1932

Abstract

Trust is key to understanding the dynamics of social relations, to the extent that it is often viewed as the glue that holds society together. We review the mounting sociological literature to help answer what trust is and where it comes from. To this end, we identify two research streams—on particularized trust and generalized trust, respectively—and propose an integrative framework that bridges these lines of research while also enhancing conceptual precision. This framework provides the springboard for identifying several important avenues for future research, including new investigations into the radius of trust, the intermediate form of categorical trust, and the interrelationships between different forms of trust. This article also calls for more scholarship focusing on the consequences (versus antecedents) of trust, addressing more fully the trustee side of the relation, and employing new empirical methods. Such novel approaches will ensure that trust research will continue to provide important insights into the functioning of modern society in the years to come.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-082120-082850
2021-07-31
2024-04-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/47/1/annurev-soc-082120-082850.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-082120-082850&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aassve A, Billari FC, Pessin L. 2016. Trust and fertility dynamics. Soc. Forces 95:663–92
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abascal M, Baldassarri D. 2015. Love thy neighbor? Ethnoracial diversity and trust reexamined. Am. J. Sociol. 121:722–82
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Abrahao B, Parigi P, Gupta A, Cook KS 2017. Reputation offsets trust judgments based on social biases among Airbnb users. PNAS 114:9848–53
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arrow KJ. 1974. The Limits of Organization New York: W. W. Norton
  5. Ashraf N, Bohnet I, Piankov N. 2006. Decomposing trust and trustworthiness. Exp. Econ. 9:193–208
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Avnet T, Pham MT, Stephen AT. 2012. Consumers’ trust in feelings as information. J. Consum. Res. 39:720–35
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Axelrod R. 1985. The Evolution of Cooperation New York: Basic
  8. Barbalet J. 2009. A characterization of trust, and its consequences. Theory Soc 38:367–82
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Barber B. 1983. The Logic and Limit of Trust New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
  10. Berg J, Dickhaut J, McCabe K. 1995. Trust, reciprocity, and social history. Games Econ. Behav. 10:122–42
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Berger J, Rosenholtz SJ, Zelditch M. 1980. Status organizing processes. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 6:479–508
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Berigan N, Irwin K. 2011. Culture, cooperation, and the general welfare. Soc. Psychol. Q. 74:341–60
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bhattacharya R, Devinney TM, Pillutla MM. 1998. A formal model of trust based on outcomes. Acad. Manag. Rev. 23:459–72
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bijlsma-Frankema K, Costa AC. 2005. Understanding the trust-control nexus. Int. Sociol. 20:259–82
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bjørnskov C. 2008. Social trust and fractionalization: a possible reinterpretation. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 24:271–83
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Blau PM. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life New York: Wiley
  17. Blau PM 2002. Reflections on a career as a theorist. New Directions in Contemporary Sociological Theory J Berger, M Zelditch 345–57 Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Blue PR, Hu J, Peng L, Yu H, Liu H, Zhou X. 2020. Whose promises are worth more? How social status affects trust in promises. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 50:189–206
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bryk A, Schneider B. 2002. Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement New York: Russell Sage
  20. Burke PJ, Stets JE. 1999. Trust and commitment through self-verification. Soc. Psychol. Q. 62:347–66
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Burt RS. 2001. Bandwidth and echo: trust, information, and gossip in social networks. Networks and Markets JE Rauch, A Casella 30–74 New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Burt RS, Knez M. 1995. Kinds of third-party effects on trust. Ration. Soc. 7:255–92
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cao J, Galinsky AD. 2020. The diversity-uncertainty-valence (DUV) model of generalized trust development. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 161:49–64
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cao Z, Lumineau F. 2015. Revisiting the interplay between contractual and relational governance: a qualitative and meta-analytic investigation. J. Oper. Manag 33:–3415–42
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cesarini D, Dawes CT, Fowler JH, Johannesson M, Lichtenstein P, Wallace B 2008. Heritability of cooperative behavior in the trust game. PNAS 105:3721–26
