1932

Abstract

Regional variation in treatment paradigms for gastric adenocarcinoma has attracted a great deal of interest. Between Asia and the West, major differences have been identified in tumor biology, implementation of screening programs, extent of surgical lymphadenectomy, and routine use of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant treatment strategies. Minimally invasive techniques, including both laparoscopic and robotic platforms, have been studied in both regions, with attention to safety, feasibility, and long-term oncologic outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss advances in the understanding of the etiology and underlying biology of gastric cancer, as well as the current state of management, focusing on the differences between Asia and the West.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-081117-043436
2019-01-27
2024-04-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/med/70/1/annurev-med-081117-043436.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-081117-043436&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.  Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A 2014. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J. Clin. 64:19–29
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.  Shim JH, Song KY, Jeon HM et al. 2014. Is gastric cancer different in Korea and the United States? Impact of tumor location on prognosis. Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21:72332–39
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.  Davis PA, Sano T 2001. The difference in gastric cancer between Japan, USA and Europe: What are the facts? What are the suggestions?. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 40:177–94
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.  Theuer CP, Kurosaki T, Ziogas A et al. 2000. Asian patients with gastric carcinoma in the United States exhibit unique clinical features and superior overall and cancer specific survival rates. Cancer 89:91883–92
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.  Correa P 2013. Gastric cancer: overview. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 42:2211–17
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.  Shah MA, Khanin R, Tang L et al. 2011. Molecular classification of gastric cancer: a new paradigm. Clin. Cancer Res. 17:92693–701
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.  Hansson LE, Sparen P, Nyren O 1993. Increasing incidence of carcinoma of the gastric cardia in Sweden from 1970 to 1985. Br. J. Surg. 80:3374–77
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.  Verdecchia A, Mariotto A, Gatta G et al. 2003. Comparison of stomach cancer incidence and survival in four continents. Eur. J. Cancer 39:111603–9
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.  Anderson WF, Camargo MC, Fraumeni JF Jr. et al. 2010. Age-specific trends in incidence of noncardia gastric cancer in US adults. JAMA 303:171723–28
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.  Strong VE, Song KY, Park CH et al. 2010. Comparison of gastric cancer survival following R0 resection in the United States and Korea using an internationally validated nomogram. Ann. Surg. 251:4640–46
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.  Ohno S, Tomisaki S, Oiwa H et al. 1995. Clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of adenocarcinoma of the human gastric cardia in comparison with carcinoma of other regions of the stomach. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 180:5577–82
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.  Pacelli F, Papa V, Caprino P et al. 2001. Proximal compared with distal gastric cancer: multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Am. Surg. 67:7697–703
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.  Talamonti MS, Kim SP, Yao KA et al. 2003. Surgical outcomes of patients with gastric carcinoma: the importance of primary tumor location and microvessel invasion. Surgery 134:4720–27
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.  Noguchi Y, Yoshikawa T, Tsuburaya A et al. 2000. Is gastric carcinoma different between Japan and the United States?. Cancer 89:112237–46
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.  de Manzoni G, Verlato G, Guglielmi A et al. 1999. Classification of lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the stomach: comparison of the old (1987) and new (1997) TNM systems. World J. Surg. 23:7664–69
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. 2014. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma. Nature 513:7517202–9
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.  Cristescu R, Lee J, Nebozhyn M et al. 2015. Molecular analysis of gastric cancer identifies subtypes associated with distinct clinical outcomes. Nat. Med. 21:5449–56
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.  van Beek J, zur Hausen A, Klein Kranenbarg E et al. 2004. EBV-positive gastric adenocarcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a low frequency of lymph node involvement. J. Clin. Oncol. 22:4664–70
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.  Amin MB, Edge S, Greene F et al. 2016. AJCC Cancer Staging System, 8th Edition: Update New York: Springer Int
  20. 20.  Ajani JA, Bentrem DJ, Besh S et al. 2013. Gastric cancer, version 2.2013. J. Natl. Compr. Cancer Netw. 11:5531–46
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.  Hanazaki K, Sodeyama H, Wakabayashi M et al. 1997. Surgical treatment of gastric cancer detected by mass screening. Hepatogastroenterology 44:161126–32
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.  Hamashima C, Shibuya D, Yamazaki H et al. 2008. The Japanese guidelines for gastric cancer screening. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 38:4259–67
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.  Herrera-Almario G, Strong VE 2016. Minimally invasive gastric surgery. Ann. Surg. Oncol. 23:123792–97
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.  Tsujitani S, Oka S, Saito H et al. 1999. Less invasive surgery for early gastric cancer based on the low probability of lymph node metastasis. Surgery 125:2148–54
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.  Kojima T, Parra-Blanco A, Takahashi H, Fujita R 1998. Outcome of endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer: review of the Japanese literature. Gastrointest. Endosc. 48:5550–54
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.  Kosaka T, Endo M, Toya Y et al. 2014. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer: a single-center retrospective study. Dig. Endosc. 26:2183–91
