1932

Abstract

Racial innocence is the practice of securing blamelessness for the death-dealing realities of racial capitalism. This article reviews the legal, social scientific, and reformist mechanisms that maintain the racial innocence of one particular site: the US carceral state. With its routine dehumanization, violence, and stunning levels of racial disparity, the carceral state should be a hard test case for the willful unknowing of obvious devastation. Nonetheless, the law presumes “no racism,” condones racial profiling, and interprets racial disparity in policing and imprisonment as evidence of true racial difference in criminality, not discrimination. Prominent social science research too often mimics these practices, producing research that aids in the collective erasure of racism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042649
2019-10-13
2024-04-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lawsocsci/15/1/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042649.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042649&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alexander M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness New York: New
  2. Angwin J, Larson J, Mattu S, Kirchner L 2016. Machine bias: There's software used across the country to predict future criminals. And it's biased against blacks. ProPublica May 23. https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baldwin J. 1985. The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 19481985 New York: St. Martin's
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baldwin J. 1985 (1960). Fifth Avenue, Uptown. See Baldwin 1985.205–13
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baldwin J. 1985 (1963). The Fire Next Time See Baldwin 1985.333–79
  6. Baldwin J. 1985 (1972). No Name in the Street See Baldwin 1985.449–552
  7. Balfour L. 1999. The appeal of innocence: Baldwin, Walzer, and the bounds of social criticism. Rev. Politics 61:373–401
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Balfour L. 2000. The Evidence of Things Not Said: James Baldwin and the Promise of American Democracy Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  9. Beck AJ, Blumstein A. 2018. Racial disproportionality in US state prisons: accounting for the effects of racial and ethnic differences in criminal involvement, arrests, sentencing, and time served. J. Quant. Criminol. 34:3853–83
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Beckett K. 1997. Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  11. Beckett K. 2018. The politics, promise, and peril of criminal justice reform in the context of mass incarceration. Annu. Rev. Criminol. 1:235–59
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Beckett K, Murakawa N. 2012. Mapping the shadow carceral state: toward an institutionally capacious approach to punishment. Theor. Criminol. 16:2221–44
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Beckett K, Nyrop K, Pfingst L 2006. Race, drugs, and policing: understanding disparities in drug delivery arrests. Criminology 44:1105–37
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Beckett K, Reosti A, Knaphus K 2016. The end of an era? Understanding the contradictions of criminal justice reform. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 664:1238–59
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bell MC. 2017. Police reform and the dismantling of legal estrangement. Yale Law J 126:2054–150
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Benjamin R. 2019. Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code New York: Polity
  17. Blair IV, Judd CM, Chapleau KM 2004. The influence of Afrocentric facial features in criminal sentencing. Psychol. Sci. 15:10674–79
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Blumstein A. 1982. On the racial disproportionality of United States’ prison populations. J. Crim. Law Criminol. 73:31259–81
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Blumstein A. 1993. Racial disproportionality of US prison populations revisited. Univ. Colo. Law Rev. 64:3743–60
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bonilla-Silva E. 2001. White Supremacy and Racism in the PostCivil Rights Era Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bonilla-Silva E. 2006. Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. , 2nd ed..
  22. Bonilla-Silva E, Zuberi T. 2008. Toward a definition of white logic and white methods. White Logic, White Methods T Zuberi, E Bonilla-Silva 3–27 Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Brame R, Bushway SD, Paternoster R, Turner MG 2014. Demographic patterns of cumulative arrest prevalence by ages 18 and 23. Crime Delinq 60:3471–86
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Brown M. 2017. Punishment and policing in the Trump era. Social Justice Jan. 9. http://www.socialjusticejournal.org/punishment-and-policing-in-the-trump-era/
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Brown M, Schept J. 2017. New abolition, criminology and a critical carceral studies. Punishm. Soc. 19:4440–62
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Browne S. 2015. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  27. Burnstein E. 2007. Sexual politics of the “new abolitionism. Differences 18:3128–51
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Butler P. 2017. Chokehold: Policing Black Men New York: New
  29. Butler P. 2018. Equal protection and white supremacy. Northwest. Univ. Law Rev. 112:61457–64
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Camp JT. 2016. Incarcerating the Crisis: Freedom Struggles and the Rise of the Neoliberal State Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
  31. Cent. Res. Crim. Justice 1975. The Iron Fist and the Velvet Glove: An Analysis of the U.S. Police Berkeley, CA: Cent. Res. Crim. Justice
