1932

Abstract

Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are fundamentally different as compared to conventional emulsifiers, which can be an asset in terms of emulsion stability. Even though most of the research on Pickering emulsions has been conducted on model systems, with inorganic solid particles, recent progress has been made on the utilization of food-grade or food-compatible organic particles for this purpose. This review reports the latest advances in that respect, including technical challenges, and discusses the potential benefits and drawbacks of using Pickering emulsions for food applications, as an alternative to conventional emulsifier-based systems.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-081114-110822
2015-04-10
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/food/6/1/annurev-food-081114-110822.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-081114-110822&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adelmann H, Binks BP, Mezzenga R. 2012. Oil powders and gels from particle-stabilized emulsions. Langmuir 28:31694–97 [Google Scholar]
  2. Atkinson PJ, Dickinson E, Horne DS, Richardson RM. 1995. Neutron reflectivity of adsorbed beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin at the air/water interface. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 91:172847–54 [Google Scholar]
  3. Aveyard R, Binks BP, Clint JH. 2003. Emulsions stabilised solely by colloidal particles. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 100–102:503–46 [Google Scholar]
  4. Berton C, Ropers M-H, Guibert D, Solé V, Genot C. 2012. Modifications of interfacial proteins in oil-in-water emulsions prior to and during lipid oxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:358659–71 [Google Scholar]
  5. Berton C, Ropers M-H, Viau M, Genot C. 2011. Contribution of the interfacial layer to the protection of emulsified lipids against oxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:95052–61 [Google Scholar]
  6. Berton-Carabin CC, Ropers M-H, Genot C. 2014. Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions: involvement of the interfacial layer. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 13:945–77 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bijsterbosch BH, Bos MTA, Dickinson E, van Opheusden JHJ, Walstra P. 1995. Brownian dynamics simulation of particle gel formation: from argon to yoghurt. Faraday Discuss. 101:51–64 [Google Scholar]
  8. Binks BP. 2002. Particles as surfactants—similarities and differences. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 7:21–41 [Google Scholar]
  9. Binks BP, Desforges A, Duff DG. 2007a. Synergistic stabilization of emulsions by a mixture of surface-active nanoparticles and surfactant. Langmuir 23:31098–106 [Google Scholar]
  10. Binks BP, Isa L, Tyowua AT. 2013. Direct measurement of contact angles of silica particles in relation to double inversion of Pickering emulsions. Langmuir 29:164923–27 [Google Scholar]
  11. Binks BP, Kirkland M. 2002. Interfacial structure of solid-stabilised emulsions studied by scanning electron microscopy. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4:153727–33 [Google Scholar]
  12. Binks BP, Lumsdon SO. 2001. Pickering emulsions stabilized by monodisperse latex particles: effects of particle size. Langmuir 17:154540–47 [Google Scholar]
  13. Binks BP, Rodrigues JA, Frith WJ. 2007b. Synergistic interaction in emulsions stabilized by a mixture of silica nanoparticles and cationic surfactant. Langmuir 23:73626–36 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bleeker EAJ, Cassee FR, Geertsma RE, de Jong WH, Heugens EHW. et al. 2012. Interpretation and implications of the European commission recommendation on the definition of nanomaterial RIVM Lett. Rep. 601358001/2012. Nat. Inst. Publ. Health. Environ., Bilthoven, Neth. http://www.rivm.nl/dsresource?objectid=rivmp:181801&type=org&disposition=inline
  15. Borel T, Sabliov CM. 2014. Nanodelivery of bioactive components for food applications: types of delivery systems, properties, and their effect on ADME profiles and toxicity of nanoparticles. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 5:197–213 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bos MA, van Vliet T. 2001. Interfacial rheological properties of adsorbed protein layers and surfactants: a review. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 91:437–71 [Google Scholar]
  17. Capron I, Cathala B. 2013. Surfactant-free high internal phase emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals. Biomacromolecules 14:2291–96 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chaudhry Q, Castle L, Watkins R. 2010. Nanotechnologies in the food arena: new opportunities, new questions, new concerns. Nanotechnologies in Food Q Chaudhry, L Castle, R Watkins Cambridge, UK: R. Soc. Chem. [Google Scholar]
