glucose oxidase, papain and xylanase on browning inhibition and characteristics of fresh whole wheat dough. J. Cereal Sci. 60:249–54
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Zhan J, Liu Y, Cai L, Xu F, Xie T, He Q 2017. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 57:81650–63
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Zhang M, Chen HZ, Mujumdar AS, Zhong QF, Sun JC 2015. Recent developments in high-quality drying with energy-saving characteristic for fresh foods. Dry. Technol. 33:1590–600
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Zong G, Gao A, Hu F, Sun Q 2016. Whole grain intake and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation 133:2370–80
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-032818-121330
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-032818-121330
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error