1932

Abstract

This review examines global microalgae, seaweeds, and duckweed (MSD) production status and trends. It focuses on cultivation, recognizing the sector's existing and potential contributions and benefits, highlighting a variety of constraints and barriers over the sector's sustainable development. It also discusses lessons learned and ways forward to unlock the sector's full potential. In contrast to conventional agriculture crops, MSD can rapidly generate large amounts of biomass and carbon sequestration yet does not compete for arable land and potable water, ensuring minimal environmental impacts. Moreover, MSD's applications are ubiquitous and reach almost every industrial sector, including ones essential to meeting the increasing needs of human society, such as foods, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To this end, the growing public awareness regarding climate change, sustainable food, and animal welfare yields a significant shift in consumer preference and propels the demand for MSD. In addition, once governments usher in durable and stable carbon policies, the markets for MSD are likely to increase severalfold.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-011624
2022-10-05
2024-04-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/resource/14/1/annurev-resource-111920-011624.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-011624&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abdelaziz AEM, Leite GB, Hallenbeck PC. 2013. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: II. Harvesting and conversion to biofuels. Environ. Technol. 34:13–141807–36
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Acosta K, Appenroth KJ, Borisjuk L, Edelman M, Heinig U et al. 2021. Return of the Lemnaceae: duckweed as a model plant system in the genomics and postgenomics era. Plant Cell 33:103207–34
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alexander KA, Angel D, Freeman S, Israel D, Johansen J et al. 2016. Improving sustainability of aquaculture in Europe: stakeholder dialogues on integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). Environ. Sci. Policy 55:96–106
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alvarado-Morales M, Boldrin A, Karakashev D, Holdt S, Angelidaki I, Astrup 2013. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions. Bioresour. Technol. 129:92–99
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Appenroth KJ, Sree KS, Bog M, Ecker J, Seeliger C et al. 2018. Nutritional value of the duckweed species of the genus Wolffia (Lemnaceae) as human food. Front. Chem. 6:483
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Appenroth KJ, Sree KS, Böhm V, Hammann S, Vetter W, Leiterer M et al. 2017. Nutritional value of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) as human food. Food Chem 217:266–73
    [Google Scholar]
  7. BCC Research 2015. The global market for carotenoids Rep. FOD025E, BCC Research Wellesley, MA:
  8. Bertran K, Thomas G, Guo X, Bublot M et al. 2015. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens. Vaccine 33:303456–62
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bhanthumnavin K, McGarry MG. 1971. Wolffia arrhiza as a possible source of inexpensive protein. Nature 232:495
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Birch D, Skallerud K, Paul N. 2019a. Who eats seaweed? An Australian perspective. J. Int. Food Agribus. Mark. 31:4329–51
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Birch D, Skallerud K, Paul NA. 2019b. Who are the future seaweed consumers in a Western society? Insights from Australia. Br. Food J. 121:2603–15
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bjerregaard R, Valderrama D, Radulovich R, Diana J, Capron M et al. 2016. Seaweed Aquaculture for Food Security, Income Generation and Environmental Health in Tropical Developing Countries New York: World Bank
  13. Blazey EB, McClure JW. 1968. The distribution and taxonomic significance of lignin in the Lemnaceae. Am. J. Bot. 55:1240–45
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bleakley S, Hayes M 2017. Algal proteins: extraction, application, and challenges concerning production. Foods 6:533
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brown LM. 1996. Uptake of carbon dioxide from flue gas by microalgae. Energy Convers. Manag. 37:6–81363–67
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Buschmann AH, Camus C, Infante J, Neori A, Israel Á et al. 2017. Seaweed production: overview of the global state of exploitation, farming and emerging research activity. Eur. J. Phycol. 52:4391–406
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Buschmann AH, Varela D, Cifuentes M, Hernández-González M, Henríquez L et al. 2004. Experimental indoor cultivation of the carrageenophytic red alga Gigartina skottsbergii. Aquaculture 241:357–70
