Climate change poses a significant occupational health hazard. Rising temperatures and more frequent heat waves are expected to cause increasing heat-related morbidity and mortality for workers across the globe. Agricultural, construction, military, firefighting, mining, and manufacturing workers are at particularly high risk for heat-related illness (HRI). Various factors, including ambient temperatures, personal protective equipment, work arrangements, physical exertion, and work with heavy equipment may put workers at higher risk for HRI. While extreme heat will impact workers across the world, workers in low- and middle-income countries will be disproportionately affected. Tracking occupational HRI will be critical to informing prevention and mitigation strategies. Renewed investment in these strategies, including workplace heat prevention programs and regulatory standards for indoor and outdoor workers, will be needed. Additional research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in order to successfully reduce the risk of HRI in the workplace.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 45 is April 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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