  32. City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 1989.
  33. Clark K. 1959. Color, class, personality and juvenile delinquency. J. Negro Educ. 28:3240–51
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cohen C. 1999. The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  35. Correia D, Wall T. 2018. Police: A Field Guide New York: Verso
  36. Cox A. 2017. Trapped in a Vice: The Consequences of Confinement for Young People New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
  37. Crenshaw KW. 1988. Race, reform, and retrenchment: transformation and legitimation in antidiscrimination law. Harvard Law Rev 101:71331–87
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Crenshaw KW. 2012. From private violence to mass incarceration: thinking intersectionally about women, race, and social control. UCLA Law Rev 59:61418–72
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Crenshaw KW, Ritchie AJ. 2015. #Sayhername: Resisting Police Brutality Against Black Women New York: Afr. Am. Policy Forum http://aapf.org/sayhernamereport
  40. Davis A. 2016. Freedom Is a Constant Struggle Chicago: Haymarket
  41. DeMichele M, Kraska P. 2001. Community policing in battle garb: A paradox or coherent strategy?. Militarizing the American Criminal Justice System: The Changing Roles of the Armed Forces and the Police82–101 Boston: Northeast. Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Donnelly EA. 2017. Racial disparity reform: racial inequality and policy responses in US national politics. J. Crime Justice 40:4462–77
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Eaglin J. 2016. The drug court paradigm. Am. Crim. Law Rev. 53:595–640
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Eaglin J. 2017. Constructing recidivism risk. Emory Law J 67:59–122
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Eberhardt JL, Davies PG, Purdie-Vaughns VJ, Johnson SL 2006. Looking deathworthy: Perceived stereotypicality of Black defendants predicts capital-sentencing outcomes. Psychol. Sci. 17:5383–86
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Eberhardt JL, Goff PA, Purdie VJ, Davies PG 2004. Seeing black: race, crime, and visual processing. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 87:6876–93
    [Google Scholar]
  47. EEOC v. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 628 F. Supp. 1264 (N.D. Ill. 1986.
  48. Epp CR, Maynard-Moody S, Haider-Markel D 2014. Pulled Over: How Police Stops Define Race and Citizenship Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  49. Epp CR, Maynard-Moody S, Haider-Markel D 2016. Beyond profiling: the institutional sources of racial disparities in policing. Public Adm. Rev. 77:2168–78
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Eubanks V. 2017. Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor New York: St. Martin's
  51. Ewert S, Sykes BL, Pettit B 2014. The degree of disadvantage: incarceration and inequality in education. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 651:124–43
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Fagan J. 2017. Recent evidence and controversies in “the new policing. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 36:3690–700
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Fagan J, Geller A. 2015. Following the script: narratives of suspicion in Terry stops and street policing. Univ. Chicago Law Rev. 82:51–88
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Feeley MM, Simon J. 1992. The new penology: notes on the emerging strategy of corrections and its implications. Criminology 30:4449–74
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Ferguson AG. 2017. The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race and the Future of Law Enforcement New York: NYU Press
  56. Fields KE, Fields BJ. 2014. Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life New York: Verso
  57. Flores AW, Bechtel K, Lowenkamp CT 2016. False positives, false negatives, and false analyses. Fed. Probat. 80:238–46
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Floyd v. City of New York 959 F. Supp. 2d 540 (S.D.N.Y. 2013.