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cai J, Lovatelli A, Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Cornish L, Dabbadie L et al. 2021. Seaweeds and microalgae: an overview for unlocking their potential in global aquaculture development FAO Circ. 1229, Food Agric. Organ. Rome:
  19. Calicioglu O, Brennan RA. 2018. Sequential ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion increases bioenergy yields from duckweed. Bioresour. Technol. 257:344–348
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Camus C, Infante J, Buschmann AH. 2019. Revisiting the economic profitability of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Ochrophyta) cultivation in Chile. Aquaculture 502:80–86
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Casoni AI, Ramos FD, Estrada V, Diaz MS. 2020. Sustainable and economic analysis of marine macroalgae based chemicals production—process design and optimization. J. Clean. Prod.276122792
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cheng JJ, Stomp AM. 2009. Growing duckweed to recover nutrients from wastewaters and for production of fuel ethanol and animal feed. Clean-Soil Air Water 37:17–26
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Chung IK, Oak JH, Lee JA, Shin JA, Kim JG, Park K-S. 2013. Installing kelp forests/seaweed beds for mitigation and adaptation against global warming: Korean Project Overview. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70:1038–44
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cox KM, Sterling JD, Regan JT, Gasdaska JR, Frantz KK et al. 2006. Glycan optimization of a human monoclonal antibody in the aquatic plant Lemna minor. Nat. Biotechnol. 24:1591–97
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cui W, Cheng JJ. 2015. Growing duckweed for biofuel production: a review. Plant. Biol. 17:16–23
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Czyrnek-Delêtre MM, Rocca S, Agostini A, Giuntoli J, Murphy JD. 2017. Life cycle assessment of seaweed biomethane, generated from seaweed sourced from integrated multi-trophic aqua-culture in temperate oceanic climates. Appl. Energy 196:34–50
    [Google Scholar]
  27. [Google Scholar]
  28. de Jong E, Higson A, Walsh P, Wellisch M. 2012. Bio-based chemicals: value added products from biorefineries Rep., IEA Bioenergy Paris:
  29. de Morais MG, Costa JAV. 2007. Biofixation of carbon dioxide by Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in a three-stage serial tubular photobioreactor. J. Biotechnol. 129:439–45
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Demel S, Longo A, Mariel P 2020. Trading off visual disamenity for renewable energy: willingness to pay for seaweed farming for energy production. Ecol. Econ. 173:106650
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Demirbas A. 2010. Use of algae as biofuel sources. Energy Convers. Manag. 51:122738–49
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Diatin I, Effendi I, Taufik M. 2020. The production function and profitability analysis of Gracilaria sp. seaweed polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos) and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Biodivers. J. Biol. Divers. 21:104747–54
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC. 2008. Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 19:3235–40
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Duarte CM, Agusti S, Barbier E, Britten GL, Castilla JC et al. 2020. Rebuilding marine life. Nature 580:39–51
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Duarte CM, Wu J, Xiao X, Bruhn A, Krause-Jensen D. 2017. Can seaweed farming play a role in climate change mitigation and adaptation?. Front. Mar. Sci 4 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00100
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Economist 2021. Floating offshore farms should increase production of seaweed. Economist Sept. 30. https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/floating-offshore-farms-may-increase-production-of-seaweed/21805108
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Emblemsvåg J, Kvadsheim NP, Halfdanarson J, Koesling M, Nystrand BT et al. 2020. Strategic considerations for establishing a large-scale seaweed industry based on fish feed application: a Norwegian case study. J. Appl. Phycol. 32:4159–69
    [Google Scholar]
  38. FAO (Food Agric. Organ.) 2018. State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018 Rome: FAO
  39. FAO (Food Agric. Organ.) 2021. FishStatJ - software for fishery and aquaculture statistical time series. Statistical Software https://www.fao.org/fishery/en/statistics/software/fishstatj
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ferdouse F, Holdt SL, Smith R, Murúa P, Yang Z 2018. The Global Status of Seaweed Production, Trade and Utilization, Vol. 124 Rome: Globefish Res. Progr./FAO
  41. Filbee-Dexter K, Wernberg T 2020. Substantial blue carbon in overlooked Australian kelp forests. . Sci. Rep. 10:12341