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cheshire C, Gerbasi A, Cook KS. 2010. Trust and transitions in modes of exchange. Soc. Psychol. Q. 73:176–95
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Choi SYP, David R 2012. Lustration systems and trust: evidence from survey experiments in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland. Am. J. Sociol. 117:1172–201
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Coleman JS. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  29. Cook KS. 2005. Networks, norms, and trust: the social psychology of social capital. Soc. Psychol. Q. 68:4–14
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cook KS 2015. Institutions, trust, and social order. Order on the Edge of Chaos: Social Psychology and the Problem of Social Order EJ Lawler, S Thye, J Yoon 125–44 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Cook KS, Cooper RM 2003. Experimental studies of cooperation, trust and social exchange. Trust, Reciprocity and Gains from Association: Interdisciplinary Lessons from Experimental Research E Ostrom, J Walker 277–333 New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Cook KS, Hardin R 2001. Norms of cooperativeness and networks of trust. Social Norms M Hechter, K-D Opp 327–47 New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Cook KS, Hardin R, Levi M. 2005a. Cooperation Without Trust? New York: Russell Sage
  34. Cook KS, Yamagishi T, Cheshire C, Cooper R, Matsuda M, Mashima R. 2005b. Trust building via risk taking: a cross-societal experiment. Soc. Psychol. Q. 68:121–42
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Couper MP. 2017. New developments in survey data collection. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 43:121–45
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Dasgupta P 1988. Trust as a commodity. Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations D Gambetta 49–72 New York: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  37. de Jong B, Gillespie N, Williamson I, Gill C. 2020. Trust consensus within culturally-diverse teams: a multi-study investigation. J. Manag. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206320943658
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  38. Delhey J, Newton K. 2003. Who trusts? The origins of social trust in seven societies. Eur. Soc. 5:93–137
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Delhey J, Newton K. 2005. Predicting cross-national levels of social trust: global pattern or Nordic exceptionalism?. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 21:311–27
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Delhey J, Newton K, Welzel C 2011. How general is trust in ‘most people’? Solving the radius of trust problem. Am. Sociol. Rev. 76:786–807
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Deutsch M. 1960. The effect of motivational orientation upon trust and suspicion. Hum. Relat. 13:123–39
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Dinesen PT, Sønderskov KM. 2015. Ethnic diversity and social trust: evidence from the micro-context. Am. Sociol. Rev. 80:550–73
    [Google Scholar]
  43. DiPrete TA, Gelman A, McCormick T, Teitler J, Zheng T. 2011. Segregation in social networks based on acquaintanceship and trust. Am. J. Sociol. 116:1234–83
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Durkheim E. 1984. The Division of Labor in Society New York: Free Press
  45. Erikson EH. 1964. Childhood and Society New York: Norton
  46. Fehr E. 2009. On the economics and biology of trust. J. Eur. Econ. Assoc. 7:235–66
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Fetchenhauer D, Dunning D. 2010. Why so cynical? Asymmetric feedback underlies misguided skepticism regarding the trustworthiness of others. Psychol. Sci. 21:189–93
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Foddy M, Yamagishi T 2009. Group-based trust. Whom Can We Trust? How Groups, Networks, and Institutions Make Trust Possible K Cook, M Levi, R Hardin 17–41 New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Freese J, Shostak S. 2009. Genetics and social inquiry. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 35:107–28
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Fukuyama F. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity New York: Free Press
  51. Gargiulo M, Ertug G 2006. The dark side of trust. The Handbook of Trust Research R Bachmann, A Zaheer 165–86 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Gheorghiu MA, Vignoles VL, Smith PB. 2009. Beyond the United States and Japan: testing Yamagishi's emancipation theory of trust across 31 nations. Soc. Psychol. Q. 72:365–83
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Gilson L. 2003. Trust and the development of health care as a social institution. Soc. Sci. Med. 56:1453–68
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Glanville JL, Andersson MA, Paxton P. 2013. Do social connections create trust? An examination using new longitudinal data. Soc. Forces 92:545–62
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Glanville JL, Paxton P. 2007. How do we learn to trust? A confirmatory tetrad analysis of the sources of generalized trust. Soc. Psychol. Q. 70:230–42
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Glanville JL, Shi Q. 2019. The extension of particularized trust to generalized and out-group trust: the constraining role of collectivism. Soc. Forces 98:1801–28
