Knowledge of normal male reproductive function and familiarity with the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of male subfertility is beneficial for most physicians. Male subfertility is often correctable, may be genetically transmissible, and may be associated with occult health-threatening conditions. Herein we present an overview of male reproductive medicine, which has been revolutionized in the past two decades by dramatic scientific and therapeutic advances. The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and its successful application to sperm retrieved from the epididymis or testis have made biological paternity possible in men previously considered sterile. Microsurgical techniques for vasal-epididymal reconstruction and sperm retrieval have been refined. Novel tests of semen quality have been developed. Medical therapies to improve sperm production, such as estrogen receptor modulation and aromatase inhibition, have been used increasingly in clinical practice. Finally, associations between male subfertility and a spectrum of health-threatening conditions have been recognized.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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