1932

Abstract

HIV is transmitted in social and sexual relationships, and HIV transmission risks, as well as protective actions, are evolving as HIV epidemics unfold. The current focus of HIV prevention is centered on antiretroviral medications used to reduce HIV infectiousness in persons already infected with HIV [treatment as prevention (TasP)]. The same medications used to treat infected persons can also be used by uninfected persons as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the infectivity of HIV. Both PrEP and TasP are effective when adherence is high and individuals do not have co-occurring sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention is most effective and efficient when delivered within sexual networks with high HIV prevalence. Specific network characteristics are recognized as important facilitators of HIV transmission; these characteristics include the degree of similarity among network members (homophily), gender role norms, and belief systems. Since 2011, HIV risk has been redefined based on infectiousness and infectivity, ushering in a new era of HIV prevention with the potential to end HIV epidemics.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102927
2019-01-04
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/70/1/annurev-psych-010418-102927.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102927&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aidala AA, Wilson MG, Shubert V, Gogolishvili D, Globerman J et al. 2016. Housing status, medical care, and health outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review. Am. J. Public Health 106:1e1–23
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altice FL, Mostashari F, Friedland GH 2001. Trust and the acceptance of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 28:147–58
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Amico KR, Konkle-Parker DJ, Cornman DH, Barta WD, Ferrer R et al. 2007. Reasons for ART non-adherence in the Deep South: adherence needs of a sample of HIV-positive patients in Mississippi. AIDS Care 19:101210–18
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Amirkhanian Y, Kelly J, Kuznetsova A, Meylakhs A, Yakovlev A et al. 2014. Using social network methods to reach out-of-care or ART-nonadherent HIV+ injection drug users in Russia: addressing a gap in the treatment cascade. J. Int. AIDS Soc. 17:4 Suppl. 319594
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson RM, May RM 1988. Epidemiological parameters of HIV transmission. Nature 333:6173514–19
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Arnsten JH, Demas PA, Grant RW, Gourevitch MN, Farzadegan H et al. 2002. Impact of active drug use on antiretroviral therapy adherence and viral suppression in HIV-infected drug users. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 17:5377–81
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Awiti PO, Grotta A, van der Kop M, Dusabe J, Thorson A et al. 2016. The effect of an interactive weekly mobile phone messaging on retention in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (WELTEL PMTCT). BMC Med. Inform. Decis. Making 16:86
    [Google Scholar]
  8. B.C. Cent. Dis. Control. 2017. HIV in British Columbia: annual surveillance report 2015 Rep., B.C. Cent. Dis. Control Vancouver, Can: http://www.bccdc.ca/resource-gallery/Documents/Statistics%20and%20Research/Statistics%20and%20Reports/STI/HIV_Annual_Report_2015-FINAL.pdf
  9. Biello KB, Oldenburg CE, Mitty JA, Closson EF, Mayer KH et al. 2016. The “safe sex” conundrum: anticipated stigma from sexual partners as a barrier to PrEP use among substance using MSM engaging in transactional sex. AIDS Behav 21:300–6
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Birkett M, Kuhns LM, Latkin C, Muth S, Mustanski B 2015. The sexual networks of racially diverse young men who have sex with men. Arch. Sex. Behav. 44:71787–97
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bracchi M, Stuart D, Castles R, Khoo S, Back D, Boffito M 2015. Increasing use of “party drugs” in people living with HIV on antiretrovirals: a concern for patient safety. AIDS 29:131585–92
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brechwald WA, Prinstein MJ 2011. Beyond homophily: a decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. J. Res. Adolesc. 21:1166–79
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Butler DM, Delport W, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Lakdawala MK, Cheng PM et al. 2010. The origins of sexually transmitted HIV among men who have sex with men. Sci. Transl. Med. 2:1818re11
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Butler IF, Pandrea I, Marx PA, Apetrei C 2007. HIV genetic diversity: biological and public health consequences. Curr. HIV Res. 5:123–45
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Calabrese SK, Underhill K 2015. How stigma surrounding the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis undermines prevention and pleasure: a call to destigmatize “Truvada whores.”. Am. J. Public Health 105:101960–64
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Campbell JI, Haberer JE 2015. Cell phone-based and adherence device technologies for HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings: recent advances. Curr. HIV/AIDS Rep. 12:4523–31
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cent. Dis. Control Prev. 2010. HIV and gay and bisexual men Annu. Rep., Cent. Dis. Control Prev. Atlanta, GA: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/msm/index.html