  19. Chen B, Li H, Ding Y, Rao J. 2011. Improvement of physicochemical stabilities of emulsions containing oil droplets coated by non-globular protein-beet pectin complex membranes. Food Res. Int. 44:51468–75 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chevalier Y, Bolzinger M-A. 2013. Emulsions stabilized with solid nanoparticles: Pickering emulsions. Colloids Surf. A Eng. Asp. 439:23–34 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cui Z, Cui C, Zhu Y, Binks BP. 2012. Multiple phase inversion of emulsions stabilized by in situ surface activation of CaCO3 nanoparticles via adsorption of fatty acids. Langmuir 28:314–20 [Google Scholar]
  22. Damodaran S. 2005. Protein stabilization of emulsions and foams. J. Food Sci. 70:3R54–66 [Google Scholar]
  23. De Folter JWJ, Hutter EM, Castillo SIR, Klop KE, Philipse AP, Kegel WK. 2014. Particle shape anisotropy in Pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts. Langmuir 30:4955–64 [Google Scholar]
  24. De Folter JWJ, van Ruijven MWM, Velikov KP. 2012. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein. Soft Matter 8:256807–15 [Google Scholar]
  25. Delahaije RJBM, Gruppen H, van Nieuwenhuijzen NH, Giuseppin MLF, Wierenga PA. 2013. Effect of glycation on the flocculation behavior of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Langmuir 29:4915201–8 [Google Scholar]
  26. Delahaije RJBM, Wierenga PA, Giuseppin MLF, Gruppen H. 2014. Improved emulsion stability by succinylation of patatin is caused by partial unfolding rather than charge effects. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 430:69–77 [Google Scholar]
  27. Demetriades K, Coupland JN, McClements DJ. 1997. Physical properties of whey protein stabilized emulsions as related to pH and NaCl. J. Food Sci. 62:2342–47 [Google Scholar]
  28. Destribats M, Lapeyre V, Sellier E, Leal-Calderon F, Ravaine V, Schmitt V. 2012. Origin and control of adhesion between emulsion drops stabilized by thermally sensitive soft colloidal particles. Langmuir 28:83744–55 [Google Scholar]
  29. Destribats M, Lapeyre V, Wolfs M, Sellier E, Leal-Calderon F. et al. 2011. Soft microgels as Pickering emulsion stabilisers: role of particle deformability. Soft Matter 7:177689–98 [Google Scholar]
  30. Destribats M, Ravaine S, Heroguez V, Leal-Calderon F, Schmitt V. 2010. Outstanding stability of poorly-protected Pickering emulsions. Prog. Colloid Polym. Sci. 137:13–18 [Google Scholar]
  31. Destribats M, Rouvet M, Gehin-Delval C, Schmitt C, Binks BP. 2014. Emulsions stabilised by whey protein microgel particles: towards food-grade Pickering emulsions. Soft Matter 10:6941–54 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dickinson E. 1992. An Introduction to Food Colloids Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  33. Dickinson E. 1994. Protein-stabilized emulsions. J. Food Eng. 22:59–74 [Google Scholar]
  34. Dickinson E. 1998. Proteins at interfaces and in emulsions. Stability, rheology and interactions. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94:121657–69 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dickinson E. 2001. Milk protein interfacial layers and the relationship to emulsion stability and rheology. Colloids Surf. B 20:3197–210 [Google Scholar]
  36. Dickinson E. 2009. Hydrocolloids as emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers. Food Hydrocoll. 23:61473–82 [Google Scholar]
  37. Dickinson E. 2010. Food emulsions and foams: stabilization by particles. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 15:1–240–49 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dickinson E. 2011. Mixed biopolymers at interfaces: competitive adsorption and multilayer structures. Food Hydrocoll. 25:81966–83 [Google Scholar]
  39. Dickinson E. 2012. Use of nanoparticles and microparticles in the formation and stabilization of food emulsions. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 24:14–12 [Google Scholar]
  40. Dinsmore AD, Hsu MF, Nikolaides MG, Marquez M, Bausch AR, Weitz DA. 2002. Colloidosomes: selectively permeable capsules composed of colloidal particles. Science 298:55951006–9 [Google Scholar]
  41. Djordjevic D, Cercaci L, Alamed J, McClements DJ, Decker EA. 2007. Chemical and physical stability of citral and limonene in sodium dodecyl sulfate-chitosan and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:93585–91 [Google Scholar]
  42. Dokić L, Krstonošić V, Nikolić I. 2012. Physicochemical characteristics and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by OSA starch. Food Hydrocoll. 29:1185–92 [Google Scholar]
  43. Drelich A, Grossiord J, Gomez F, Clausse D, Pezron I. 2012. Mixed O/W emulsions stabilized by solid particles: a model system for controlled mass transfer triggered by surfactant addition. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 386:218–27 [Google Scholar]