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Firsov A, Tarasenko I, Mitiouchkina T, Ismailova N, Shaloiko L et al. 2015. High-yield expression of M2e peptide of avian influenza virus H5N1 in transgenic duckweed plants. Mol. Biotechnol. 5:653–61
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Firsov A, Tarasenko I, Mitiouchkina T, Shaloiko L, Kozlov O et al. 2018. Expression and immunogenicity of M2e peptide of avian influenza virus H5N1 fused to ricin toxin B chain produced in duckweed plants. Front. Chem. 6:22
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Fortune Bus. Insights 2020. Commercial seaweed market size, share & COVID-19 impact analysis, by type (red seaweed, brown seaweed, and green seaweed), form (flakes, powder, and liquid), end-uses (food & beverages, agricultural fertilizers, animal feed additives, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics & personal care), and regional forecast, 2021–2028 Market Res. Rep., Fortune Bus. Insights Maharashtra, India: https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/commercial-seaweed-market-100077
  45. Gallagher BJ. 2011. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae. Renew. Energy 36:1158–62
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Gayathri S, Rajasree SRR, Kirubagaran R, Aranganathan L, Suman TY. 2016. Spectral characterization of β, -ε-carotene-3-3′-diol (lutein) from marine microalgae Chlorella salina. Renew. Energy 98:78–83
    [Google Scholar]
  47. GFI (Good Food Inst.) 2021. State of the industry report: plant-based meat, eggs, seafood, and dairy Rep., Good Food Inst Washington, DC: https://gfi.org/resource/plant-based-meat-eggs-and-dairy-state-of-the-industry-report/
  48. Golberg A, Robin AN, Zollmann M, Traugott H, Palatnik RR, Israel A 2020a. Environmental impacts of seaweed aquaculture. Macroalgal Biorefineries for the Blue Economy A Golberg, AN Robin, M Zollmann, H Traugott, RR Palatnik, A Israel 67–76 Singapore: World Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Golberg A, Zollmann M, Prabhu M, Palatnik RR 2020b. Enabling bioeconomy with offshore macroalgae biorefineries. Bioeconomy for Sustainable Development C Keswani 173–200 Singapore: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Golden J, Handfield R, Daystar J, McConnell T. 2015. An economic impact analysis of the U.S. biobased products industry: a report to the Congress of the United States of America Duke Cent. Sustain. Commer., Supply Chain Resour. Coop., Duke Univ./NC State Univ. Durham, NC/Raleigh:
  51. Gómez-Zorita S, González-Arceo M, Trepiana J, Eseberri I, Fernández-Quintela A et al. 2020. Anti-obesity effects of macroalgae. Nutrients 12:82378
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Guo L, Jin YL, Xiao Y, Tan L, Tian XP et al. 2020. Energy-efficient and environmentally friendly production of starch-rich duckweed biomass using nitrogen-limited cultivation. J. Clean. Prod. 251:119726
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hasselström L, Thomas JB, Nordström J, Cervin G, Nylund GM et al. 2020. Socioeconomic prospects of a seaweed bioeconomy in Sweden. Sci. Rep. 10:1610
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Henrikson R. 2009. Earth Food Spirulina Hana, HI: Ronore Enterp.
  55. Hernández-Herrera RM, Santacruz-Ruvalcaba F, Ruiz-López MA, Norrie J, Hernández-Carmona G 2014. Effect of liquid seaweed extracts on growth of tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.). J. Appl. Phycol. 26:619–28
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hillman WS. 1976. Calibrating duckweeds: light, clocks, metabolism, flowering. Science 193:453–58
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hochman G, Hochman E, Naveh N, Zilberman D 2018. The synergy between aquaculture and hydroponics technologies: the case of lettuce and tilapia. Sustainability 10:3479
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hochman G, Zilberman D 2014. Algae farming and its bio-products. Plants and BioEnergy MC McCann, MS Buckeridge, NC Carpita 49–64 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Hurtado AQ. 2013. Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming in the Philippines Tech. Pap. 580, Food Agric. Organ. Rome:
  60. IPCC (Intergov. Panel Clim. Change) 2021. Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change V Masson-Delmotte, P Zhai, A Pirani, SL Connors, C Péan, et al. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. In press. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Janarthanan M, Kumar MS. 2018. The properties of bioactive substances obtained from seaweeds and their applications in textile industries. J. Ind. Text. 48:1361–401
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Jiang R, Ingle KN, Golberg A. 2016. Macroalgae (seaweed) for liquid transportation biofuel production: What is next?. Algal Res. 14:48–57