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.  Kim JJ, Lee JH, Jung HY et al. 2007. EMR for early gastric cancer in Korea: a multicenter retrospective study. Gastrointest. Endosc. 66:4693–700
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.  Nakamura K, Honda K, Akahoshi K et al. 2015. Suitability of the expanded indication criteria for the treatment of early gastric cancer by endoscopic submucosal dissection: Japanese multicenter large-scale retrospective analysis of short- and long-term outcomes. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 50:4413–22
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.  Fujishiro M, Yahagi N, Kashimura K et al. 2004. Comparison of various submucosal injection solutions for maintaining mucosal elevation during endoscopic mucosal resection. Endoscopy 36:7579–83
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.  Emura F, Mejia J, Donneys A et al. 2015. Therapeutic outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection of differentiated early gastric cancer in a Western endoscopy setting (with video). Gastrointest. Endosc. 82:5804–11
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.  Bonenkamp JJ, Hermans J, Sasako M et al. 1999. Extended lymph-node dissection for gastric cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:12908–14
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.  Hartgrink HH, van de Velde CJ, Putter H et al. 2004. Extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: Who may benefit? Final results of the randomized Dutch gastric cancer group trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 22:112069–77
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.  Songun I, Putter H, Kranenbarg EM et al. 2010. Surgical treatment of gastric cancer: 15-year follow-up results of the randomised nationwide Dutch D1D2 trial. Lancet Oncol 11:5439–49
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.  Degiuli M, Sasako M, Ponti A et al. 2010. Morbidity and mortality in the Italian Gastric Cancer Study Group randomized clinical trial of D1 versus D2 resection for gastric cancer. Br. J. Surg. 97:5643–49
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.  Degiuli M, Sasako M, Ponti A et al. 2014. Randomized clinical trial comparing survival after D1 or D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Br. J. Surg. 101:223–31
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.  Gholami S, Janson L, Worhunsky DJ et al. 2015. Number of lymph nodes removed and survival after gastric cancer resection: an analysis from the US Gastric Cancer Collaborative. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 221:2291–99
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.  Randle RW, Swords DS, Levine EA et al. 2016. Optimal extent of lymphadenectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma: a 7-institution study of the U.S. Gastric Cancer Collaborative. J. Surg. Oncol. 113:7750–55
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.  Kitano S, Iso Y, Moriyama M, Sugimachi K 1994. Laparoscopy-assisted Billroth I gastrectomy. Surg. Laparosc. Endosc. 4:2146–48
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.  Vinuela EF, Gonen M, Brennan MF et al. 2012. Laparoscopic versus open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and high-quality nonrandomized studies. Ann. Surg. 255:3446–56
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.  Kelly KJ, Selby L, Chou JF et al. 2015. Laparoscopic versus open gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma in the west: a case-control study. Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22:113590–96
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.  Kim HH, Han SU, Kim MC et al. 2013. Prospective randomized controlled trial (phase III) to comparing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with open distal gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma (KLASS 01). J. Korean Surg. Soc. 84:2123–30
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.  Katai H, Mizusawa J, Katayama H et al. 2017. Short-term surgical outcomes from a phase III study of laparoscopy-assisted versus open distal gastrectomy with nodal dissection for clinical stage IA/IB gastric cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG0912. Gastric Cancer 20:4699–708
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.  Nakamura K, Katai H, Mizusawa J et al. 2013. A phase III study of laparoscopy-assisted versus open distal gastrectomy with nodal dissection for clinical stage IA/IB gastric cancer (JCOG0912). Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 43:3324–27
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.  Kim W, Kim HH, Han SU et al. 2016. Decreased morbidity of laparoscopic distal gastrectomy compared with open distal gastrectomy for stage I gastric cancer: short-term outcomes from a multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-01). Ann. Surg. 263:128–35
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.  Uyama I, Sugioka A, Fujita J et al. 1999. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy with distal pancreatosplenectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer 2:4230–34
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.  Choi YY, Bae JM, An JY et al. 2013. Laparoscopic gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer: Are the long-term results comparable with conventional open gastrectomy? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Surg. Oncol. 108:8550–56
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.  Shinohara T, Satoh S, Kanaya S et al. 2013. Laparoscopic versus open D2 gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer: a retrospective cohort study. Surg. Endosc. 27:1286–94
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.  Hu Y, Ying M, Huang C et al. 2014. Oncologic outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer: a large-scale multicenter retrospective cohort study from China. Surg. Endosc. 28:72048–56
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.  Hur H, Lee HY, Lee HJ et al. 2015. Efficacy of laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for locally advanced gastric cancer: the protocol of the KLASS-02 multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Cancer 15:355
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.  Inaki N, Etoh T, Ohyama T et al. 2015. A multi-institutional, prospective, phase II feasibility study of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for locally advanced gastric cancer (JLSSG0901). World J. Surg. 39:112734–41
