1932

Abstract

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have made an indelible mark in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Starting with the approval of anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (anti-CTLA-4) for advanced-stage melanoma in 2011, ICIs—which now also include antibodies against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1)—quickly gained US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of a wide array of cancer types, demonstrating unprecedented extension of patient survival. However, despite the success of ICIs, resistance to these agents restricts the number of patients able to achieve durable responses, and immune-related adverse events complicate treatment. Thus, a better understanding of the requirements for an effective and safe antitumor immune response following ICI therapy is needed. Studies of both tumoral and systemic changes in the immune system following ICI therapy have yielded insight into the basis for both efficacy and resistance. Ultimately, by building on these insights, researchers should be able to combine ICIs with other agents, or design new immunotherapies, to achieve broader and more durable efficacy as well as greater safety. Here, we review the history and clinical utility of ICIs, the mechanisms of resistance to therapy, and local and systemic immune cell changes associated with outcome.

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2021-01-24
2024-06-25
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