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kaur M, Kumar M, Singh D, Sachdeva S, Puri SK. 2019. A sustainable biorefinery approach for efficient conversion of aquatic weeds into bioethanol and biomethane. Energy Convers. Manag. 187:133–47
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kelly EL, Cannon AL, Smith JE. 2020. Environmental impacts and implications of tropical carrageenophyte seaweed farming. Conserv. Biol. 34:326–37
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Khanna M, Zilberman D. 1997. Incentives, precision technology and environmental protection. Ecol. Econ. 23:25–43
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ko SM, Sun HJ, Oh MJ, Song IJ, Kim MJ et al. 2011. Expression of the protective antigen for PEDV in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor. . Horticult. Environ. Biotechnol. 52:511
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Koesling M, Kvadsheim NP, Halfdanarson J, Emblemsvåg J, Rebours C. 2021. Environmental impacts of protein-production from farmed seaweed: comparison of possible scenarios in Norway. J. Clean. Prod. 307:127301
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Koller M, Muhr A, Braunegg G. 2014. Microalgae as versatile cellular factories for valued products. Algal Res 6:52–63
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Korner S, Vermaat JE, Veenstra S. 2003. The capacity of duckweed to treat wastewater: ecological considerations for a sound design. J. Environ. Qual. 32:1583–90
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Kortum SS. 1997. Research, patenting, and technological change. Econometrica 65:61389–1419
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Korzen L, Peled Y, Zemah Shamir S, Shechter M, Gedanken A et al. 2015. An economic analysis of bioethanol production from the marine macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta). Technology 3:2114–18
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kumar M, Sun Y, Rathour R, Pandey A, Thakur IS, Tsang DCW. 2020. Algae as potential feedstock for the production of biofuels and value-added products: opportunities and challenges. Sci. Total Environ. 716:137116
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kwan TH, Ong KL, Haque MA, Kwan WH, Kulkarni S, Lin CSK. 2018. Valorisation of food and beverage waste via saccharification for sugars recovery. Bioresour. Technol. 255:67–75
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Lähteenmäki-Uutela A, Rahikainen M, Camarena-Gómez MT et al. 2021. European Union legislation on macroalgae products. Aquac. Int. 29:487–509
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Lamont T, McSweeney M. 2021. Consumer acceptability and chemical composition of whole-wheat breads incorporated with brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) or red seaweed (Chondrus crispus). J. Food Agric. 101:1507–14
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Landolt E 1986. Biosystematic Investigations in the Family of Duckweeds, Lemnaceae: The Family of Lemnaceae, A Monographic Study, Vol. 1 Zurich, Switz: Geobot. Inst.
  77. Landolt E, Kandeler R. 1987. The Family of Lemnaceae – Monographic Study. Vol. 2. Biosystematic Investigations in the Family of Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) Zurich, Switz: Geobot. Inst.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Lawrence L, Sorrels S, Sivaram ST, Lam E, Hochman G. 2021. Improvement of aquaculture profitability and sustainability through integration with duckweed. Agric. Res. Technol. 2:12–6
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Leandro A, Pacheco D, Cotas J, Marques JC, Pereira L, Gonçalves AM. 2020. Seaweed's bioactive candidate compounds to food industry and global food security. Life 10:8140
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Lee CJ, Yangcheng HY, Cheng JJ, Jane JL 2016. Starch characterization and ethanol production of duckweed and corn kernel. Starch 68:348–54
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Lehahn Y, Ingle KN, Golberg A. 2016. Global potential of offshore and shallow waters macroalgal biorefineries to provide for food, chemicals and energy: feasibility and sustainability. Algal Res. 17:150–60
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Leong YK, Chew KW, Chen W-H, Chang J-S, Show PL. 2021. Reuniting the biogeochemistry of algae for a low-carbon circular bioeconomy. Trends Plant Sci. 26:7729–40
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Levitan O, Dinamarca J, Hochman G, Falkowski PG. 2014. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future. Trends Biotechnol. 32:3117–24
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Lim S-F, Zheng Y-M, Zou S-W, Chen JP. 2008. Characterization of copper adsorption onto an alginate encapsulated magnetic sorbent by a combined FT-IR, XPS, and mathematical modeling study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42:2551–56