  18. Cent. Dis. Control Prev. 2016. HIV and African American gay and bisexual men Annu. Rep., Cent. Dis. Control Prev. Atlanta, GA: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/msm/bmsm.html
  19. Chan PA, Rose J, Maher J, Benben S, Pfeiffer K et al. 2015. A latent class analysis of risk factors for acquiring HIV among men who have sex with men: implications for implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis programs. AIDS Patient Care STDs 29:11597–605
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Clerkin EM, Newcomb ME, Mustanski B 2011. Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM). J. Behav. Med. 34:4237–43
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC et al. 2011. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. New Engl. J. Med. 365:6493–505
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cohen MS, Gay CL 2010. Treatment to prevent transmission of HIV-1. Clin. Infect. Dis. 50:Suppl. 3S85–95
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cohen MS, McCauley M, Gamble TR 2012. HIV treatment as prevention and HPTN 052. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 7:299–105
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cornelius JB, Dmochowski J, Boyer C, St Lawrence J, Lightfoot M, Moore M 2013. Text-messaging-enhanced HIV intervention for African American adolescents: a feasibility study. J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care 24:3256–67
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cornelius T, Jones M, Merly C, Welles B, Kalichman MO, Kalichman SC 2017. Impact of food, housing, and transportation insecurity on ART adherence: a hierarchical resources approach. AIDS Care 29:4449–57
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Courtenay WH 2000. Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health. Soc. Sci. Med. 50:101385–401
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Dangerfield DT, Smith LR, Anderson JN, Bruce OJ, Farley J, Bluthenthal R 2018.a Sexual positioning practices and sexual risk among black gay and bisexual men: a life course perspective. AIDS Behav 22:61919–31
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Dangerfield DT, Ober AJ, Smith LR, Shoptaw S, Bluthenthal RN 2018.b Exploring and adapting a conceptual model of sexual positioning practices and sexual risk among HIV-negative black men who have sex with men. J. Sex Res. In press
  29. de Bruin M, Oberje EJ, Viechtbauer W, Nobel HE, Hiligsmann M et al. 2017. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a nurse-delivered intervention to improve adherence to treatment for HIV: a pragmatic, multicentre, open-label, randomised clinical trial. Lancet Infect. Dis. 17:595–604
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Des Jarlais DC, Kerr T, Carrieri P, Feelemyer J, Arasteh K 2016.a HIV infection among persons who inject drugs: ending old epidemics and addressing new outbreaks. AIDS 30:6815–26
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Des Jarlais DC, Thi Huong D, Thi Hai Oanh K, Khue Pham M, Thi Giang H et al. 2016.b Prospects for ending the HIV epidemic among persons who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam. Int. J. Drug Policy 32:50–56
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, Thomas KK, Stevens W et al. 2010. Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis. Lancet 375:97312092–98
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Eaton LA, Driffin DD, Bauermeister J, Smith H, Conway-Washington C 2015. Minimal awareness and stalled uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among at risk, HIV-negative, Black men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDs 29:8423–29
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Eaton LA, Kalichman SC, Cain DN, Cherry C, Stearns HL et al. 2007. Serosorting sexual partners and risk for HIV among men who have sex with men. Am. J. Prev. Med. 33:6479–85
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Eaton LA, Kalichman SC, Cherry C 2010. Sexual partner selection and HIV risk reduction among Black and White men who have sex with men. Am. J. Public Health 100:3503–9
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Eaton LA, Kalichman SC, O'Connell DA, Karchner WD 2009. A strategy for selecting sexual partners believed to pose little/no risks for HIV: serosorting and its implications for HIV transmission. AIDS Care 21:101279–88
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Eaton LA, Kalichman SC, Price D, Finneran S, Allen A, Maksut J 2017. Stigma and conspiracy beliefs related to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and interest in using PrEP among Black and White men and transgender women who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 21:51236–46
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Esber A, Cohen S, Dempsey A, Cheever LW 2017. Using systems of care and a public health approach to achieve zero perinatal HIV transmissions. JAMA Pediatr 171:5421–22
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Fields EL, Bogart LM, Smith KC, Malebranche DJ, Ellen J, Schuster MA 2012. HIV risk and perceptions of masculinity among young black men who have sex with men. J. Adolesc. Health 50:3296–303