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Granovetter M. 1985. Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. Am. J. Sociol. 91:481–510
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gulati R, Westphal JD. 1999. Cooperative or controlling? The effects of CEO-board relations and the content of interlocks on the formation of joint ventures. Adm. Sci. Q. 44:473–506
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Guseva A, Rona-Tas A. 2001. Uncertainty, risk, and trust: Russian and American credit card markets compared. Am. Sociol. Rev. 66:623–46
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Haack P, Schilke O, Zucker LG. 2021. Legitimacy revisited: disentangling propriety, validity, and consensus. J. Manag. Stud. 58:74981
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Hardin R. 2002. Trust and Trustworthiness New York: Russell Sage
  62. Hardin R. 2006. Trust Cambridge, UK: Polity
  63. Hayashi N, Ostrom E, Walker J, Yamagishi T. 1999. Reciprocity, trust, and the sense of control: a cross-societal study. Ration. Soc. 11:27–46
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Healy K. 2017. Fuck nuance. Sociol. Theory 35:118–27
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Hitlin S, Vaisey S. 2010. Handbook of the Sociology of Morality New York: Springer
  66. Hwang P, Burgers WP. 1997. Properties of trust: an analytical view. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 69:67–73
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Irwin K, McGrimmon T, Simpson B. 2008. Sympathy and social order. Soc. Psychol. Q. 71:379–97
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Irwin K, Mulder L, Simpson B. 2014. The detrimental effects of sanctions on intragroup trust: comparing punishments and rewards. Soc. Psychol. Q. 77:253–72
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Khodyakov DM. 2007. The complexity of trust-control relationships in creative organizations: insights from a qualitative analysis of a conductorless orchestra. Soc. Forces 86:1–22
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Kiyonari T, Yamagishi T, Cook KS, Cheshire C. 2006. Does trust beget trustworthiness? Trust and trustworthiness in two games and two cultures: a research note. Soc. Psychol. Q. 69:270–83
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kollock P. 1994. The emergence of exchange structures: an experimental study of uncertainty, commitment, and trust. Am. J. Sociol. 100:313–45
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kollock P. 1999. The production of trust in online markets. Adv. Group Process. 16:99–123
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E. 2005. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435:673–76
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Kosugi M, Yamagishi T. 1998. Generalized trust and judgments of trustworthiness (in Japanese with an English abstract). Jpn. J. Psychol. 69:349–57
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kramer RM. 1999. Trust and distrust in organizations: emerging perspectives, enduring questions. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 50:569–96
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Krueger F, McCabe K, Moll J, Kriegeskorte N, Zahn R et al. 2007. Neural correlates of trust. PNAS 104:20084–89
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kuwabara K. 2015. Do reputation systems undermine trust? Divergent effects of enforcement type on generalized trust and trustworthiness. Am. J. Sociol. 120:1390–428
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kuwabara K, Vogt S, Watabe M, Komiya A. 2014. Trust, cohesion, and cooperation after early versus late trust violations in two-person exchange: the role of generalized trust in the United States and Japan. Soc. Psychol. Q. 77:344–60
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kuwabara K, Willer R, Macy MW, Mashima R, Terai S, Yamagishi T. 2007. Culture, identity, and structure in social exchange: a web-based trust experiment in the United States and Japan. Soc. Psychol. Q. 70:461–79
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Larson A. 1992. Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: a study of the governance of exchange relationships. Adm. Sci. Q. 37:76–104
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Larzelere RE, Huston TL. 1980. The dyadic trust scale: toward understanding interpersonal trust in close relationships. J. Marriage Fam. 42:595–604
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Latusek D, Cook KS. 2012. Trust in transitions. Kyklos 65:512–25
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Levi M, Stoker L. 2000. Political trust and trustworthiness. Annu. Rev. Political Sci. 3:475–507
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Lewicki RJ, Bunker BB 1996. Developing and maintaining trust in work relationships. Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research RM Kramer, TR Tyler 114–39 Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Lewicki RJ, McAllister DJ, Bies RJ. 1998. Trust and distrust: new relationships and realities. Acad. Manag. Rev. 23:438–58
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Lewis JD, Weigert A. 1985. Trust as a social reality. Soc. Forces 63:967–85