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Liu Y, Chen XY, Wang XH, Fang Y, Zhang Y et al. 2018. The influence of different plant hormones on biomass and starch accumulation of duckweed: a renewable feedstock for bioethanol production. Renew. Energy 138:659–65
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Loredo AG, Benavides J, Polomares MR. 2016. Growth kinetics and fucoxanthin production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana cultures at different light and agitation conditions. J. Appl. Phycol. 28:849–60
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Lucas S, Gouin S, Lesueur M. 2019. Seaweed consumption and label preferences in France. Mar. Resour. Econ. 34:2 https://doi.org/10.1086/704078
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Mac Monagail M, Cornish L, Morrison L, Araújo R, Critchley AT 2017. Sustainable harvesting of wild seaweed resources. Eur. J. Phycol. 52:371–90
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Marquez GP, Santiañez WJ, Trono JG, Montaño M, Araki H et al. 2014. Seaweed biomass of the Philippines: sustainable feedstock for biogas production. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 38:1056–68
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Matos Â. 2017. The impact of microalgae in food science and technology. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 94:1333–50
    [Google Scholar]
  91. McHugh DJ. 2003. A guide to the seaweed industry FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 441, Food Agric. Organ. Rome:
  92. Mohan SV, Chiranjeevi P, Dahiya AS, Kumar AN. 2018. Waste derived bioeconomy in India: a perspective. New Biotech 40:60–69
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Nazemi F, Karimi K, Denayer JF, Shafiei M. 2021. Techno-economic aspects of different process approaches based on brown macroalgae feedstock: a step toward commercialization of seaweed-based biorefineries. Algal Res 58:102366
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Nigam P, Singh A. 2011. Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 37:52–68
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Nor AM, Gray TS, Caldwell GS, Stead SM. 2020. A value chain analysis of Malaysia's seaweed industry. J. Appl. Phycol. 32:2161–71
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Nwachukwu ID, Udenigwe CC, Aluko RE. 2016. Lutein and zeaxanthin: production technology, bioavailability, mechanisms of action, visual function, and health claim status. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 49:74–84
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Pacheco-Torgal F, Ivanov V, Karak N, Jonkers H, eds. 2016. Biopolymers and Biotech Admixtures for Eco-Efficient Construction Materials Woodhead Publ. Ser. Civil Struct. Eng. 63 Amsterdam: Elsevier
  98. Packer M. 2009. Algal capture of carbon dioxide; biomass generation as a tool for greenhouse gas mitigation with reference to New Zealand energy strategy and policy. Energy Policy 37:93428–37
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Palatnik RR, Freer M, Zilberman D, Golberg A, Levin M. 2018. Time to dare and endure: case study of macroalgae two-stage supply chain with co-products Presented at the 6th World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists Gothenburg: June
  100. Palatnik RR, Zilberman D 2017. Economics of natural resource utilization—the case of macroalgae. Modeling, Dynamics, Optimization and Bioeconomics II A Pinto, D Zilberman 1–21 Springer Proc. Math. Stat. , Vol. 195 Cham, Switz: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Pangestuti R, Kim SK. 2011. Biological activities and health benefits effects of natural pigments derived from marine algae. J. Funct. Foods 3:255–66
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Panis G, Carreon JR. 2016. Commercial astaxanthin production derived by green alga Haematococcus pluvialis: a microalgae process model and a techno-economic assessment all through production line. Algal Res 18:175–90
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Pardey PG, Alston JM 2021. The drivers of US agricultural productivity growth Work. Pap., Fed. Res. Bank Kansas City, MO:
  104. Peñalver R, Lorenzo JM, Ros G, Amarowicz R, Pateiro M, Nieto G 2020. Seaweeds as a functional ingredient for a healthy diet. Mar. Drugs 18:301
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Pereira L. 2018. Seaweeds as source of bioactive substances and skin care therapy—cosmeceuticals, algotheraphy, and thalassotherapy. . Cosmetics 5:468
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Peterson AA, Vasylenko MY, Matvieieva NA, Kuchuk MV. 2015. Accumulation of recombinant fusion protein-secretory analog of Ag85B and ESAT6 Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins in transgenic Lemna minor L. plants. Biotechnol. Acta 8:539–48
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Philis G, Gracey EO, Gansel LC, Fet AM, Rebours C. 2018. Comparing the primary energy and phosphorus consumption of soybean and seaweed-based aquafeed proteins—a material and substance flow analysis. J. Clean. Prod. 200:1142–53
