1932

Abstract

After over 70 years of research on the association between stressful life events and health, it is generally accepted that we have a good understanding of the role of stressors in disease risk. In this review, we highlight that knowledge but also emphasize misunderstandings and weaknesses in this literature with the hope of triggering further theoretical and empirical development. We organize this review in a somewhat provocative manner, with each section focusing on an important issue in the literature where we feel that there has been some misunderstanding of the evidence and its implications. Issues that we address include the definition of a stressful event, characteristics of diseases that are impacted by events, differences in the effects of chronic and acute events, the cumulative effects of events, differences in events across the life course, differences in events for men and women, resilience to events, and methodological challenges in the literature.

Keyword(s): diseasehealthlife eventsstressors
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102857
2019-01-04
2024-06-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/70/1/annurev-psych-010418-102857.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102857&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adler N, Matthews K 1994. Health psychology: Why do some people get sick and some stay well. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45:229–59
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adler NE, Boyce T, Chesney MA, Cohen S, Folkman S et al. 1994. Socioeconomic status and health: the challenge of the gradient. Am. Psychol. 49:15–24
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anda RF, Dong MX, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Giles WH et al. 2009. The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members. BMC Public Health 9:106
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson B, Wethington E, Kamarck TW 2010. Interview assessment of stressor exposure. The Handbook of Stress Science: Biology, Psychology, and Health RJ Contrada, A Baum 565–82 Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson BL, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R 1994. A biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease course. Am. Psychol. 49:389–404
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Antoni MH, Lutgendorf SK, Cole SW, Dhabhar FS, Sephton SE et al. 2006. The influence of bio-behavioural factors on tumour biology: pathways and mechanisms. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6:240–48
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bale TL, Epperson CN 2015. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan. Nat. Neurosci. 18:1413–20
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barker DB 2007. Antecedents of stressful experiences: depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, and coping. Int. J. Stress Manag. 14:333–49
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Baum A, Cohen L, Hall M 1993. Control and intrusive memories as possible determinants of chronic stress. Psychosom. Med. 55:274–86
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bonanno GA 2004. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events. Am. Psychol. 59:20–28
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bonanno GA, Kaltman S 1999. Toward an integrative perspective on bereavement. Psychol. Bull. 125:760–76
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bonanno GA, Westphal M, Mancini AD 2011. Resilience to loss and potential trauma. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 7:511–35
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brody GH, Yu T, Chen E, Miller GE, Kogan SM, Beach SRH 2013. Is resilience only skin deep? Rural African Americans' socioeconomic status-related risk and competence in preadolescence and psychological adjustment and allostatic load at age 19. Psychol. Sci. 24:1285–93
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brown GW, Harris TO 1989. Life Events and Illness. New York: Guilford Press
  15. Capitanio JP, Mendoza SP, Lerche NW, Mason WA 1998. Social stress results in altered glucocorticoid regulation and shorter survival in simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PNAS 95:4714–19
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Carver CS, Scheier MF 1999. Stress, coping, and self-regulatory processes. Handbook of Personality LA Pervin, OP John 553–75 New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chida Y, Hamer M, Wardle J, Steptoe A 2008. Do stress-related psychosocial factors contribute to cancer incidence and survival. Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 5:466–75
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cohen F, Horowitz MJ, Lazarus RS, Moos RH, Robins LN et al. 1982. Panel report on psychosocial assets and modifiers of stress. Stress and Human Health: Analysis and Implication of Research GR Elliott, C Eisdorfer 147–88 Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cohen S 2004. Social relationships and health. Am. Psychol. 59:676–84
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cohen S 2016. Psychological stress, immunity, and physical disease. Scientists Making a Difference: The Greatest Living Behavioral and Brain Scientists Talk About Their Most Important Contributions R Sternberg, F Fiske, D Foss 419–23 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cohen S, Evans GW, Stokols D, Krantz D 1986. Behavior, Health, and Environment Stress New York: Plenum Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cohen S, Frank E, Doyle WJ, Skoner DP, Rabin BS, Gwaltney JM 1998. Types of stressors that increase susceptibility to the common cold in healthy adults. Health Psychol 17:214–23
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cohen S, Gianaros PJ, Manuck SB 2016. A stage model of stress and disease. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 11:456–63
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE 2007. Psychological stress and disease. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 298:1685–87
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cohen S, Kessler RC, Gordon LU 1995.a Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cohen S, Kessler RC, Gordon LU 1995.b Strategies for measuring stress in studies of psychiatric and physical disorders. Cohen et al. 1995a 3–26