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Finitsis DJ, Pellowski JA, Johnson BT 2014. Text message intervention designs to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLOS ONE 9:2e88166
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Fishbein M 1997. Interventions to prevent HIV risk behaviors Rep., Natl. Inst. Health Bethesda, MD: https://consensus.nih.gov/1997/1997PreventHIVRisk104html.htm
  42. Friedman SR, Cooper HL, Tempalski B, Keem M, Friedman R et al. 2006. Relationships of deterrence and law enforcement to drug-related harms among drug injectors in US metropolitan areas. AIDS 20:193–99
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Garcia J, Parker RG, Parker C, Wilson PA, Philbin M, Hirsch JS 2016. The limitations of “Black MSM” as a category: why gender, sexuality, and desire still matter for social and biomedical HIV prevention methods. Global Public Health 11:1026–48
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Gardner EM, McLees MP, Steiner JF, Del Rio C, Burman WJ 2011. The spectrum of engagement in HIV care and its relevance to test-and-treat strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 52:6793–800
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Granich RM, Gilks CF, Dye C, De Cock KM, Williams BG 2009. Universal voluntary HIV testing with immediate antiretroviral therapy as a strategy for elimination of HIV transmission: a mathematical model. Lancet 373:965748–57
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY et al. 2010. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. New Engl. J. Med. 363:272587–99
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Grov C, Rendina HJ, Ventuneac A, Parsons JT 2016. Sexual behavior varies between same-race and different-race partnerships: a daily diary study of highly sexually active Black, Latino, and White gay and bisexual men. Arch. Sex. Behav. 46:61453–62
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Haberer JE, Musinguzi N, Tsai AC, Boum Y II, Bwana BM et al. 2017. Real-time electronic adherence monitoring plus follow-up improves adherence compared with standard electronic adherence monitoring. AIDS 31:1169–71
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hall NM, Applewhite S 2013. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young black men. J. HIV/AIDS Soc. Serv. 12:3–4384–403
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hanif H, Bastos FI, Malta M, Bertoni N, Winch PJ, Kerrigan D 2014. Where does treatment optimism fit in? Examining factors associated with consistent condom use among people receiving antiretroviral treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AIDS Behav 18:101945–54
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hendershot CS, Stoner SA, Pantalone DW, Simoni JM 2009. Alcohol use and antiretroviral adherence: review and meta-analysis. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 52:2180–202
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Holt M, Lea T, Murphy DA, Ellard J, Rosengarten M et al. 2014. Australian gay and bisexual men's attitudes to HIV treatment as prevention in repeated, national surveys, 2011–2013. PLOS ONE 9:11e112349
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Holt M, Lea T, Schmidt HM, Murphy D, Rosengarten M et al. 2016. Increasing belief in the effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention: results of repeated, national surveys of Australian gay and bisexual men, 2013–15. AIDS Behav 20:71564–71
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Hurt CB, Beagle S, Leone PA, Sugarbaker A, Pike E et al. 2012. Investigating a sexual network of black men who have sex with men: implications for transmission and prevention of HIV infection in the United States. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 61:4515–21
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Husbands W, Makoroka L, Walcott R, Adam BD, George C et al. 2013. Black gay men as sexual subjects: race, racialisation and the social relations of sex among Black gay men in Toronto. Cult. Health Sex. 15:4434–49
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Ingersoll KS, Dillingham RA, Hettema JE, Conaway M, Freeman J et al. 2015. Pilot RCT of bidirectional text messaging for ART adherence among nonurban substance users with HIV. Health Psychol 34:Suppl.1305–15
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Jacobs M, Sherry PS, Taylor LM, Amato M, Tataronis GR, Cushing G 2012. Pharmacist Assisted Medication Program Enhancing the Regulation of Diabetes (PAMPERED) study. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 52:5613–21
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Janssen V, De Gucht V, van Exel H, Maes S 2013. Beyond resolutions? A randomized controlled trial of a self-regulation lifestyle programme for post-cardiac rehabilitation patients. Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol. 20:3431–41
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jongbloed K, Friedman AJ, Pearce ME, Van Der Kop ML, Thomas V et al. 2016. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth intervention for HIV prevention in young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 17:128
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kalichman SC 2008.a Co-occurrence of treatment nonadherence and continued HIV transmission risk behaviors: implications for positive prevention interventions. Psychosom. Med. 70:5593–97