  44. Dugyala VR, Daware SV, Basavaraj MG. 2013. Shape anisotropic colloids: synthesis, packing behavior, evaporation driven assembly, and their application in emulsion stabilization. Soft Matter 9:6711–25 [Google Scholar]
  45. Dutschk V, Chen J, Petzold G, Vogel R, Clausse D. et al. 2012. The role of emulsifier in stabilization of emulsions containing colloidal alumina particles. Colloids Surf. A 413:239–47 [Google Scholar]
  46. Eder K, Ringseis R. 2010. Health aspects of oxidized dietary fats. Oxidation in Foods and Beverages and Antioxidant Applications 1 EA Decker, RJ Elias, DJ McClements 142–80 Cambridge, UK: Woodhead [Google Scholar]
  47. EFSA 2009. Scientific opinion of the panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food on calcium silicate, silicon dioxide and silicic acid gel added for nutritional purposes to food supplements following a request from the European Commission. EFSA J. 1132:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  48. EFSA 2011. Scientific opinion on re-evaluation of calcium carbonate (E 170) as a food additive. EFSA J. 9:71–73 [Google Scholar]
  49. EFSA 2013. Annual report of the EFSA scientific network of risk assessment of nanotechnologies in food and feed for 2013 EFSA Tech. Rep. 2013: EN-531, Parma, Italy
  50. Eskandar NG, Simovic S, Prestidge CA. 2007. Synergistic effect of silica nanoparticles and charged surfactants in the formation and stability of submicron oil-in-water emulsions. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9:486426–34 [Google Scholar]
  51. FDA 1979. Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: silicon dioxides SCOGS Rep. 61, US Food Drug Admin. http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm261095.htm [Google Scholar]
  52. Finkle P, Draper HD, Hildebrand JH. 1923. The theory of emulsification. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 45:122780–88 [Google Scholar]
  53. Frasch-Melnik S, Norton IT, Spyropoulos F. 2010. Fat-crystal stabilised W/O emulsions for controlled salt release. J. Food Eng. 98:4437–42 [Google Scholar]
  54. Gao Z-M, Wang J-M, Wu N-N, Wan Z-L, Guo J. et al. 2013. Formation of complex interface and stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion prepared by soy lipophilic protein nanoparticles. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:7838–47 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gao Z-M, Yang X-Q, Wu N-N, Wang L-J, Wang J-M. et al. 2014. Protein-based Pickering emulsion and oil gel prepared by complexes of zein colloidal particles and stearate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:122672–78 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gaonkar AG. 1989. Interfacial tensions of vegetable oil/water systems: effect of oil purification. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66:81090–92 [Google Scholar]
  57. Gautier F, Destribats M, Perrier-Cornet R, Dechezelles JF, Giermanska J. et al. 2007. Pickering emulsions with stimulable particles: from highly- to weakly-covered interfaces. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9:486455–62 [Google Scholar]
  58. Geisel K, Isa L, Richtering W. 2012. Unraveling the 3D localization and deformation of responsive microgels at oil/water interfaces: a step forward in understanding soft emulsion stabilizers. Langmuir 28:4515770–76 [Google Scholar]
  59. Genot C, Kabri T, Meynier A. 2013. Stabilisation of omega-3 oils and enriched foods using emulsifiers. Food Enrichment with Omega-3 Fatty Acids C Jacobsen, NS Nielsen, AF Horn, AD Sorensen 150–93 Cambridge, UK: Woodhead [Google Scholar]
  60. Goebel A, Lunkenheimer K. 1997. Interfacial tension of the water/n-alkane interface. Langmuir 13:369–72 [Google Scholar]
  61. Goff HD. 1997. Colloidal aspects of ice cream—a review. Int. Dairy J. 7:363–73 [Google Scholar]
  62. Goff HD. 2002. Formation and stabilisation of structure in ice-cream and related products. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 7:5–6432–37 [Google Scholar]
  63. Gould J, Vieira J, Wolf B. 2013. Cocoa particles for food emulsion stabilisation. Food Funct. 4:91369–75 [Google Scholar]
  64. Grigoriev DO, Miller R. 2009. Mono- and multilayer covered drops as carriers. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 14:148–59 [Google Scholar]
  65. Grosch W. 1982. Lipid degradation products and flavour. Food Flavours ID Morton, AD McLeod 325–98 Amsterdam: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  66. Gudipati V, Sandra S, McClements DJ, Decker EA. 2010. Oxidative stability and in vitro digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions containing multilayered membranes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:138093–99 [Google Scholar]