  27. Cohen S, Line S, Manuck SB, Rabin BS, Heise ER, Kaplan JR 1997. Chronic social stress, social status, and susceptibility to upper respiratory infections in nonhuman primates. Psychosom. Med. 59:213–21
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cole SW, Kemeny ME, Fahey JL, Zack JA, Naliboff BD 2003. Psychological risk factors for HIV pathogenesis: mediation by the autonomic nervous system. Biol. Psychiatry 54:1444–56
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Crocker J, Park LE 2004. The costly pursuit of self-esteem. Psychol. Bull. 130:392–414
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cyranowski JM, Frank E, Young E, Shear K 2000. Adolescent onset of the gender difference in lifetime rates of major depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57:21–27
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Danese A, McEwen BS 2012. Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease. Physiol. Behav. 106:29–39
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Davis MC, Matthews KA, Twamley EW 1999. Is life more difficult on Mars or Venus? A meta-analytic review of sex differences in major and minor life events. Ann. Behav. Med. 21:83–97
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dedovic K, Wadiwalla M, Engert V, Pruessner JC 2009. The role of sex and gender socialization in stress reactivity. Dev. Psychol. 45:45–55
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Denson TF, Spanovic M, Miller N 2009. Cognitive appraisals and emotions predict cortisol and immune responses: a meta-analysis of acute laboratory social stressors and emotion inductions. Psychol. Bull. 135:823–53
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Dickerson SS, Kemeny ME 2004. Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychol. Bull. 130:355–91
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Dimsdale JE 2008. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51:1237–46
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dooley D, Prause J, Ham-Rowbottom KA 2000. Underemployment and depression: longitudinal relationships. J. Health Soc. Behav. 41:421–36
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Epel ES, Crosswell AD, Mayer SE, Prather AA, Slavich GM et al. 2018. More than a feeling: a unified view of stress measurement for population science. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 49:146–69
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Evans GW, Kim P 2010. Multiple risk exposure as a potential explanatory mechanism for the socioeconomic status-health gradient. The Biology of Disadvantage: Socioeconomic Status and Health NE Adler, J Stewart 174–89 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Fagundes CP, Murdock KW, Chirinos DA, Green PA 2017. Biobehavioral pathways to cancer incidence, progression, and quality of life. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 26:548–53
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Frese M, Zapf D 1988. Methodological issues in the study of work stress: objective versus subjective measurement of work stress and the question of longitudinal studies. Causes, Coping and Consequences of Stress at Work CL Cooper, R Payne 375–411 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gallo WT, Bradley EH, Falba TA, Dubin JA, Cramer LD et al. 2004. Involuntary job loss as a risk factor for subsequent myocardial infarction and stroke: findings from the Health and Retirement Survey. Am. J. Ind. Med. 45:408–16
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Glass DC, Singer JE 1972. Urban Stress Cambridge, MA: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Gotlib IH, Joormann J 2010. Cognition and depression: current status and future directions. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 6:285–312
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gump BB, Matthews KA, Räikkönen K 1999. Modeling relationships among socioeconomic status, hostility, cardiovascular reactivity, and left ventricular mass in African American and White children. Health Psychol 18:140–50
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hammen C 2005. Stress and depression. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 1:293–319
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hammen C 2006. Stress generation in depression: reflections on origins, research, and future directions. J. Clin. Psychol. 62:1065–82
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hammen C 2016. Depression and stressful environments: identifying gaps in conceptualization and measurement. Anxiety Stress Coping 29:335–51
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hankin BL, Kassel JD, Zbela JRZ 2005. Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 31:136–51
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Helgeson VS 2011. Gender, stress, and coping. The Oxford Handbook of Stress, Health, and Coping S Folkman 63–85 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Holmes TH, Rahe RH 1967. The social readjustment rating scale. J. Psychosom. Res. 11:213–18
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Juster RP, McEwen BS, Lupien SJ 2010. Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 35:2–16
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kaplan JR, Manuck SB, Adams MR, Weingand KW, Clarkson TB 1987. Inhibition of coronary atherosclerosis by propranolol in behaviorally predisposed monkeys fed an atherogenic diet. Circulation 76:1364–72
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Karasek R, Baker D, Marxer F, Ahlbom A, Theorell T 1981. Job decision latitude, job demands, and cardiovascular disease: a prospective study of Swedish men. Am. J. Public Health 71:694–705
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Karasek R, Theorell T 1990. Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of Working Life New York: Basic Books
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kemeny ME 2003. The psychobiology of stress. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 12:124–29
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Kendler KS, Hettema JM, Butera F, Gardner CO, Prescott CA 2003. Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 60:789–96
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Gardner CO 2000. Stressful life events and previous episodes in the etiology of major depression in women: an evaluation of the “kindling” hypothesis. Am. J. Psychiatry 157:1243–51
