Invented as a surface analytical technique capable of imaging individual atoms and molecules in real space, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has developed and advanced into a technique able to measure a variety of structural, functional, and spectroscopic properties and relationships at the single-molecule level. Here, we review basic STM operation and image interpretation, techniques developed to manipulate single atoms and molecules with the STM to measure functional properties of surfaces, local spectroscopies used to characterize atoms and molecules at the single-molecule level, and surface perturbations affecting surface coverage and surface reactions. Each section focuses on determining the identity and function of chemical species so as to elucidate information beyond topography with STM.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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