  59. Forman J Jr 2012. Racial critiques of mass incarceration: beyond the New Jim Crow. N. Y. Univ. Law Rev. 87:121–69
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Forman J Jr 2017. Locking Up Our Own: Crime and Punishment in Black America New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  61. Freeman AD. 1978. Legitimizing racial discrimination through antidiscrimination law: a critical review of Supreme Court doctrine. Minn. Law Rev. 62:1049–119
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Frymer P. 2005. Racism revised: courts, labor law, and the institutional construction of racial animus. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 99:3373–87
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Gilmore RW. 2007. Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  64. Gilmore RW. 2015. The worrying state of the anti-prison movement. Social Justice Feb. 23. http://www.socialjusticejournal.org/the-worrying-state-of-the-anti-prison-movement/
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Gilmore RW. 2017. Abolition geography and the problem of innocence. Futures of Black Radicalism GT Johnson, A Lubin 225–40 New York: Verso
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Gilmore RW, Gilmore C. 2016. Beyond Bratton. Policing the Planet: Why the Policing Crisis Led to Black Lives Matter JT Camp, C Heatherton 173–99 New York: Verso
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Glaser J. 2015. Suspect Race: Causes and Consequences of Racial Profiling New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  68. Goddard T, Myers R. 2017. Against evidence-based oppression: marginalized youth and the politics of risk-based assessment and intervention. Theor. Criminol. 21:2151–67
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Goel S, Perelman M, Shroff R, Sklansky DA 2016. Combatting police discrimination in the age of big data. New Crim. Law Rev. 20:2181–232
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Golub M. 2018. Is Racial Equality Unconstitutional? New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Gottschalk M. 2006. Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  72. Gottschalk M. 2008. Hiding in plain sight: American politics and the carceral state. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 11:235–60
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Gottschalk M. 2012. The carceral state and the politics of punishment. The Sage Handbook of Punishment and Society J Simon, R Sparks 205–41 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Gottschalk M. 2015. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  75. Gruber A. 2018. Equal protection under the carceral state. Northwest. Univ. Law Rev. 112:61337–84
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Guinier L. 2004. From racial liberalism to racial literacy: Brown v. Board of Education and the interest-divergence dilemma. J. Am. Hist. 91:192–118
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Haley S. 2016. No Mercy Here: Gender, Punishment, and the Making of Jim Crow Modernity Chapel Hill: Univ. N. C. Press
  78. Haltom W, McCann M. 2004. Distorting the Law: Politics, Media, and the Litigation Crisis Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  79. Haney-López IF. 2000. Institutional racism: judicial conduct and a new theory of racial discrimination. Yale Law J 109:1717–884
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Hannah-Moffat K. 2013. Actuarial sentencing: an “unsettled” proposition. Justice Q 30:2270–96
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Harcourt BE. 2007. Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  82. Harcourt BE. 2015. Risk as a proxy for race: the dangers of risk assessment. Fed. Sentencing Rep. 27:4237–43
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Harcourt BE, Meares TL. 2011. Randomization and the Fourth Amendment. Univ. Chicago Law Rev. 78:3809–77
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Harris D. 1994. Factors for reasonable suspicion: when black and poor means stopped and frisked. Indiana Law J 69:659–88
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Hawkins D. 1995. Ethnicity, race, and crime: a review of selected studies. Ethnicity, Race, and Crime: Perspectives Across Time and Place D Hawkins 11–45 Albany: State Univ. N. Y. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Hernandez KL, Muhammad KG, Thompson HA 2015. Constructing the carceral state. J. Am. Hist. 102:118–24
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Hetey R, Eberhardt J. 2014. Racial disparities in incarceration increase acceptance of punitive policies. Psychol. Sci. 25:11949–54
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Hinton EK. 2016. From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  89. Holland PW. 2008. Causation and race. White Logic, White Methods T Zuberi, E Bonilla-Silva 93–109 Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  90. HoSang DM. 2010. Racial Propositions: Ballot Initiatives and the Making of Postwar California Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  91. Huq AZ. 2017. The consequences of disparate policing: evaluating stop and frisk as a modality of urban policing. Minn. Law Rev. 101:2397–480
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Illinois v. Wardlow 528 U.S. 119 2000.
  93. Johnson KR. 2010. How racial profiling in America became the law of the land. Georgetown Law J 98:41005–77
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Kaeble D, Cowhig M. 2018. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016 Washington, DC: Bur. Justice Stat.