  67. Gülseren I, Corredig M. 2013. Interactions of chitin nanocrystals with β-lactoglobulin at the oil-water interface, studied by drop shape tensiometry. Colloids Surf. B 111:672–79 [Google Scholar]
  68. Günther F, Frijters S, Harting J. 2014. Timescales of emulsion formation caused by anisotropic particles. Soft Matter 10:4977–89 [Google Scholar]
  69. Gupta R, Rousseau D. 2012. Surface-active solid lipid nanoparticles as Pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. Food Funct. 3:3302–11 [Google Scholar]
  70. Guzey D, McClements DJ. 2006. Formation, stability and properties of multilayer emulsions for application in the food industry. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 128–30:227–48 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hasenhuettl GL, Hartel RW. 2008. Food Emulsifiers and their Applications New York: Springer Sci., Bus. Media
  72. Horozov TS, Aveyard R, Binks BP, Clint JH. 2005. Structure and stability of silica particle monolayers at horizontal and vertical octane-water interfaces. Langmuir 21:167405–12 [Google Scholar]
  73. Horozov TS, Binks BP. 2006. Particle-stabilized emulsions: a bilayer or a bridging monolayer?. Angew. Chem. 118:5787–90 [Google Scholar]
  74. Hu M, McClements DJ, Decker EA. 2003. Lipid oxidation in corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by casein, whey protein isolate, and soy protein isolate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:61696–700 [Google Scholar]
  75. Hunter TN, Pugh RJ, Franks GV, Jameson GJ. 2008. The role of particles in stabilising foams and emulsions. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 137:257–81 [Google Scholar]
  76. Isa L, Lucas F, Wepf R, Reimhult E. 2011. Measuring single-nanoparticle wetting properties by freeze-fracture shadow-casting cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Nat. Commun. 2:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  77. Kalashnikova I, Bizot H, Bertoncini P, Cathala B, Capron I. 2013. Cellulosic nanorods of various aspect ratios for oil in water Pickering emulsions. Soft Matter 9:3952–59 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kargar M, Fayazmanesh K, Alavi M, Spyropoulos F, Norton IT. 2012. Investigation into the potential ability of Pickering emulsions (food-grade particles) to enhance the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 366:1209–15 [Google Scholar]
  79. Kargar M, Spyropoulos F, Norton IT. 2011. The effect of interfacial microstructure on the lipid oxidation stability of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 357:2527–33 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kaz DM, McGorty R, Mani M, Brenner MP, Manoharan VN. 2012. Physical ageing of the contact line on colloidal particles at liquid interfaces. Nat. Mater. 11:2138–42 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kinsella JE. 1979. Functional properties of soy proteins. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 56:3242–58 [Google Scholar]
  82. Klinkesorn U, Sophanodora P, Chinachoti P, Decker EA, McClements DJ. 2005. Encapsulation of emulsified tuna oil in two-layered interfacial membranes prepared using electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition. Food Hydrocoll. 19:61044–53 [Google Scholar]
  83. Krebs T, Schroen K, Boom R. 2012. A microfluidic method to study demulsification kinetics. Lab Chip 12:61060–70 [Google Scholar]
  84. Kumar A, Park BJ, Tu F, Lee D. 2013. Amphiphilic Janus particles at fluid interfaces. Soft Matter 9:296604–17 [Google Scholar]
  85. Kurukji D, Pichot R, Spyropoulos F, Norton IT. 2013. Interfacial behaviour of sodium stearoyllactylate (SSL) as an oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabiliser. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 409:88–97 [Google Scholar]
  86. Kutuzov S, He J, Tangirala R, Emrick T, Russell TP, Böker A. 2007. On the kinetics of nanoparticle self-assembly at liquid/liquid interfaces. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9:486351–58 [Google Scholar]
  87. Laguerre M, Bayrasy C, Lecomte J, Chabi B, Decker EA. et al. 2013. How to boost antioxidants by lipophilization?. Biochimie 95:20–26 [Google Scholar]
  88. Laguerre M, Giraldo LJL, Lecomte J, Figueroa-Espinoza M-C, Baréa B. et al. 2009. Chain length affects antioxidant properties of chlorogenate esters in emulsion: the cutoff theory behind the polar paradox. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:2311335–42 [Google Scholar]
  89. Leal-Calderon F, Schmitt V. 2008. Solid-stabilized emulsions. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 13:4217–27 [Google Scholar]
  90. Leal-Calderon F, Schmitt V, Bibette J. 2007. Emulsion Science—Basic Principles New York: Springer Sci., Bus. Media, 2nd ed..