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Lewis JD, Weigert AJ. 2012. The social dynamics of trust: theoretical and empirical research, 1985–2012. Soc. Forces 91:25–31
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Li AN, Tan HH. 2013. What happens when you trust your supervisor? Mediators of individual performance in trust relationships. J. Organ. Behav. 34:407–25
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Li JB, Piezunka H. 2020. The uniplex third: enabling single-domain role transitions in multiplex relationships. Adm. Sci. Q. 65:314–58
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Li Y, Pickles A, Savage M. 2005. Social capital and social trust in Britain. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 21:109–23
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lin N, Cook KS, Burt RS. 2001. Social Capital: Theory and Research New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction
  92. Lindström A. 1994. Identification and recognition in Swedish telephone conversation openings. Lang. Soc. 23:231–52
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Luhmann N. 1979. Trust and Power Chichester, UK: Wiley
  94. Macy MW, Sato Y 2002. Trust, cooperation, and market formation in the US and Japan. PNAS 99:7214–20
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Macy MW, Skvoretz J. 1998. The evolution of trust and cooperation between strangers: a computational model. Am. Sociol. Rev. 63:638–60
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Malhotra D, Murnighan JK. 2002. The effects of contracts on interpersonal trust. Adm. Sci. Q. 47:534–59
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Marschall MJ, Stolle D. 2004. Race and the city: neighborhood context and the development of generalized trust. Political Behav 26:125–53
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Mayer RC, Davis JH, Schoorman FD. 1995. An integrative model of organizational trust. Acad. Manag. Rev. 20:709–34
    [Google Scholar]
  99. McAllister DJ. 1995. Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Acad. Manag. J. 38:24–59
    [Google Scholar]
  100. McEvily B, Zaheer A, Soda G 2020. Network trust. Understanding Trust in Organizations: A Multilevel Perspective N Gillespie, A Fulmer, RJ Lewicki 179–204 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  101. McKnight DH, Cummings LL, Chervany NL. 1998. Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Acad. Manag. Rev. 23:473–90
    [Google Scholar]
  102. McPherson M, Smith-Lovin L, Cook JM. 2001. Birds of a feather: homophily in social networks. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 27:415–44
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Messick DM, Wilke H, Brewer MB, Kramer RM, Zemke PE, Lui L. 1983. Individual adaptations and structural change as solutions to social dilemmas. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 44:294–309
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Misztal BA. 1996. Trust in Modern Societies Cambridge, UK: Blackwell
  105. Mizrachi N, Drori I, Anspach RR. 2007. Repertoires of trust: the practice of trust in a multinational organization amid political conflict. Am. Sociol. Rev. 72:143–65
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Möllering G. 2001. The nature of trust: from Georg Simmel to a theory of expectation, interpretation and suspension. Sociology 35:403–20
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Möllering G. 2006. Trust: Reason, Routine, Reflexivity Oxford, UK: Elsevier
  108. Molm LD, Collett JL, Schaefer DR. 2007a. Building solidarity through generalized exchange: a theory of reciprocity. Am. J. Sociol. 113:205–42
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Molm LD, Melamed D, Whitham MM. 2013. Behavioral consequences of embeddedness: effects of the underlying forms of exchange. Soc. Psychol. Q. 76:73–97
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Molm LD, Schaefer DR, Collett JL. 2007b. The value of reciprocity. Soc. Psychol. Q. 70:199–217
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Molm LD, Takahashi N, Peterson G. 2000. Risk and trust in social exchange: an experimental test of a classical proposition. Am. J. Sociol. 105:1396–427
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Molm LD, Whitham MM, Melamed D. 2012. Forms of exchange and integrative bonds: effects of history and embeddedness. Am. Sociol. Rev. 77:141–65
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Morgan RM, Hunt SD. 1994. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. J. Mark. 58:20–38
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Neal TMS, Shockley E, Schilke O 2015. The ‘dark side’ of institutional trust. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Trust: Towards Theoretical and Methodological Integration E Shockley, TMS Neal, BH Bornstein, LM PytlikZillig 177–91 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Ostrom E. 1998. A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action: presidential address, American Political Science Association, 1997. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 92:1–22
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Parigi P, Santana JJ, Cook KS. 2017. Online field experiments: studying social interactions in context. Soc. Psychol. Q. 80:1–19
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Parsons T. 1937. The Structure of Social Action New York, New York: McGraw Hill
