Recent bioapplications of one-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials, despite the short development period, have shown promising signs as new sensors and assay platforms offering exquisite biomolecular sensitivity and selectivity. The incorporation of 1D ZnO nanomaterials has proven beneficial to various modes of biodetection owing to their inherent properties. The more widely explored electrochemical and electrical approaches tend to capitalize on the reduced physical dimensionality, yielding a high surface-to-volume ratio, as well as on the electrical properties of ZnO. The newer development of the use of 1D ZnO nanomaterials in fluorescence-based biodetection exploits the innate optical property of their high anisotropy. This review considers stimulating research advances made to identify and understand fundamental properties of 1D ZnO nanomaterials, and examines various biosensing modes utilizing them, while focusing on the unique optical properties of individual and ensembles of 1D ZnO nanomaterials specifically pertaining to their bio-optical applications in simple and complex fluorescence assays.


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