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kessler RC, McLeod JD 1984. Sex differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events. Am. Sociol. Rev. 49:620–31
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Dyer CS, Shuttleworth EC 1988. Upsetting social interactions and distress among Alzheimer's disease family care-givers: a replication and extension. Am. J. Community Psychol. 16:825–37
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kivimäki M, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Kouvonen A, Väänänen A, Vahtera J 2006. Work stress in the etiology of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 32:431–42
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Lantz PM, House JS, Mero RP, Williams DR 2005. Stress, life events, and socioeconomic disparities in health: results from the Americans' changing lives study. J. Health Soc. Behav. 46:274–88
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Lazarus RS, Folkman S 1984. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Lee AG, Chiu Y-HM, Rosa MJ, Cohen S, Coull BA et al. 2017. Association of prenatal and early childhood stress with reduced lung function in 7-year-olds. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 119:153–59
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Leserman J 2008. Role of depression, stress, and trauma in HIV disease progression. Psychosom. Med. 70:539–45
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Liu RT, Alloy LB 2010. Stress generation in depression: a systematic review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future study. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 30:582–93
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Low CA, Thurston RC, Matthews KA 2010. Psychosocial factors in the development of heart disease in women: current research and future directions. Psychosom. Med. 72:842–54
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Lutgendorf SK, Andersen BL 2015. Biobehavioral approaches to cancer progression and survival. Am. Psychol. 70:186–97
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Maccallum F, Galatzer-Levy IR, Bonanno GA 2015. Trajectories of depression following spousal and child bereavement: a comparison of the heterogeneity in outcomes. J. Psychiatr. Res. 69:72–79
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Manuck SB, Marsland AL, Kaplan JR, Williams JK 1995. The pathogenicity of behavior and its neuroendocrine mediation: an example from coronary artery disease. Psychosom. Med. 57:275–83
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Marin TJ, Chen E, Munch JA, Miller GE 2009. Double-exposure to acute stress and chronic family stress is associated with immune changes in children with asthma. Psychosom. Med. 71:378–84
    [Google Scholar]
  72. McEwen BS 1998. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:171–79
    [Google Scholar]
  73. McEwen BS 2004. Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1032:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  74. McEwen BS 2012. Brain on stress: how the social environment gets under the skin. PNAS 109:17180–85
    [Google Scholar]
  75. McLeod GFH, Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, Boden JM 2016. Life-stress and reactivity by gender in a longitudinal birth cohort at 30 and 35 years. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 51:1385–94
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Miller GE, Chen E, Cole SW 2009. Health psychology: developing biologically plausible models linking the social world and physical health. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 60:501–24
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Miller GE, Chen E, Parker KJ 2011. Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychol. Bull. 137:959–97
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Möller-Leimkühler AM 2008. Women with coronary artery disease and depression: a neglected risk group. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 9:92–101
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Möller-Leimkühler AM 2010. Higher comorbidity of depression and cardiovascular disease in women: a biopsychosocial perspective. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 11:922–33
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Monroe SM 1982. Life events assessment: current practices, emerging trends. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 2:435–53
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Monroe SM 2008. Modern approaches to conceptualizing and measuring human life stress. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 4:33–52
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Monroe SM, Slavich GM, Georgiades K 2009. The social environment and life stress in depression. Handbook of Depression IH Gotlib, CL Hammen 340–60 New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Morris JK, Cook DG, Shaper AG 1994. Loss of employment and mortality. Br. Med. J. 308:1135–39
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Murphy MLM, Slavich GM, Chen E, Miller GE 2015. Targeted rejection predicts decreased anti-inflammatory gene expression and increased symptom severity in youth with asthma. Psychol. Sci. 26:111–21
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Murphy MO, Loria AS 2017. Sex-specific effects of stress on metabolic and cardiovascular disease: Are women at a higher risk. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 313:R1–9
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Norman RE, Byambaa M, De R, Butchart A, Scott J, Vos T 2012. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Med 9:e1001349
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Ockenfels MC, Porter L, Smyth J, Kirschbaum C, Hellhammer DH, Stone AA 1995. Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity. Psychosom. Med. 57:460–67
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Pearlin LI, Schieman S, Fazio EM, Meersman SC 2005. Stress, health, and the life course: some conceptual perspectives. J. Health Soc. Behav. 46:205–19
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Pedersen A, Zachariae R, Bovbjerg DH 2010. Influence of psychological stress on upper respiratory infection: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Psychosom. Med. 72:823–32