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kalichman SC 2008.b Time to take stock in HIV/AIDS prevention. AIDS Behav 12:3333–34
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kalichman SC 2013. HIV Treatments as Prevention (TasP): Primer for Behavior-Based Implementation Berlin: Springer
  63. Kalichman SC 2017. Pence, Putin, Mbeki and their HIV/AIDS-related crimes against humanity: call for social justice and behavioral science advocacy. AIDS Behav 21:4963–67
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kalichman SC, Amaral CM, White D, Swetsze C, Kalichman MO et al. 2012. Alcohol and adherence to antiretroviral medications: interactive toxicity beliefs among people living with HIV. J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care 23:511–20
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Kalichman SC, Amaral CM, White D, Swetsze C, Pope H et al. 2009. Prevalence and clinical implications of interactive toxicity beliefs regarding mixing alcohol and antiretroviral therapies among people living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDs 23:6449–54
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kalichman SC, Cherry C, Kalichman MO, Eaton LA, Kohler J et al. 2018. Mobile health intervention to reduce HIV transmission: a randomized trial of behaviorally enhanced HIV treatment as prevention (B-TasP). J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 78:34–42
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Kalichman SC, Cherry C, White D, Jones M, Grebler T et al. 2011.a Sexual HIV transmission and antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study of behavioral risk factors among men and women living with HIV/AIDS. Ann. Behav. Med. 42:1111–19
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kalichman SC, Eaton L 2017. Alcohol-antiretroviral interactive toxicity beliefs as a potential barrier to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men. J. Int. AIDS Soc. 20:121534
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kalichman SC, Grebler T, Amaral CM, McNerey M, White D et al. 2013. Intentional non-adherence to medications among HIV positive alcohol drinkers: prospective study of interactive toxicity beliefs. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 28:3399–405
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Kalichman SC, Hernandez D, Finneran S, Price D, Driver R 2017.a Transgender women and HIV-related health disparities: falling off the HIV treatment cascade. Sex. Health 14:5469–76
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kalichman SC, Kalichman MO, Cherry C, Eaton LA, Cruess D, Schinazi RF 2016. Randomized factorial trial of phone-delivered support counseling and daily text message reminders for HIV treatment adherence. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 73:147–54
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kalichman SC, Kalichman MO, Cherry C, Hoyt G, Washington C et al. 2015. Intentional medication nonadherence because of interactive toxicity beliefs among HIV-positive active drug users. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 70:5503–9
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kalichman SC, Kalichman MO, Cherry C, Swetzes C, Amaral CM et al. 2011.b Brief behavioral self-regulation counseling for HIV treatment adherence delivered by cell phone: an initial test of concept trial. AIDS Patient Care STDs 25:5303–10
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Kalichman SC, Kelly JA, Sikkema KJ, Koslov AP, Shaboltas A, Granskaya J 2000. The emerging AIDS crisis in Russia: review of enabling factors and prevention needs. Int. J. STD AIDS 11:271–75
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kalichman SC, Price D, Eaton L, Burnham K, Sullivan M et al. 2017.b Diminishing perceived threat of AIDS and increasing sexual risks for HIV among men who have sex with men, 1997 to 2015. Arch. Sex. Behav. 46:895–902
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Kalichman SC, Rompa D 2003. HIV treatment adherence and unprotected sex practices in people receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sex. Transm. Infect. 79:159–61
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kalichman SC, Rompa D, Cage M, Austin J, Luke W et al. 2002. Sexual transmission risk perceptions and behavioural correlates of HIV concentrations in semen. AIDS Care 14:3343–49
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kamb M, Fishbein M, Douglas J, Rhodes F, Rogers J et al. 1998. Efficacy of risk-reduction counseling to prevent human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 280:131161–67
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Keib CN, Reynolds NR, Ahijevych KL 2010. Poor use of cardiac rehabilitation among older adults: a self-regulatory model for tailored interventions. Heart Lung 39:6504–11
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kelley CF, Kahle E, Siegler A, Sanchez T, Del Rio C et al. 2015. Applying a PrEP continuum of care for men who have sex with men in Atlanta, Georgia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 61:101590–97
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kelly JA, DiFranceisco WJ, St Lawrence JS, Amirkhanian YA, Anderson-Lamb M 2014. Situational, partner, and contextual factors associated with level of risk at most recent intercourse among Black men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 18:126–35