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.  Hu Y, Huang C, Sun Y et al. 2016. Morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic versus open D2 distal gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 34:121350–57
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.  Strong VE, Devaud N, Allen PJ et al. 2009. Laparoscopic versus open subtotal gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma: a case-control study. Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16:61507–13
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.  Giulianotti PC, Coratti A, Angelini M et al. 2003. Robotics in general surgery: personal experience in a large community hospital. Arch. Surg. 138:7777–84
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.  Hashizume M, Sugimachi K 2003. Robot-assisted gastric surgery. Surg. Clin. North Am. 83:61429–44
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.  Anderson C, Ellenhorn J, Hellan M, Pigazzi A 2007. Pilot series of robot-assisted laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Surg. Endosc. 21:91662–66
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.  Kim HI, Han SU, Yang HK et al. 2016. Multicenter prospective comparative study of robotic versus laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma. Ann. Surg. 263:1103–9
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.  Shen WS, Xi HQ, Chen L, Wei B 2014. A meta-analysis of robotic versus laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Surg. Endosc. 28:102795–802
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.  Kang BH, Xuan Y, Hur H et al. 2012. Comparison of surgical outcomes between robotic and laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer: the learning curve of robotic surgery. J. Gastric Cancer 12:3156–63
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.  Park SS, Kim MC, Park MS, Hyung WJ 2012. Rapid adaptation of robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer by experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Surg. Endosc. 26:160–67
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.  Kim HI, Park MS, Song KJ et al. 2014. Rapid and safe learning of robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer: multidimensional analysis in a comparison with laparoscopic gastrectomy. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 40:101346–54
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.  Song J, Kang WH, Oh SJ et al. 2009. Role of robotic gastrectomy using da Vinci system compared with laparoscopic gastrectomy: initial experience of 20 consecutive cases. Surg. Endosc. 23:61204–11
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.  Coratti A, Annecchiarico M, Di Marino M et al. 2013. Robot-assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer: current status and technical considerations. World J. Surg. 37:122771–81
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.  Strong VE, Gholami S, Shah MA et al. 2017. Total gastrectomy for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer at a single center: postsurgical outcomes in 41 patients. Ann. Surg. 266:61006–12
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.  Nakauchi M, Suda K, Susumu S et al. 2016. Comparison of the long-term outcomes of robotic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and conventional laparoscopic approach: a single institutional retrospective cohort study. Surg. Endosc. 30:25444–52
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.  Waddell T, Verheij M, Allum W et al. 2013. Gastric cancer: ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann. Oncol. 24:Suppl. 6vi57–63
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.  Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP et al. 2006. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 355:111–20
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.  Ychou M, Boige V, Pignon JP et al. 2011. Perioperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: an FNCLCC and FFCD multicenter phase III trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 29:131715–21
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.  Al-Batran SE, Hofheinz RD, Pauligk C et al. 2016. Histopathological regression after neoadjuvant docetaxel, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine in patients with resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): results from the phase 2 part of a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol 17:21697–708
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.  Macdonald JS, Smalley SR, Benedetti J et al. 2001. Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N. Engl. J. Med. 345:10725–30
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.  Wong RK, Jang R, Darling G 2015. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy vs. preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced (operable) gastric cancer: clarifying the role and technique of radiotherapy. J. Gastrointest. Oncol. 6:189–107
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.  Sakuramoto S, Sasako M, Yamaguchi T et al. 2007. Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine. N. Engl. J. Med. 357:181810–20
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72.  Sasako M, Sakuramoto S, Katai H et al. 2011. Five-year outcomes of a randomized phase III trial comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 versus surgery alone in stage II or III gastric cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 29:334387–93
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73.  Noh SH, Park SR, Yang HK et al. 2014. Adjuvant capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): 5-year follow-up of an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 15:121389–96
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.  Bang YJ, Kim YW, Yang HK et al. 2012. Adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): a phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 379:2315–21
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.  Cuschieri A, Weeden S, Fielding J et al. 1999. Patient survival after D1 and D2 resections for gastric cancer: long-term results of the MRC randomized surgical trial. Surgical Co-operative Group. Br. J. Cancer 79:9–101522–30
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.  Wu CW, Hsiung CA, Lo SS et al. 2006. Nodal dissection for patients with gastric cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 7:4309–15