  95. Kelley RDG. 1997. Yo’ Mama's Disfunktional! Fighting the Culture Wars in Urban America Boston: Beacon
  96. Kelley RDG. 1999. “But a local phase of a world problem”: Black history's global vision, 1883–1950. J. Am. Hist. 86:31045–77
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Kilgore J. 2014. Repackaging mass incarceration. Counterpunch June 6. https://www.counterpunch.org/2014/06/06/repackaging-mass-incarceration/
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Kim A, Meiners E, Petty J, Richie BE, Ross S 2018. The Long Term: Resisting Life Sentences, Working Toward Freedom Chicago: Haymarket
  99. Kohler-Hausmann I. 2018. Misdemeanorland: Criminal Courts and Social Control in an Age of Broken Windows Policing Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  100. Kramer J, Steffensmeier D. 1993. Race and imprisonment decisions. Sociol. Q. 34:357–76
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Kunzel R. 2008. Criminal Intimacy: Prison and the Uneven History of Modern American Sexuality Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  102. Kutateladze BL, Andiloro NR, Johnson BD, Spohn C 2014. Cumulative disadvantage: examining racial and ethnic disparity in prosecution and sentencing. Criminology 52:3514–51
    [Google Scholar]
  103. LaChance D. 2016. Executing Freedom: The Cultural Life of Capital Punishment in the United States Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  104. Larson J, Mattu S, Kirchner L, Angwin J 2016. How we analyzed the COMPAS recidivism algorithm. ProPublica May 23. https://www.propublica.org/article/how-we-analyzed-the-compas-recidivism-algorithm
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Lassiter M. 2015. Impossible criminals: the suburban imperatives of America's war on drugs. J. Am. Hist. 102:1126–40
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Lerman AE, Weaver VM. 2014. Arresting Citizenship: The Democratic Consequences of American Crime Control Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  107. Lovell GI, McCann M, Taylor K 2016. Covering legal mobilization: a bottom-up analysis of Wards Cove v. Atonio. Law Soc. Inq 41:161–99
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Lundman RJ, Kaufman RL. 2003. Driving while black: effects of race, ethnicity, and gender on citizen self-reports of traffic stops and police actions. Criminology 41:1195–220
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Lynch M. 2013. Institutionalizing bias: the death penalty, federal drug prosecutions, and mechanisms of disparate punishment. Am. J. Crim. Law 41:191–131
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Lynch M, Omori M. 2018. Crack as proxy: aggressive federal drug prosecutions and the production of black-white racial inequality. Law Soc. Rev. 52:3773–809
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Lynch M, Omori M, Roussell A, Valasik M 2013. Policing the “progressive” city: the racialized geography of drug law enforcement. Theor. Criminol. 17:3335–57
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Mauer M, Nellis A. 2018. The Meaning of Life: The Case for Abolishing Life Sentences New York: New
  113. McCleskey v. Kemp 481 U.S. 279 1987.
  114. McCorkel JA. 2013. Breaking Women: Gender, Race, and the New Politics of Imprisonment New York: NYU Press
  115. McLeod AM. 2015. Prison abolition and grounded justice. UCLA Law Rev 62:1165–239
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Miller RJ, Alexander A. 2016. The price of carceral citizenship: punishment, surveillance, and social welfare policy in an age of carceral expansion. Mich. J. Race Law 21:2291–314
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Miller RJ, Stuart F. 2017. Carceral citizenship: race, rights and responsibility in the age of mass supervision. Theor. Criminol. 21:4532–48
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Mills CW. 1997. The Racial Contract Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  119. Mitchell O. 2005. A meta-analysis of race and sentencing research: explaining the inconsistencies. J. Quant. Criminol. 21:4439–66
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Mogul JL, Ritchie AJ, Whitlock K 2011. Queer (In)Justice: The Criminalization of LGBT People in the United States Boston: Beacon
  121. Mov. Black Lives 2016. A Vision for Black Lives: Policy Demands for Black Power, Freedom & Justice https://policy.m4bl.org/
  122. Muhammad KG. 2010. The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  123. Muhammad KG. 2011. Where did all the white criminals go? Reconfiguring race and crime on the road to mass incarceration. Souls 13:172–90
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Muñoz C, Smith M, Patil DJ 2016. Big Data: A Report on Algorithmic Systems, Opportunity, and Civil Rights Washington, DC: Exec. Off. Pres https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/2016_0504_data_discrimination.pdf
  125. Murakawa N. 2014. The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  126. Murakawa N, Beckett K. 2010. The penology of racial innocence: erasure of racism in the study and practice of punishment. Law Soc. Rev. 44:3/4695–730
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Natapoff A. 2015. Misdemeanor decriminalization. Vanderbilt Law Rev 68:41055–116
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Obasogie OK, Newman Z. 2018. The futile Fourth Amendment: understanding police excessive force doctrine through an empirical assessment of Graham v. Connor. Northwest. Univ. Law Rev 112:61465–500
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Office of Legal Policy 1987. Report to the Attorney General: Redefining discrimination: “disparate impact” and the institutionalization of affirmative action Rep. Atty. Gen., US Dep. Justice Washington, DC:
  130. Omi M, Winant H. 1986. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s New York: Routledge
  131. Omori M. 2018. “Nickel and dimed” for drug crime: unpacking the process of cumulative racial inequality. Sociol. Q. 60:2287–313
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Pager D. 2007. Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  133. Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle 551 U.S. 701 2007.