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Knowlton AR, Hua W, Latkin C 2005. Social support networks and medical service use among HIV-positive injection drug users: implications to intervention. AIDS Care 17:4479–92
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Kumar S, Rao PS, Earla R, Kumar A 2015. Drug-drug interactions between anti-retroviral therapies and drugs of abuse in HIV systems. Expert Opin. Drug Metab. Toxicol. 11:3343–55
    [Google Scholar]
  84. LaPollo AB, Bond L, Lauby JL 2014. Hypermasculinity and sexual risk among black and white men who have sex with men and women. Am. J. Men's Health 8:5362–72
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Latkin CA, Donnell D, Metzger D, Sherman S, Aramrattna A et al. 2009. The efficacy of a network intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Chiang Mai, Thailand and Philadelphia, USA. Soc. Sci. Med. 68:4740–48
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Latkin CA, Sherman S, Knowlton A 2003. HIV prevention among drug users: outcome of a network-oriented peer outreach intervention. Health Psychol 22:4332–39
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Lea T, Kolstee J, Murphy D, Ellard J, Schmidt H et al. 2017. Changing attitudes to and engagement with biomedical HIV prevention by gay and bisexual men: key findings from the PrEPARE Project 2017 Rep., Cent. Soc. Res. Health, Univ. New South Wales Sydney, Aust.:
  88. Lelutiu-Weinberger C, Golub SA 2016. Enhancing PrEP access for Black and Latino men who have sex with men. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 73:5547–55
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lester RT, Ritvo P, Mills EJ, Kariri A, Karanja S et al. 2010. Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomised trial. Lancet 376:97551838–45
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Marks G, Gardner LI, Craw J, Crepaz N 2010. Entry and retention in medical care among HIV-diagnosed persons: a meta-analysis. AIDS 24:172665–78
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Matthews DD, Herrick AL, Coulter RW, Friedman MR, Mills TC et al. 2016. Running backwards: consequences of current HIV incidence rates for the next generation of Black MSM in the United States. AIDS Behav 20:17–16
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Maulsby C, Jain K, Sifakis F, German D, Flynn CP, Holtgrave D 2015. Individual-level and partner-level predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infection among Black and White men who have sex with men in Baltimore, MD. AIDS Behav 19:5909–17
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Mbuagbaw L, van der Kop ML, Lester RT, Thirumurthy H, Pop-Eleches C et al. 2013. Mobile phone text messages for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART): a protocol for an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ Open 3:e002954
    [Google Scholar]
  94. McCray E, Mermin J 2017. Dear colleague: National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day. Dear Colleague Letters Sept. 27. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/library/dcl/dcl/092717.html
  95. McPherson M, Smith-Lovin L, Cook JM 2001. Birds of a feather: homophily in social networks. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 27:415–44
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Mehta SD, Gray RH, Auvert B, Moses S, Kigozi G et al. 2009. Does sex in the early period after circumcision increase HIV-seroconversion risk? Pooled analysis of adult male circumcision clinical trials. AIDS 23:121557–64
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Millett GA, Peterson JL, Wolitski RJ, Stall R 2006. Greater risk for HIV infection of black men who have sex with men: a critical literature review. Am. J. Public Health 96:61007–19
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Monroe AK, Chander G, Moore RD 2011. Control of medical comorbidities in individuals with HIV. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 58:5458–62
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Mooney AC, Gottert A, Khoza N, Rebombo D, Hove J et al. 2017. Men's perceptions of treatment as prevention in South Africa: implications for engagement in HIV care and treatment. AIDS Educ. Prev. 29:3274–87
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Moore DM, Cui Z, Lachowsky N, Rich AJ, Roth EA et al. 2017. Increasing HIV treatment optimism but no changes in HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 76:4e98–101
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Mugavero MJ, Amico KR, Horn T, Thompson MA 2013. The state of engagement in HIV care in the United States: from cascade to continuum to control. Clin. Infect. Dis. 57:1164–71
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Murray A, Gaul Z, Sutton MY, Nanin J 2018. “We hide…”: perceptions of HIV risk among Black and Latino MSM in New York City. Am. J. Men's Health 12:2180–88
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Murray MC, O'Shaughnessy S, Smillie K, Van Borek N, Graham R et al. 2015. Health care providers' perspectives on a weekly text-messaging intervention to engage HIV-positive persons in care (WelTel BC1). AIDS Behav 19:101875–87
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Mustanski B, Birkett M, Kuhns LM, Latkin CA, Muth SQ 2015. The role of geographic and network factors in racial disparities in HIV among young men who have sex with men: an egocentric network study. AIDS Behav 19:61037–47