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.  Sasako M, Sano T, Yamamoto S et al. 2008. D2 lymphadenectomy alone or with para-aortic nodal dissection for gastric cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 359:5453–62
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78.  Kurokawa Y, Sasako M, Sano T et al. 2015. Ten-year follow-up results of a randomized clinical trial comparing left thoracoabdominal and abdominal transhiatal approaches to total gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagogastric junction or gastric cardia. Br. J. Surg. 102:4341–48
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.  Kim HH, Hyung WJ, Cho GS et al. 2010. Morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic gastrectomy versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer: an interim report—a phase III multicenter, prospective, randomized trial (KLASS Trial). Ann. Surg. 251:3417–20
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.  Kim KH, Kim MC, Jung GJ, Kim HH 2012. Long-term outcomes and feasibility with laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer. J. Gastric Cancer 12:118–25
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.  Kim YW, Baik YH, Yun YH et al. 2008. Improved quality of life outcomes after laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: results of a prospective randomized clinical trial. Ann. Surg. 248:5721–27
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.  Pugliese R, Maggioni D, Sansonna F et al. 2010. Subtotal gastrectomy with D2 dissection by minimally invasive surgery for distal adenocarcinoma of the stomach: results and 5-year survival. Surg. Endosc. 24:102594–602
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.  Kim MC, Heo GU, Jung GJ 2010. Robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer: surgical techniques and clinical merits. Surg. Endosc. 24:3610–15
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.  Caruso S, Patriti A, Marrelli D et al. 2011. Open vs robot-assisted laparoscopic gastric resection with D2 lymph node dissection for adenocarcinoma: a case-control study. Int. J. Med. Robot. 7:4452–58
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85.  Woo Y, Hyung WJ, Pak KH et al. 2011. Robotic gastrectomy as an oncologically sound alternative to laparoscopic resections for the treatment of early-stage gastric cancers. Arch. Surg. 146:91086–92
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86.  Eom BW, Yoon HM, Ryu KW et al. 2012. Comparison of surgical performance and short-term clinical outcomes between laparoscopic and robotic surgery in distal gastric cancer. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 38:157–63
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87.  Yoon HM, Kim YW, Lee JH et al. 2012. Robot-assisted total gastrectomy is comparable with laparoscopically assisted total gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Surg. Endosc. 26:51377–81
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88.  Huang KH, Lan YT, Fang WL et al. 2012. Initial experience of robotic gastrectomy and comparison with open and laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. J. Gastrointest. Surg. 16:71303–10
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89.  Kim KM, An JY, Kim HI et al. 2012. Major early complications following open, laparoscopic and robotic gastrectomy. Br. J. Surg. 99:121681–87
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90.  Park JY, Jo MJ, Nam BH et al. 2012. Surgical stress after robot-assisted distal gastrectomy and its economic implications. Br. J. Surg. 99:111554–61
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91.  Uyama I, Kanaya S, Ishida Y et al. 2012. Novel integrated robotic approach for suprapancreatic D2 nodal dissection for treating gastric cancer: technique and initial experience. World J. Surg. 36:2331–37
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92.  Hyun MH, Lee CH, Kwon YJ et al. 2013. Robot versus laparoscopic gastrectomy for cancer by an experienced surgeon: comparisons of surgery, complications, and surgical stress. Ann. Surg. Oncol. 20:41258–65
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93.  Suda K, Man IM, Ishida Y et al. 2015. Potential advantages of robotic radical gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma in comparison with conventional laparoscopic approach: a single institutional retrospective comparative cohort study. Surg. Endosc. 29:3673–85
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94.  Son T, Lee JH, Kim YM et al. 2014. Robotic spleen-preserving total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: comparison with conventional laparoscopic procedure. Surg. Endosc. 28:92606–15
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95.  Noshiro H, Ikeda O, Urata M 2014. Robotically-enhanced surgical anatomy enables surgeons to perform distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer using electric cautery devices alone. Surg. Endosc. 28:41180–87
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96.  Junfeng Z, Yan S, Bo T et al. 2014. Robotic gastrectomy versus laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer: comparison of surgical performance and short-term outcomes. Surg. Endosc. 28:61779–87
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97.  Huang KH, Lan YT, Fang WL et al. 2014. Comparison of the operative outcomes and learning curves between laparoscopic and robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. PLOS ONE 9:10e111499
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98.  Cassidy MR, Gholami S, Strong VE 2017. Minimally invasive surgery: the emerging role in gastric cancer. Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am. 26:2193–212
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99.  Lee J, Lim DH, Kim S et al. 2012. Phase III trial comparing capecitabine plus cisplatin versus capecitabine plus cisplatin with concurrent capecitabine radiotherapy in completely resected gastric cancer with D2 lymph node dissection: the ARTIST trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 30:3268–73
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100.  Park SH, Sohn TS, Lee J et al. 2015. Phase III trial to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in gastric cancer: final report of the Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Stomach Tumors Trial, including survival and subset analyses. J. Clin. Oncol. 33:283130–36
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-081117-043436
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-med-081117-043436
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error