  91. Lee K-Y, Blaker JJ, Murakami R, Heng JYY, Bismarck A. 2014. Phase behavior of medium and high internal phase water-in-oil emulsions stabilized solely by hydrophobized bacterial cellulose nanofibrils. Langmuir 30:452–60 [Google Scholar]
  92. Lesmes U, Sandra S, Decker EA, McClements DJ. 2010. Impact of surface deposition of lactoferrin on physical and chemical stability of omega-3 rich lipid droplets stabilised by caseinate. Food Chem. 123:199–106 [Google Scholar]
  93. Liu F, Tang C-H. 2013. Soy protein nanoparticle aggregates as Pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:378888–98 [Google Scholar]
  94. Liu F, Tang C-H. 2014a. Emulsifying properties of soy protein nanoparticles: influence of the protein concentration and/or emulsification process. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:2644–54 [Google Scholar]
  95. Liu F, Tang C-H. 2014b. Phytosterol colloidal particles as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:225133–41 [Google Scholar]
  96. Lomova MV, Sukhorukov GB, Antipina MN. 2010. Antioxidant coating of micronsize droplets for prevention of lipid peroxidation in oil-in-water emulsion. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2:123669–76 [Google Scholar]
  97. Luo Z, Murray BS, Yusoff A, Morgan MRA, Povey MJW, Day AJ. 2011. Particle-stabilizing effects of flavonoids at the oil-water interface. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:62636–45 [Google Scholar]
  98. Mackie AR, Gunning AP, Wilde PJ, Morris VJ. 2000. Orogenic displacement of protein from the oil/water interface. Langmuir 16:2242–47 [Google Scholar]
  99. Madivala B, Vandebril S, Fransaer J, Vermant J. 2009. Exploiting particle shape in solid stabilized emulsions. Soft Matter 5:81717–27 [Google Scholar]
  100. Mancuso JR, McClements DJ, Decker EA. 1999. The effects of surfactant type, pH, and chelators on the oxidation of salmon oil-in-water emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:104112–16 [Google Scholar]
  101. Martin KR. 2007. The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits. J. Nutr. Health Aging 11:294–98 [Google Scholar]
  102. McClements DJ. 2004. Protein-stabilized emulsions. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 9:5305–13 [Google Scholar]
  103. McClements DJ. 2005. Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices and Techniques Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
  104. McClements DJ. 2012. Advances in fabrication of emulsions with enhanced functionality using structural design principles. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 17:5235–45 [Google Scholar]
  105. McClements DJ, Decker EA. 2000. Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions: impact of molecular environment on chemical reactions in heterogeneous food systems. J. Food Sci. 65:81270–82 [Google Scholar]
  106. McClements DJ, Decker EA, Weiss J. 2007. Emulsion-based delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive components. J. Food Sci. 72:8R109–24 [Google Scholar]
  107. McClements DJ, Rao J. 2011. Food-grade nanoemulsions: formulation, fabrication, properties, performance, biological fate, and potential toxicity. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 51:4285–330 [Google Scholar]
  108. Mei L, McClements DJ, Wu J, Decker EA. 1998. Iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation in emulsion as affected by surfactant, pH and NaCl. Food Chem. 61:3307–12 [Google Scholar]
  109. Meshulam D, Lesmes U. 2013. Responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin nano-particles to simulated intestinal conditions. Food Funct. 5:165–73 [Google Scholar]
  110. Midmore BR. 1998. Synergy between silica and polyoxyethylene surfactants in the formation of O/W emulsions. Colloids Surf. A 145:1–3133–43 [Google Scholar]
  111. Murray BS, Durga K, Yusoff A, Stoyanov SD. 2011. Stabilization of foams and emulsions by mixtures of surface active food-grade particles and proteins. Food Hydrocoll. 25:4627–38 [Google Scholar]