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Nagot N, Ouedraogo A, Konate I, Weiss HA, Foulongne V et al. 2008. Roles of clinical and subclinical reactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-induced immunosuppression on genital and plasma HIV-1 levels. J. Infect. Dis. 198:2241–49
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Nahum-Shani I, Smith SN, Spring BJ, Collins LM, Witkiewitz K et al. 2018. Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) in mobile health: key components and design principles for ongoing health behavior support. Ann. Behav. Med. 52:446–62
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Newcomb ME, Mustanski B 2013. Racial differences in same-race partnering and the effects of sexual partnership characteristics on HIV risk in MSM: a prospective sexual diary study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 62:3329–33
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Newcomb M, Ryan D, Gaarofalo R, Mustanski B 2015. Race-based sexual stereotypes and their effects on sexual risk behavior in racially diverse young men who have sex with men. Arch. Sex. Behav. 44:1959–68
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Pachankis JE, Buttenwieser IG, Bernstein LB, Bayles DO 2013. A longitudinal, mixed methods study of sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies among young sexual minority men. Arch. Sex. Behav. 42:71241–53
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Parruti G, Manzoli L, Toro PM, D'Amico G, Rotolo S et al. 2006. Long-term adherence to first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in a hospital-based cohort: predictors and impact on virologic response and relapse. AIDS Patient Care STDs 20:148–56
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Paul JP, Ayala G, Choi KH 2010. Internet sex ads for MSM and partner selection criteria: the potency of race/ethnicity online. J. Sex Res. 47:6528–38
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Pellowski JA, Kalichman SC, Kalichman MO, Cherry C 2016. Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy interactive toxicity beliefs and daily medication adherence and alcohol use among people living with HIV. AIDS Care 28:8963–70
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Pellowski JA, Kalichman SC, White D, Amaral CM, Hoyt G, Kalichman MO 2014. Real-time medication adherence monitoring intervention: test of concept in people living with HIV infection. J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care 25:6646–51
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Philbin MM, Parker CM, Parker RG, Wilson PA, Garcia J, Hirsch JS 2016. The promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis for Black men who have sex with men: an ecological approach to attitudes, beliefs, and barriers. AIDS Patient Care STDs 30:6282–90
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Pines HA, Karris MY, Little SJ 2017. Sexual partner concurrency among partners reported by MSM with recent HIV infection. AIDS Behav 21:103026–34
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Purcell DW, Metsch LR, Latka M, Santibanez S, Gomez CA et al. 2004. Interventions for seropositive injectors—research and evaluation: an integrated behavioral intervention with HIV-positive injection drug users to address medical care, adherence, and risk reduction. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 37:Suppl. 2S110–18
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Raymond HF, McFarland W 2009. Racial mixing and HIV risk among men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 13:4630–37
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Reisner SL, White JM, Bradford JB, Mimiaga MJ 2014. Transgender health disparities: comparing full cohort and nested matched-pair study designs in a community health center. LGBT Health 1:3177–84
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Remien RH, Higgins JA, Correale J, Bauermeister J, Dubrow R et al. 2009. Lack of understanding of acute HIV infection among newly-infected persons—implications for prevention and public health: the NIMH Multisite Acute HIV Infection Study: II. AIDS Behav 13:61046–53
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Reynolds NR, Testa MA, Su M, Chesney MA, Neidig JL et al. 2008. Telephone support to improve antiretroviral medication adherence: a multisite, randomized controlled trial. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 47:162–68
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Rosenberg ES, Millett GA, Sullivan PS, Del Rio C, Curran JW 2014. Understanding the HIV disparities between black and white men who have sex with men in the USA using the HIV care continuum: a modeling study. Lancet HIV 1:3e112–18
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Roth EA, Cui Z, Rich A, Lachowsky N, Sereda P et al. 2018. Seroadaptive strategies of Vancouver gay and bisexual men in a treatment as prevention environment. J. Homosex. 65:4524–39
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Sabin LL, Bachman DeSilva M, Gill CJ, Zhong L, Vian T et al. 2015. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy with triggered real-time text message reminders: the China Adherence Through Technology Study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 69:5551–59