  118. Pavlou PA, Gefen D. 2004. Building effective online marketplaces with institution-based trust. Inf. Syst. Res. 15:37–59
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Paxton P. 1999. Is social capital declining in the United States? A multiple indicator assessment. Am. J. Sociol. 105:88–127
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Paxton P. 2007. Association memberships and generalized trust: a multilevel model across 31 countries. Soc. Forces 86:47–76
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Paxton P, Glanville JL. 2015. Is trust rigid or malleable? A laboratory experiment. Soc. Psychol. Q. 78:194–204
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Poppo L, Zhou KZ, Ryu S. 2008. Alternative origins to interorganizational trust: an interdependence perspective on the shadow of the past and the shadow of the future. Organ. Sci. 19:39–55
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Portes A. 1995. The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship New York: Russell Sage
  124. Portes A. 1998. Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 24:1–24
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Powell WW 1996. Trust-based forms of governance. Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research RM Kramer, TR Tyler 51–67 Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Pratt MG, Lepisto DA, Dane E 2019. The hidden side of trust: supporting and sustaining leaps of faith among firefighters. Adm. Sci. Q. 64:398–434
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Przepiorka W, Aksoy O. 2021. Does herding undermine the trust enhancing effect of reputation? An empirical investigation with online-auction data. Soc. Forces 99:1575600
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Putnam RD. 1995. Bowling alone: America's declining social capital. J. Democracy 6:65–78
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Putnam RD. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community New York: Simon and Schuster
  130. Ragin CC. 1987. The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press
  131. Reimann M, Schilke O, Cook KS 2017. Trust is heritable, whereas distrust is not. PNAS 114:7007–12
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Robbins BG. 2016. Probing the links between trustworthiness, trust, and emotion: evidence from four survey experiments. Soc. Psychol. Q. 79:284–308
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Robinson RV, Jackson EF. 2001. Is trust in others declining in America? An age-period-cohort analysis. Soc. Sci. Res. 30:117–45
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Robinson SL. 1996. Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Adm. Sci. Q. 41:574–99
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Rompf SA. 2015. Trust and Rationality: An Integrative Framework for Trust Research New York: Springer
  136. Ross CE, Mirowsky J, Pribesh S. 2001. Powerlessness and the amplification of threat: neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and mistrust. Am. Sociol. Rev. 66:568–91
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Rotenberg KJ. 1995. The socialisation of trust: parents' and children's interpersonal trust. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 18:713–26
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Rotter JB. 1971. Generalized expectancies for interpersonal trust. Am. Psychol. 26:443–52
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Rotter JB. 1980. Interpersonal trust, trustworthiness, and gullibility. Am. Psychol. 35:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Rousseau DM, Sitkin SB, Burt RS, Camerer C. 1998. Not so different after all: a cross-discipline view of trust. Acad. Manag. Rev. 23:393–404
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Rydgren J, Sofi D, Hällsten M. 2013. Interethnic friendship, trust, and tolerance: findings from two north Iraqi cities. Am. J. Sociol. 118:1650–94
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Schilke O, Cook KS. 2015. Sources of alliance partner trustworthiness: integrating calculative and relational perspectives. Strateg. Manag. J. 36:276–97
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Schilke O, Huang L. 2018. Worthy of trust? How brief interpersonal contact affects trust accuracy. J. Appl. Psychol. 103:1181–97
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Schilke O, Reimann M, Cook KS 2013. Effect of relationship experience on trust recovery following a breach. PNAS 110:15236–41
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Schilke O, Reimann M, Cook KS. 2015. Power decreases trust in social exchange. PNAS 112:12950–55
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Schilke O, Wiedenfels G, Brettel M, Zucker LG. 2017. Interorganizational trust production contingent on product and performance uncertainty. Socio-Economic Rev 15:307–30
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Schnittker J. 2004. Social distance in the clinical encounter: interactional and sociodemographic foundations for mistrust in physicians. Soc. Psychol. Q. 67:217–35
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Simmel G 1950. The Sociology of Georg Simmel New York: Free Press
  149. Simmel G. 1978. The Philosophy of Money London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