  112. Nan F, Wu J, Qi F, Liu Y, Ngai T, Ma G. 2014. Uniform chitosan-coated alginate particles as emulsifiers for preparation of stable Pickering emulsions with stimulus dependence. Colloids Surf. A 456:246–52 [Google Scholar]
  113. Nicolai T, Britten M, Schmitt C. 2011. β-Lactoglobulin and WPI aggregates: formation, structure and applications. Food Hydrocoll. 25:81945–62 [Google Scholar]
  114. Nielsen NS, Horn AF, Jacobsen C. 2013. Effect of emulsifier type, pH and iron on oxidative stability of 5% fish oil-in-water emulsions. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 115:8874–89 [Google Scholar]
  115. Ogawa S, Decker EA, McClements DJ. 2003. Influence of environmental conditions on the stability of oil in water emulsions containing droplets stabilized by lecithin-chitosan membranes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:185522–27 [Google Scholar]
  116. Paunov VN. 2003. Novel method for determining the three-phase contact angle of colloid particles adsorbed at air-water and oil-water interfaces. Langmuir 19:7970–76 [Google Scholar]
  117. Paunov VN, Cayre OJ, Noble PF, Stoyanov SD, Velikov KP, Golding M. 2007. Emulsions stabilised by food colloid particles: role of particle adsorption and wettability at the liquid interface. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 312:2381–89 [Google Scholar]
  118. Pawar AB, Caggioni M, Ergun R, Hartel RW, Spicer PT. 2011. Arrested coalescence in Pickering emulsions. Soft Matter 7:177710–16 [Google Scholar]
  119. Pawlik AK, Norton IT. 2014. Bridging benchtop research and industrial processed foods: structuring of model food emulsions. Food Struct. 1:124–38 [Google Scholar]
  120. Phan-Xuan T, Durand D, Nicolai T, Donato L, Schmitt C, Bovetto L. 2014. Heat induced formation of beta-lactoglobulin microgels driven by addition of calcium ions. Food Hydrocoll. 34:227–35 [Google Scholar]
  121. Pichot R, Spyropoulos F, Norton IT. 2010. O/W emulsions stabilised by both low molecular weight surfactants and colloidal particles: the effect of surfactant type and concentration. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 352:1128–35 [Google Scholar]
  122. Pickering SU. 1907. Emulsions. J. Chem. Soc. 91:2001–21 [Google Scholar]
  123. Purwanti N, Smiddy M, van der Goot AJ, de Vries RJ, Alting A, Boom RM. 2011. Modulation of rheological properties by heat-induced aggregation of whey protein solution. Food Hydrocoll. 25:61482–89 [Google Scholar]
  124. Ramsden W. 1903. Separation of solids in the surface-layers of solutions and “suspensions.”. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 72:156–64 [Google Scholar]
  125. Rayner M, Sjöö M, Timgren A, Dejmek P. 2012a. Quinoa starch granules as stabilizing particles for production of Pickering emulsions. Faraday Discuss. 158:139–55 [Google Scholar]
  126. Rayner M, Timgren A, Sjöö M, Dejmek P. 2012b. Quinoa starch granules: a candidate for stabilising food-grade Pickering emulsions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:91841–47 [Google Scholar]
  127. Raynes JK, Carver JA, Gras SL, Gerrard JA. 2014. Protein nanostructures in food—Should we be worried?. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 37:142–50 [Google Scholar]
  128. Richtering W. 2012. Responsive emulsions stabilized by stimuli-sensitive microgels: emulsions with special non-Pickering properties. Langmuir 28:5017218–29 [Google Scholar]
  129. Rossier-Miranda FJ, Schroën CGPH, Boom RM. 2009. Colloidosomes: versatile microcapsules in perspective. Colloids Surf. A 343:1–343–49 [Google Scholar]
  130. Rossier-Miranda FJ, Schroën K, Boom RM. 2012. Microcapsule production by an hybrid colloidosome-layer-by-layer technique. Food Hydrocoll. 27:1119–25 [Google Scholar]
  131. Rousseau D. 2000. Fat crystals and emulsion stability—a review. Food Res. Int. 33:3–14 [Google Scholar]
