Burning has been a near-continuous feature of the Australian environment but has become progressively more important since the mid-Tertiary, associated with the development of the characteristic sclerophyll vegetation. In the Quaternary, the extent of burning has varied temporally and regionally with glacial-interglacial cyclicity. Burning during glacial periods was reduced in drier areas, presumably because of a critical reduction in fuel availability, but increased in relatively wetter areas where fuel levels were high. On both glacial and Holocene timescales, peaks in charcoal often accompany transitions between fire-insensitive vegetation types, suggesting that burning is facilitated during periods of climate change and environmental instability. This suggestion has been supported by the demonstration of close relationships between fire and El Niño activity. Burning has also increased progressively over the past few hundred thousand years with major accelerations around the time of first human settlement of the continent and with the arrival of Europeans. To provide a firmer base for application of paleofire records to environmental management, there is an urgent need for a spatially more-substantial coverage of high-resolution fire records with good chronological control.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Ambrose SH. 1998. Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and the differentiation of modern humans. J. Hum. Evol. 34:623–51 [Google Scholar]
  2. Banks JCG. 1989. A history of forest fire in the Australian Alps. In The Scientific Significance of the Australian Alps. ed. R Good pp. 265–80 Canberra: Aust. Acad. Sci. [Google Scholar]
  3. Barlow BA. 1994. Phytogeography of the Australian region. In Australian Vegetation ed. RH Groves pp. 3–35 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  4. Beaufort L, deGaridel-Thoron T, Linsley B, Oppo D, Buchet N. 2003. Biomass burning and oceanic primary production estimates in the Sulu Sea area over the last 380,000 Kyr and the East Asian monsoon dynamics. Mar. Geol. 201:53–65 [Google Scholar]
  5. Beringer J, Packham D, Tapper NJ. 1995. Biomass burning and resulting emissions in the Northern Territory, Australia. Int. J. Wildland Fire 5:229–35 [Google Scholar]
  6. Beringer J, Hutley LB, Tapper NJ, Coutts A, Kerley A, O’Grady AP. 2003. Fire impacts on surface heat, moisture and carbon fluxes from a tropical savanna in Northern Australia. Int. J. Wildland Fire 12:333–40 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bird MI, Gröcke DR. 1997. Determination of the abundance and carbon-isotope composition of elemental carbon in sediments. Geochem. Cosmochem. Acta 61:3413–23 [Google Scholar]
  8. Black MP, Mooney SD. 2006. Holocene fire history from the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage area, New South Wales, Australia: the climate, humans and fire nexus. Region. Environ. Change 6:(1–2)41–51 [Google Scholar]
  9. Black MP, Mooney SD, Martin HA. 2006. A >43 000 year vegetation and fire history from Lake Baraba, New South Wales, Australia. Quat. Sci. Rev. In press [Google Scholar]
  10. Bonan GB, Levis S, Sitch S, Vertenstein M, Oleson K. 2003. A dynamic global vegetation model for use with climate models: concepts and description of simulated vegetation dynamics. Global Change Biol. 9:(11)1543–66 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bowler JM, Johnston H, Olley JM, Prescott JR, Roberts RG. et al. 2003. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature 421:837–40 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cachier H, Bremond MP, Buat-Menard P. 1989. Determination of atmospheric soot carbon with a simple thermal method. Tellus 41B379–90 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chapman D. 1999. Natural Hazards. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press., 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  14. Chen D, Zebiak SE, Busalacchi AJ, Cane MA. 1995. An improved procedure for El Nino forcasting: implications for predictability. Science 269:1699–702 [Google Scholar]
  15. Clark JS. 1988. Particle motion and the theory of charcoal analysis—source area, transport, deposition, and sampling. Quaternary Res. 30:67–80 [Google Scholar]
  16. Clark JS, Lynch J, Stocks BJ, Goldammer JG. 1998. Relationship between charcoal particles in air and sediments in West-Central Siberia. Holocene 8:19–29 [Google Scholar]