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Rabkin JG, Struening EL Jr. 1976. Life events, stress, and illness. Science 194:1013–20
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Repetti RL, Taylor SE, Seeman TE 2002. Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychol. Bull. 128:330–66
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Roberts BW, Kuncel NR, Shiner R, Caspi A, Goldberg LR 2007. The power of personality: the comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 2:313–45
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Rook KS 1998. Investigating the positive and negative sides of personal relationships: through a glass darkly. The Dark Side of Close Relationships BH Spitzberg, WR Cupach 369–93 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Rook KS 2014. The health effects of negative social exchanges in later life. Generations 38:15–23
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Rosengren A, Orth-Gomer K, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L 1993. Stressful life events, social support, and mortality in men born in 1933. Br. Med. J. 307:1102–5
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Kaplan J 1999. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation 99:2192–217
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Sandberg S, Järvenpää S, Penttinen A, Paton JY, McCann DC 2004. Asthma exacerbations in children immediately following stressful life events: a Cox's hierarchical regression. Thorax 59:1046–51
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Sandberg S, Paton JY, Ahola S, McCann DC, McGuinness D et al. 2000. The role of acute and chronic stress in asthma attacks in children. Lancet 356:982–87
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Schulz R, Decker S 1985. Long-term adjustment to physical disability: the role of social support, perceived control, and self-blame. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 48:1162–72
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Schulz R, Rau MT 1985. Social support through the life course. Social Support and Health S Cohen, SL Syme 129–49 Cambridge, MA: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Shalowitz MU, Berry CA, Rasinski KA, Dannhausen-Brun CA 1998. A new measure of contemporary life stress: development, validation, and reliability of the CRISYS. Health Serv. Res. 33:1381–402
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Shively CA, Clarkson TB 1994. Social-status and coronary-artery atherosclerosis in female monkeys. Arterioscler. Thromb. 14:721–26
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Shor E, Roelfs DJ, Curreli M, Clemow L, Burg MM, Schwartz JE 2012. Widowhood and mortality: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Demography 49:575–606
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Skantze HB, Kaplan J, Pettersson K, Manuck S, Blomqvist N et al. 1998. Psychosocial stress causes endothelial injury in cynomolgus monkeys via β1-adrenoceptor activation. Atherosclerosis 136:153–61
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Sklar LS, Anisman H 1981. Stress and cancer. Psychol. Bull. 89:369–406
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Slavich GM, Irwin MR 2014. From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction theory of depression. Psychol. Bull. 140:774–815
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Slavich GM, Shields GS 2018. Assessing lifetime stress exposure using the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adults (Adult STRAIN): an overview and initial validation. Psychosom. Med. 80:17–27
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Sneed RS, Cohen S 2014. Negative social interactions and incident hypertension among older adults. Health Psychol 33:554–65
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Steinberg JS, Arshad A, Kowalski M, Kukar A, Surna V et al. 2004. Increased incidence of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in implantable defibrillator patients after the World Trade Center attack. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 44:1261–64
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Steptoe A, Kivimaki M 2012. Stress and cardiovascular disease. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 9:360–70
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Steptoe A, Kivimaki M 2013. Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge. Annu. Rev. Public Health 34:337–54
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Taylor SE 2010. Mechanisms linking early life stress to adult health outcomes. PNAS 107:8507–12
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Taylor SE, Klein LC, Lewis BP, Gruenewald TL, Gurung RAR, Updegraff JA 2000. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychol. Rev. 107:411–29
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Thurston RC, Matthews KA 2009. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness among adolescents. Soc. Sci. Med. 68:807–13
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Trichopoulos D, Katsouyanni K, Zavitsanos X, Tzonou A, Dallavorgia P 1983. Psychological stress and fatal heart-attack: the Athens 1981 earthquake natural experiment. Lancet 1:441–44
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Turner RJ, Wheaton B 1995. Checklist measurement of stressful life events. Cohen et al. 1995a 29–58
  117. Turner RJ, Wheaton B, Lloyd DA 1995. The epidemiology of social stress. Am. Sociol. Rev. 60:104–25
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Wegman HL, Stetler C 2009. A meta-analytic review of the effects of childhood abuse on medical outcomes in adulthood. Psychosom. Med. 71:805–12
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Wethington E, Brown GW, Kessler RC 1995. Interview measurement of stressful life events. Cohen et al. 1995a 59–79
  120. Wright RJ, Rodriguez M, Cohen S 1998. Review of psychosocial stress and asthma: an integrated biopsychosocial approach. Thorax 53:1066–74
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Wrosch C, Bauer I, Miller GE, Lupien S 2007. Regret intensity, diurnal cortisol secretion, and physical health in older individuals: evidence for directional effects and protective factors. Psychol. Aging 22:319–30
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102857
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error