  134. Perry I. 2011. More Beautiful and More Terrible: The Embrace and Transcendence of Racial Inequality in the United States New York: NYU Press
  135. Personnel Administrator of Massachusetts v. Feeney 442 U.S. 256 1979.
  136. Petersen AM. 2018. Beyond bad apples, toward Black life: a re-reading of the implicit bias research. Theor. Criminol. In press https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480618759012
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  137. Pettit B. 2012. Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress New York: Russell Sage
  138. Phelps E, O'Connor KJ, Cunningham WA, Funayama ES 2000. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 12:729–38
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Platt T. 2018. Beyond These Walls: Rethinking Crime and Punishment in the United States New York: St. Martin's
  140. Provine DM. 2007. Unequal Under Law: Race in the War on Drugs Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  141. Ransby B. 2018. Making All Black Lives Matter: Reimagining Freedom in the 21st Century Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  142. Reddy C. 2011. Freedom with Violence: Race, Sexuality, and the US State Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  143. Richie BE. 2012. Arrested Justice: Black Women, Violence, and America's Prison Nation New York: NYU Press
  144. Rios VM. 2011. Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys New York: NYU Press
  145. Ritchie AJ. 2017. Invisible No More: Police Violence Against Black Women and Women of Color Boston: Beacon
  146. Ritchie AJ, Jones-Brown D. 2017. Policing race, gender, and sex: a review of law enforcement policies. Women Crim. Justice 27:121–50
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Robinson C. 1983. Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition Chapel Hill: Univ. N. C. Press
  148. Sampson RJ, Lauritsen JL. 1997. Racial and ethnic disparities in crime and criminal justice in the United States. Crime Justice 21:311–74
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Schept J. 2015. Progressive Punishment: Job Loss, Jail Growth, and the Neoliberal Logic of Carceral Expansion New York: NYU Press
  150. Schlesinger T. 2013. Racial disparities in pretrial diversion: an analysis of outcomes among men charged with felonies and processed in state courts. Race Justice 3:3210–38
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Schoenfeld H. 2018. Building the Prison State: Race and the Politics of Mass Incarceration Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  152. Schwalbe CS, Fraser MW, Day SH 2007. Predictive validity of the joint risk matrix with juvenile offenders: a focus on gender and race/ethnicity. Crim. Justice Behav. 34:3348–61
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Seigel M. 2017. The dilemma of “racial profiling”: an abolitionist police history. Contemp. Justice Rev. 20:4474–90
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Seigel RB. 2018. Blind justice: why the court refused to accept statistical evidence of discriminatory purpose in McCleskey v. Kemp—and some pathways for change. Northwest. Univ. Law Rev. 112:61269–91
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Selmi M. 1997. Proving intentional discrimination: the reality of Supreme Court rhetoric. Georgetown Law J 86:279–350
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Selmi M. 2016. Statistical inequality and intentional (not implicit) discrimination. Law Contemp. Probl. 79:3199–221
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Shannon SKS, Uggen C, Schnittker J, Thompson M, Wakefield S, Massoglia M 2017. The growth, scope, and spatial distribution of people with felony records in the United States, 1948–2010. Demography 54:51795–818
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Shedd C. 2015. Unequal City: Race, Schools, and Perceptions of Injustice New York: Russell Sage Found.