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Sabin LL, DeSilva MB, Hamer DH, Xu K, Zhang J et al. 2010. Using electronic drug monitor feedback to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive patients in China. AIDS Behav 14:3580–89
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Sankar A, Wunderlich T, Neufeld S, Luborsky M 2007. Sero-positive African Americans' beliefs about alcohol and their impact on anti-retroviral adherence. AIDS Behav 11:2195–203
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Semba RD, Ricketts EP, Mehta SF, Kirk GD, Latkin C et al. 2007. Adherence and retention of female injection drug users in a phase III clinical trial in inner city Baltimore. Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse 33:171–80
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Senn TE, Carey MP, Vanable PA, Coury-Doniger P, Urban M 2009. Sexual partner concurrency among STI clinic patients with a steady partner: correlates and associations with condom use. Sex. Transm. Infect. 85:5343–47
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Sewell J, Speakman A, Phillips AN, Cambiano V, Lampe FC et al. 2016. Attitudes to and understanding of risk of acquisition of HIV over time: design and methods for an Internet-based prospective cohort study among UK men who have sex with men (the AURAH2 Study). JMIR Res. Protoc. 5:2e128
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Signor L, Pierozan PS, Ferigolo M, Fernandes S, de Moreira TC et al. 2013. Efficacy of the telephone-based Brief Motivational Intervention for alcohol problems in Brazil. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatry 35:3254–61
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Smillie K, Van Borek N, Abaki J, Pick N, Maan EJ et al. 2014. A qualitative study investigating the use of a mobile phone short message service designed to improve HIV adherence and retention in care in Canada (WelTel BC1). J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care 25:6614–25
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Stall R, Duran L, Wisniewski SR, Friedman MS, Marshal MP et al. 2009. Running in place: implications of HIV incidence estimates among urban men who have sex with men in the United States and other industrialized countries. AIDS Behav 13:4615–29
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Steward WT, Remien RH, Higgins JA, Dubrow R, Pinkerton SD et al. 2009. Behavior change following diagnosis with acute/early HIV infection—a move to serosorting with other HIV-infected individuals. The NIMH Multisite Acute HIV Infection Study: III. AIDS Behav 13:61054–60
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Sudhinaraset M, Raymond HF, McFarland W 2013. Convergence of HIV prevalence and inter-racial sexual mixing among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2004–2011. AIDS Behav 17:41550–56
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Sullivan LE, Tetrault JM, Braithwaite RS, Turner BJ, Fiellin DA 2011. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of nonphysician brief interventions for unhealthy alcohol use: implications for the patient-centered medical home. Am. J. Addict. 20:4343–56
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Tieu HV, Liu TY, Hussen S, Connor M, Wang L et al. 2015. Sexual networks and HIV risk among Black men who have sex with men in 6 U.S. cities. PLOS ONE 10:8e0134085
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Tobin KE, Muessig KE, Latkin CA 2007. HIV seropositive drug users' attitudes towards partner notification (PCRS): results from the SHIELD study in Baltimore, Maryland. Patient Educ. Couns. 67:1–2137–42
    [Google Scholar]
  137. UNAIDS. 2016. UNAIDS World AIDS Day report 2016 Rep., UNAIDS, U. N. New York:
  138. UNAIDS. 2017. Fact sheet: latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic Rep., UNAIDS, U. N. New York: http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/fact-sheet
  139. Vernazza P, Hirschel B, Bernasconi E, Flepp M 2008. HIV transmission under highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 372:96521806–7
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankarnbo NK, Serwadda D, Li X et al. 2005. Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda. J. Infect. Dis. 191:91403–9
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Wilson DP, Law MG, Grulich AE, Cooper DA, Kaldor JM 2008. Relation between HIV viral load and infectiousness: a model-based analysis. Lancet 372:9635314–20
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Wilson PA, Valera P, Ventuneac A, Balan I, Rowe M, Carballo-Dieguez A 2009. Race-based sexual stereotyping and sexual partnering among men who use the internet to identify other men for bareback sex. J. Sex Res. 46:5399–413
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Wiznia AA, Crane M, Lambert G, Sansary J, Harris A, Solomon L 1996. Zidovudine use to reduce perinatal HIV type 1 transmission in an urban medical center. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 275:191504–6
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Zullig LL, Peterson ED, Bosworth HB 2013. Ingredients of successful interventions to improve medication adherence. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 310:242611–12
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102927
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102927
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error