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Prabhu MS, Israel A, Palatnik RR, Zilberman D, Golberg A. 2020. Integrated biorefinery process for sustainable fractionation of Ulva ohnoi (Chlorophyta): process optimization and revenue analysis. J. Appl. Phycol. 32:2271–82
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Qarri A, Israel A. 2020. Seasonal biomass production, fermentable saccharification and potential ethanol yields in the marine macroalga Ulva sp. (Chlorophyta). Renew. Energy 145:2101–7
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Rajauria G 2015. Seaweeds: a sustainable feed source for livestock and aquaculture. Seaweed Sustainability DJ Brijesh, K Tiwari 389–420 Amsterdam: Elsevier
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Reim W, Parida V, Sjödin DR. 2019. Circular business models for the bio-economy: a review and new directions for future research. Sustainability 11:92558
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Ren H, Jiang N, Wang T, Omar MM, Ruan W, Ghafoor A. 2018. Enhanced biogas production in the duckweed anaerobic digestion process. J. Energy Res. Technol. 140:041805
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Richardson JW, Johnson MD, Outlaw JL. 2012. Economic comparison of open pond raceways to photo bio-reactors for profitable production of algae for transportation fuels in the Southwest. Algal Res. 1:193–100
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Richardson JW, Johnson MD, Zhang X, Zemke P, Chen W, Hu Q 2014. A financial assessment of two alternative cultivation systems and their contributions to algae biofuel economic viability. Algal Res. 4:96–104
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Roque BM, Salwen JK, Kinley R, Kebrea E. 2019. Inclusion of Asparagopsis armata in lactating dairy cows’ diet reduces enteric methane emission by over 50 percent. J. Clean. Prod. 234:132–38
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Rose M, Palkovits R. 2012. Isosorbide as a renewable platform chemical for versatile applications—Quo vadis?. ChemSusChem 5:167–76
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Sarubbi J. 2017. Integrating duckweed into an aquaponics system Master's Thesis, Rutgers Univ. New Brunswick, NJ:
  118. Seghetta M, Hou X, Bastianoni S, Bjerre A-B, Thomsen M. 2016. Life cycle assessment of macroalgal biorefinery for the production of ethanol, proteins and fertilizers—a step towards a regenerative bioeconomy. J. Clean. Prod. 137:1158–69
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Shao J, Liu Z, Ding YQ, Wang JM, Li XF, Yang Y. 2020. Biosynthesis of the starch is improved by the supplement of nickel (Ni2+) in duckweed (Landoltia punctata). J. Plant Res. 133:587–96
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Sharma YC, Singh B, Korstad J. 2011. A critical review on recent methods used for economically viable and eco-friendly development of microalgae as a potential feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel. Green Chem. 13:112993–3006
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Shilton AN, Powell N, Mara DD, Craggs R. 2008. Solar-powered aeration and disinfection, anaerobic co-digestion, biological CO2 scrubbing and biofuel production: the energy and carbon management opportunities of waste stabilization ponds. Water Sci. Technol. 58:253–58
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Singh A, Olsen SI. 2011. A critical review of biochemical conversion, sustainability and life cycle assessment of algal biofuels. Appl. Energy 88:3548–55
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Sonnenberg A, Baars J, Hendrickx P. 2007. IEA bioenergy task 42 biorefinery Brochure, IEA Bioenergy Task 43
  124. Sonta M, Rekiel A, Batorska M. 2019. Use of duckweed (Lemna L.) in sustainable livestock production and aquaculture—a review. Ann. Anim. Sci. 19:257–71
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Stévant P, Rebours C. 2021. Landing facilities for processing of cultivated seaweed biomass: a Norwegian perspective with strategic considerations for the European seaweed industry. J. Appl. Phycol. 33:53199–214
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Stichnothe H, Meier D, de Bari I 2016. Biorefineries: industry status and economics. Developing the Global Bioeconomy P Lamers, E Searcy, RJ Hess, H Stichnothe 41–67 Amsterdam: Elsevier
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sun Y, Cheng JJ, Himmel ME, Skory CD, Adney WS et al. 2007. Expression and characterization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase in transgenic duckweed Lemna minor 8627. Bioresour. Technol. 98:2866–72
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Sutherland DL, Howard-Williams C, Turnbull MH, Broady PA, Craggs RJ. 2015. Enhancing microalgal photosynthesis and productivity in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production. Bioresour. Technol. 184:222–29