  159. Shulman G. 2008. American Prophecy: Race and Redemption in American Political Culture Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
  160. Simon J. 2007. Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  161. Singh NP. 2004. Black Is a Country: Race and the Unfinished Struggle for Democracy Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  162. Skeem JL, Lowenkamp CT. 2016. Risk, race, and recidivism: predictive bias and disparate impact. Criminology 54:4680–712
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Smith RJ. 2015. Reducing racially disparate policing outcomes: Is implicit bias training the answer. Univ. Hawaii Law Rev. 37:295–312
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Spade D. 2015. Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, and the Limits of Law Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  165. Spohn C. 2015a. Disadvantage and sentencing of black defendants: evolution of sentencing research. Am. Soc. Criminol. 14:2225–32
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Spohn C. 2015b. Race, crime, and punishment in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Crime Justice 44:149–97
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Spohn C, Holleran D. 2000. The imprisonment penalty paid by young, unemployed black and Hispanic male offenders. Criminology 38:1281–306
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Starr SB. 2014. Evidence-based sentencing and the scientific rationalization of discrimination. Stanford Law Rev 66:4803–72
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Steffensmeier D, Ulmer J, Kramer J 1998. The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sentencing: the punishment cost of being young, black, and male. Criminology 36:4763–97
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Stewart QT. 2008. Swimming upstream: theory and methodology in race research. White Logic, White Methods T Zuberi, E Bonilla-Silva 111–26 Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Stolzenberg L, D'Alessio SJ, Eitle D 2013. Race and cumulative discrimination in the prosecution of criminal defendants. Race Justice 3:4275–99
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Strolovitch DZ. 2007. Affirmative Advocacy: Race, Class, and Gender in Interest Group Politics Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  173. Strolovitch DZ, Wong JS, Proctor A 2017. A possessive investment in white heteropatriarchy? The 2016 election and the politics of race, gender, and sexuality. Politics Groups Identities 5:2353–63
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Sutton JR. 2013. Structural bias in the sentencing of felony defendants. Soc. Sci. Res. 42:1207–21
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Sweeney L. 2013. Discrimination in online ad delivery. Commun. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 56:544–54
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Sykes BL, Pettit B. 2015. Severe deprivation and system inclusion among children of incarcerated parents in the United States after the Great Recession. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 1:2108–32
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Taylor K. 2015. Untimely subjects: white trash and the making of racial innocence in the postwar South. Am. Q 67:155–79
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Taylor KY. 2016. From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation Chicago: Haymarket
  179. Terry v. Ohio 392 U.S. 1 1968.
  180. Thompson HA. 2010. Why mass incarceration matters: rethinking crisis, decline, and transformation in postwar American history. J. Am. Hist. 97:3703–34
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Thuma E. 2019. All Our Trials: Prisons, Policing, and the Feminist Fight to End Violence Champaign: Univ. Ill. Press
  182. Tonry M. 1995. Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  183. Tonry M. 2013. Sentencing in America, 1975–2025. Crime and Justice in America, 19752025 M Tonry 141–98 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Tonry M. 2016. Sentencing Fragments: Penal Reform in America, 19752025 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Tonry M, Melewski M. 2008. The malign effects of drug and crime control policies on black Americans. Crime Justice 37:11–44
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Travis J, Western B, Redburn S 2014. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring the Causes and Consequences Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  187. Turner J. 2012. Awakening to Race: Individualism and Social Consciousness in America Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  188. Uggen C, Vuolo M, Lageson S, Ruhland E, Whitham HK 2014. The edge of stigma: an experimental audit of the effects of low-level criminal records on employment. Criminology 52:4627–54
    [Google Scholar]
  189. United States v. Armstrong 517 U.S. 456 1996.
  190. Van Cleve NG, Mayes L 2015. Criminal justice through “colorblind” lenses: a call to examine the mutual constitution of race and criminal justice. Law Soc. Inq. 40:2406–32
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Vegh Weis V. 2018. Marxism and Criminology: A History of Criminal Selectivity Chicago: Haymarket
  192. Vitale AS. 2017. The End of Policing New York: Verso
  193. Wakefield S, Wildeman C. 2014. Children of the Prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  194. Walker HL, García-Castañon M. 2017. For love and justice: the mobilizing of race, gender, and criminal justice contact. Politics Gend 13:4541–68
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Walker W. 2002. After The Fire Next Time: James Baldwin's postconsensus double bind. Is It Nation Time? ES Glaude 215–33 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Ward G. 2015. The slow violence of state organized race crime. Theor. Criminol. 19:3299–314
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Wards Cove v. Atonio 490 U.S. 642 1989.
  198. Washington v. Davis 426 U.S. 229 1976.
  199. Weaver VM. 2007. Frontlash: race and the development of punitive crime policy. Stud. Am. Political Dev. 21:230–65
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Western B, Beckett K. 1999. How unregulated is the US labor market? The penal system as a labor market institution. Am. J. Sociol. 104:41030–60
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Western B, Pettit B. 2005. Black-white wage inequality, employment rates, and incarceration. Am. J. Sociol. 111:2553–78
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Whren v. United States 517 U.S. 806 1996.
  203. Wilbanks W. 1987. The Myth of a Racist Criminal Justice System Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole
  204. Williams PJ. 1997. Seeing a Color-Blind Future: The Paradox of Race New York: Noonday
  205. Wooldredge J, Frank J, Goulette N, Travis L 2015. Is the impact of cumulative disadvantage on sentencing greater for black defendants?. Criminol. Pub. Policy 14:2187–223
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Zimring FE 2017. When Police Kill Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  207. Zuberi T 2001. Thicker Than Blood: How Racial Statistics Lie Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042649
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error