1932

Abstract

Thyroid nodules are common in the general population, with higher prevalence in women and with advancing age. Approximately 5% of thyroid nodules are malignant; the majority of this subset represents papillary thyroid cancer. Ultrasonography is the standard technique to assess the underlying thyroid parenchyma, characterize the features of thyroid nodules, and evaluate for abnormal cervical lymphadenopathy. Various risk stratification systems exist to categorize the risk of malignancy based on the ultrasound appearance of a thyroid nodule. Nodules are selected for fine-needle aspiration biopsy on the basis of ultrasound features, size, and high-risk clinical history. Cytology results are classified by the Bethesda system into six categories ranging from benign to malignant. When cytology is indeterminate, molecular testing can further risk-stratify patients for observation or surgery. Surveillance is indicated for nodules with benign cytology, indeterminate cytology with reassuring molecular testing, or non-biopsied nodules without a benign sonographic appearance.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-015032
2022-01-27
2024-04-22
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