  132. Rousseau D. 2013. Trends in structuring edible emulsions with Pickering fat crystals. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:4283–91 [Google Scholar]
  133. Rullier B, Novales B, Axelos MAV. 2008. Effect of protein aggregates on foaming properties of β-lactoglobulin. Colloids Surf. A 330:2–396–102 [Google Scholar]
  134. Salari JWO, Mutsaers G, Meuldijk J, Klumperman B. 2014. Deformation of the water/oil interface during the adsorption of sterically stabilized particles. Langmuir 30:257327–33 [Google Scholar]
  135. Salminen H, Heinonen M, Decker EA. 2009. Antioxidant effects of berry phenolics incorporated in oil-in-water emulsions with continuous phase β-lactoglobulin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87:4419–28 [Google Scholar]
  136. Santini E, Guzmán E, Ferrari M, Liggieri L. 2014. Emulsions stabilized by the interaction of silica nanoparticles and palmitic acid at the water–hexane interface. Colloids Surf. A 460:333–41 [Google Scholar]
  137. Schmitt C, Bovay C, Vuilliomenet A-M, Rouvet M, Bovetto L. 2011. Influence of protein and mineral composition on the formation of whey protein heat-induced microgels. Food Hydrocoll. 25:4558–67 [Google Scholar]
  138. Schmitt V, Ravaine V. 2013. Surface compaction versus stretching in Pickering emulsions stabilised by microgels. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:6532–41 [Google Scholar]
  139. Scholten E, Moschakis T, Biliaderis CG. 2014. Biopolymer composites for engineering food structures to control product functionality. Food Struct. 1:139–54 [Google Scholar]
  140. Seguchi M. 1984. Oil-binding ability of heat-treated wheat starch. Cereal Chem. 61:3248–50 [Google Scholar]
  141. Serini S, Fasano E, Piccioni E, Cittadini ARM, Calviello G. 2011. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the paradox of their health benefits and potential harmful effects. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24:122093–105 [Google Scholar]
  142. Shao Y, Tang C-H. 2014. Characteristics and oxidative stability of soy protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions: influence of ionic strength and heat pretreatment. Food Hydrocoll. 37:149–58 [Google Scholar]
  143. Shimoni G, Shani Levi C, Levi Tal S, Lesmes U. 2013. Emulsions stabilization by lactoferrin nano-particles under in vitro digestion conditions. Food Hydrocoll. 33:2264–72 [Google Scholar]
  144. Silvestre MP, Chaiyasit W, Brannan RG, McClements DJ, Decker EA. 2000. Ability of surfactant headgroup size to alter lipid and antioxidant oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:62057–61 [Google Scholar]
  145. Singh H. 2011. Aspects of milk-protein-stabilised emulsions. Food Hydrocoll. 25:81938–44 [Google Scholar]
  146. Skelhon TS, Grossiord N, Morgan AR, Bon SAF. 2012. Quiescent water-in-oil Pickering emulsions as a route toward healthier fruit juice infused chocolate confectionary. J. Mater. Chem. 22:3619289–95 [Google Scholar]
  147. Sun G, Qi F, Wu J, Ngai T. 2014. Preparation of uniform particle-stabilized emulsions using SPG membrane emulsification. Langmuir 30:7052–56 [Google Scholar]
  148. Tambe DE, Sharma MM. 1993. Factors controlling the stability of colloid-stabilized emulsions. I. An experimental investigation. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 157:244–53 [Google Scholar]
  149. Tan Y, Xu K, Niu C, Liu C, Li Y. et al. 2014. Triglyceride–water emulsions stabilised by starch-based nanoparticles. Food Hydrocoll. 36:70–75 [Google Scholar]
  150. Tcholakova S, Denkov ND, Lips A. 2008. Comparison of solid particles, globular proteins and surfactants as emulsifiers. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10:121608–27 [Google Scholar]
  151. Timgren A, Rayner M, Sjöö M, Dejmek P. 2011. Starch particles for food based Pickering emulsions. Procedia Food Sci. 1:95–103 [Google Scholar]
  152. Tzoumaki MV, Moschakis T, Kiosseoglou V, Biliaderis CG. 2011. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by chitin nanocrystal particles. Food Hydrocoll. 25:61521–29 [Google Scholar]