  150. Simpson B. 2006. Social identity and cooperation in social dilemmas. Ration. Soc. 18:443–70
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Simpson B, Harrell A, Willer R. 2013. Hidden paths from morality to cooperation: moral judgments promote trust and trustworthiness. Soc. Forces 91:1529–48
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Simpson B, McGrimmon T, Irwin K. 2007. Are blacks really less trusting than whites? Revisiting the race and trust question. Soc. Forces 86:525–52
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Simpson B, Willer R. 2015. Beyond altruism: sociological foundations of cooperation and prosocial behavior. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 41:43–63
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Skinner D, Dietz G, Weibel A 2014. The dark side of trust: when trust becomes a ‘poisoned chalice. Organization 21:206–24
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Smith CM, Papachristos AV. 2016. Trust thy crooked neighbor: multiplexity in Chicago organized crime networks. Am. Sociol. Rev. 81:644–67
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Smith SS. 2010. Race and trust. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 36:453–75
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Stepanikova I, Mollborn S, Cook KS, Thom DH, Kramer RM. 2006. Patients' race, ethnicity, language, and trust in a physician. J. Health Soc. Behav. 47:390–405
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Stolle D. 2001. Clubs and congregations: the benefits of joining an association. Trust in Society KS Cook 202–44 New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Sturgis P, Read S, Hatemi PK, Zhu G, Trull T et al. 2010. A genetic basis for social trust?. Political Behav 32:205–30
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Sturgis P, Smith P. 2010. Assessing the validity of generalized trust questions: What kind of trust are we measuring?. Int. J. Public Opin. Res. 22:74–92
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Sutter M, Kocher MG. 2007. Trust and trustworthiness across different age groups. Games Econ. Behav. 59:364–82
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Swärd A. 2016. Trust, reciprocity, and actions: the development of trust in temporary inter-organizational relations. Organ. Stud. 37:1841–60
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Sztompka P. 1999. Trust: A Sociological Theory Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  164. Telser LG. 1980. A theory of self-enforcing agreements. J. Bus. 53:27–44
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Uslaner EM. 2002. The Moral Foundation of Trust Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  166. Uzzi B. 1997. Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: the paradox of embeddedness. Adm. Sci. Q. 42:35–67
    [Google Scholar]
  167. van Hoorn A. 2014. Trust radius versus trust level: radius of trust as a distinct trust construct. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:1256–59
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Weber M. 1951. 1915. The Religion of China New York: Free Press
  169. Welch MR, Sikkink D, Loveland MT. 2007. The radius of trust: religion, social embeddedness and trust in strangers. Soc. Forces 86:23–46
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Williamson OE. 1993. Calculativeness, trust, and economic organization. J. Law Econ. 36:453–86
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Wu C, Wilkes R. 2016. Durable power and generalized trust in everyday social exchange. PNAS 113:E1417
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Yamagishi T. 2001. Trust as a form of social intelligence. Trust in Society KS Cook 121–47 New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Yamagishi T. 2011. Trust: The Evolutionary Game of Mind and Society New York: Springer
  174. Yamagishi T, Cook KS, Watabe M. 1998. Uncertainty, trust, and commitment formation in the United States and Japan. Am. J. Sociol. 104:165–94
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Yamagishi T, Yamagishi M. 1994. Trust and commitment in the United States and Japan. Motiv. Emot. 18:129–66
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Yenkey CB. 2018. Fraud and market participation: social relations as a moderator of organizational misconduct. Adm. Sci. Q. 63:43–84
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Ziller C. 2015. Ethnic diversity, economic and cultural contexts, and social trust: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from European regions, 2002–2010. Soc. Forces 93:1211–40
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Zucker LG. 1986. Production of trust: institutional sources of economic structure, 1840–1920. Res. Organ. Behav. 8:53–111
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Zucker LG, Darby MR, Brewer MB, Peng Y 1996. Collaboration structure and information dilemmas in biotechnology: organizational boundaries as trust production. Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research RM Kramer, TR Tyler 90–113 Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-082120-082850
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-082120-082850
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error