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Thu PTL, Huong PT, Tien VV, Ham L, Khanh T. 2015. Regeneration and transformation of gene encoding the hemagglutinin antigen of the H5N1 virus in frond of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.). J. Agric. Stud. 3:148–59
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Torres MD, Kraan S, Domınguez H. 2019. Seaweed biorefinery. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 18:335–88
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Ullmann J, Grimm D. 2021. Algae and their potential for a future bioeconomy, landless food production, and the socio-economic impact of an algae industry. Organ. Agric. 11:261–67
    [Google Scholar]
  132. US DOE (US Dep. Energy) 2016. National algal biofuels technology review Rep., US Dep. Energy, Off. Energy Effic. Renew. Energy, Bioenergy Technol. Off. Washington, DC: http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/06/f33/national_algal_biofuels_technology_review.pdf
  133. US DOE (US Dep. Energy) 2020. Federal activities report on the bioeconomy: algae Rep. DOE/EE-2009, US Dep. Energy Washington, DC: https://www.energy.gov/eere/bioenergy/downloads/federal-activities-report-bioeconomy-algae
  134. Valderrama D, Cai J, Hishamunda N, Ridler N, eds. 2013. Social and economic dimensions of carrageenan seaweed farming FAO Fish. Aquac. Tech. Pap. 580, Food Agric. Organ. Rome:
  135. Van Dam BR, Zeller MA, Lopes C, Smyth AR, Böttcher ME et al. 2021. Calcification-driven CO2 emissions exceed “Blue Carbon” sequestration in a carbonate seagrass meadow. Sci. Adv. 7:51eabj1372
    [Google Scholar]
  136. van den Burg SWK, van Duijn AP, Bartelings H, van Krimpen MM, Poelman M. 2016. The economic feasibility of seaweed production in the North Sea. Aquacult. Econ. Manag. 20:235–52
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Wang S, Zhao S, Uzoejinwa BB, Zheng A, Wang Q et al. 2020. A state-of-the-art review on dual purpose seaweeds utilization for wastewater treatment and crude bio-oil production. Energy Convers. Manag. 222:113253
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Wang Y, Wu H, Zong MH. 2008. Improvement of biodiesel production by lipozyme TL IM-catalyzed methanolysis using response surface methodology and acyl migration enhancer. Bioresour. Technol. 99:7232–37
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Wargacki AJ, Leonard E, Win MN, Regitsky DD, Santos CN et al. 2012. An engineered microbial platform for direct biofuel production from brown macroalgae. Science 335:308–13
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Weiss M, Junginger M, Patel MK, Blok K. 2010. A review of experience curve analyses for energy demand technologies. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 77:411–28
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Wells ML, Potin P, Craigie JS, Raven JA, Merchant SS et al. 2017. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding. J. Appl. Phycol. 29:949–82
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Wendin K, Undeland I. 2020. Seaweed as food—attitudes and preferences among Swedish consumers. A pilot study. Int. J. Gastron. Food Sci. 22:100265
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Wesseler J, von Braun J 2017. Measuring the bioeconomy: economics and policies. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ. 9:275–98
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Xu YL, Fang Y, Lia A, Yang GL, Guo L et al. 2018. Turion, an innovative duckweed-based starch production system for economical biofuel manufacture. Ind. Crops Prod. 124:108–14
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Zeller MA, Hunt R, Sharma S. 2013. Sustainable bioderived polymeric materials and thermoplastic blends made from floating aquatic macrophytes such as “duckweed. .” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2297:127375–86
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Zilberman D. 2014. Fellows Address: the economics of sustainable development. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 96:2385–96
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Zilberman D, Kim E, Kirschner S, Kaplan S, Reeves J. 2013. Technology and the future bioeconomy. Agric. Econ. 44:95–102
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Zilberman D, Lu L, Reardon T. 2017. Innovation-induced food supply chain design. Food Policy 83:289–97
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Zilberman D, Reardon T, Silver J, Lu L, Heiman A. 2022. From the lab to the consumer: innovation, supply chain, and adoption with applications to natural resources. PNAS 119:23e2115880119
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-011624
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-111920-011624
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error