  153. Tzoumaki MV, Moschakis T, Scholten E, Biliaderis CG. 2013. In vitro lipid digestion of chitin nanocrystal stabilized O/W emulsions. Food Funct. 4:1121–29 [Google Scholar]
  154. Vashisth C, Whitby CP, Fornasiero D, Ralston J. 2010. Interfacial displacement of nanoparticles by surfactant molecules in emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 349:2537–43 [Google Scholar]
  155. Vignati E, Piazza R, Lockhart TP. 2003. Pickering emulsions: interfacial tension, colloidal layer morphology, and trapped-particle motion. Langmuir 19:176650–56 [Google Scholar]
  156. Vilchez A, Rodriguez-Abreu C, Menner A, Bismarck A, Esquena J. 2014. Antagonistic effects between magnetite nanoparticles and a hydrophobic surfactant in highly concentrated Pickering emulsions. Langmuir 30:5064–74 [Google Scholar]
  157. Villiere A, Viau M, Bronnec I, Moreau N, Genot C. 2005. Oxidative stability of bovine serum albumin- and sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsions depends on metal availability. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:51514–20 [Google Scholar]
  158. Visanko M, Liimatainen H, Sirviö JA, Heiskanen JP, Niinimäki J, Hormi O. 2014. Amphiphilic cellulose nanocrystals from acid-free oxidative treatment: physicochemical characteristics and use as an oil-water stabilizer. Biomacromolecules 15:2769–75 [Google Scholar]
  159. Von Staszewski M, Pizones Ruiz-Henestrosa VM, Pilosof AMR. 2014. Green tea polyphenols-β-lactoglobulin nanocomplexes: interfacial behavior, emulsification and oxidation stability of fish oil. Food Hydrocoll. 35:505–11 [Google Scholar]
  160. Waraho T, McClements DJ, Decker EA. 2011. Mechanisms of lipid oxidation in food dispersions. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 22:13–13 [Google Scholar]
  161. Whitby CP, Fischer FE, Fornasiero D, Ralston J. 2011. Shear-induced coalescence of oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 361:1170–77 [Google Scholar]
  162. Whitby CP, Fornasiero D, Ralston J. 2009. Effect of adding anionic surfactant on the stability of Pickering emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 329:1173–81 [Google Scholar]
  163. Whitby CP, Fornasiero D, Ralston J. 2010. Structure of oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by silica and hydrophobised titania particles. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 342:1205–9 [Google Scholar]
  164. Whitby CP, Krebsz M. 2014. Coalescence in concentrated Pickering emulsions under shear. Soft Matter 10:274848–54 [Google Scholar]
  165. Wilde P, Mackie A, Husband F, Gunning P, Morris V. 2004. Proteins and emulsifiers at liquid interfaces. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 108–9:63–71 [Google Scholar]
  166. Worthen AJ, Foster LM, Dong J, Bollinger JA, Peterman AH. et al. 2014. Synergistic formation and stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by a weakly interacting mixture of zwitterionic surfactant and silica nanoparticles. Langmuir 30:4984–94 [Google Scholar]
  167. Yang B, Matsumura H, Furusawa K. 1999. Adsorption behavior of phospholipid vesicles at oil/water interfaces. Colloids Surf. B 14:1–4161–68 [Google Scholar]
  168. Ye A, Zhu X, Singh H. 2013. Oil-in-water emulsion system stabilized by protein-coated nanoemulsion droplets. Langmuir 29:4714403–10 [Google Scholar]
  169. Yusoff A, Murray BS. 2011. Modified starch granules as particle-stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocoll. 25:142–55 [Google Scholar]
  170. Zou S, Yang Y, Liu H, Wang C. 2013. Synergistic stabilization and tunable structures of Pickering high internal phase emulsions by nanoparticles and surfactants. Colloids Surf. A 436:1–9 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-081114-110822
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-081114-110822
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error