  17. Clark JS, Patterson WA. 1997. Background and local charcoal in sediments: scales of fire evidence in the palaeorecord. In Sediments of Biomass Burning and Global Change ed. JS Clark, H Cashier, JW Goldammer, B Stocks pp. 23–48 Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  18. Clark RL. 1983. Pollen and charcoal evidence for the effects of Aboriginal burning on the vegetation of Australia. Archaeol. Oceania 18:32–37 [Google Scholar]
  19. Clement AC, Seager R, Cane MA. 1999. Orbital controls on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the tropical climate. Palaeoceanography 14:441–56 [Google Scholar]
  20. Dodson JR, De Salis T, Myers CA, Sharp AJ. 1994. A thousand years of environmental change and human impact in the alpine zone at Mt Kosciusko, New South Wales. Aust. Geogr. 25:77–87 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dep. Sustainability Environ. (DSE) 2003. Previous fire season 2002–2003. Rep. Dep. Sustainability Environ. (DSE) http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenfoe.nsf/FID/ -6CFC7F5FFE4A35BDCA256DA2000647CE? OpenDocument
  22. Enache MD, Cumming BF. 2006. Tracking recorded fires using charcoal morphology from the sedimentary sequence of Prosser Lake, British Columbia (Canada). Quaternary Res. 65:282–92 [Google Scholar]
  23. Enright NJ, Lamont BB, Miller BP. 2005. Anomalies in grasstree fire history reconstructions for south-western Australian vegetation. Aust. Ecol. 30:668–73 [Google Scholar]
  24. Foley JA, Levis S, Costa MH, Cramer W, Pollard D. 2000. Incorporating dynamic vegetation cover within global climate models. Ecol. Appl. 10:1620–32 [Google Scholar]
  25. Gell P, Stuart IM, Smith DJ. 1993. The response of vegetation to changing fire regimes and human activity in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. Holocene 3:150–60 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gergis JL, Fowler AM. 2006. How unusual was late twentieth century El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Adv. Geosci. 6:173–79 [Google Scholar]
  27. Görgen K, Lynch AH, Marshall AG, Beringer J. 2006. The impact of abrupt land cover changes by Savannah fire on Northern Australian climate. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D19106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006860 [Google Scholar]
  28. Global Palaeofire Database (GPD). 2006. Global Palaeofire Database. A QUEST (Quantifying Uncertainties in the Earth System)/IGBP Fast Track Initiative (Fire: Past, Present, Future). http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/charcoal, accessed June 2006
  29. Haberle SG, David B. 2004. Climates of change: human dimensions of holocene environmental change in low latitudes of the PEPII Transect. Quat. Int. 118–119:165–79 [Google Scholar]
  30. Haberle SG. 2005. A 23,000-yr pollen record from Lake Euramoo, wet tropics of NE Queensland, Australia. Quaternary Res. 64:343–56 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hallett DJ, Walker RC. 2000. Paleoecology and its applications to fire and vegetation management in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. J. Paleolimnol. 24:401–14 [Google Scholar]
  32. Harrison SP, Dodson J. 1993. Climates of Australia and New Guinea since 18,000 Yr BP. Global Climates Since the Last Galcial Maximum ed. HE Wright, JE Kutzbach, T Webb, WF Ruddiman, FA Street-Perrott, P Bartlein pp. 265–93 Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press [Google Scholar]
  33. Harrison SP, Braconnot P, Joussaume S, Hewitt C, Stouffer RJ. 2002. Launching PMIP Phase II. EOS 83:447–47 [Google Scholar]
  34. Hope G, Kershaw AP, van der Kaars S, Xiangjun S, Liew PM. et al. 2004. History of vegetation and habitat change in the Austral-Asian region. Quat. Int. 118–119:103–19 [Google Scholar]
  35. Hopkins MS, Ash J, Graham AW, Head J, Hewett RK. 1993. Charcoal evidence of the spatial extent of the eucalyptus woodland expansions and rainforest contractions in North Queensland during the Late Pleistocene. J. Biogeogr. 20:357–72 [Google Scholar]
  36. Hutley LB, Leuning R, Beringer J, Cleugh HA. 2005. The utility of the eddy covariance techniques as a tool in carbon accounting: tropical savanna as a case study. Aust. J. Bot. 53:663–75 [Google Scholar]
  37. Johnson BJ, Miller GH, Fogel ML, Magee JW, Gagan MK, Chivas AR. 1999. 65,000 years of vegetation change in central Australia and the Australian summer monsoon. Science 284:1150–52 [Google Scholar]
  38. Jones TP, Chaloner WG, Kuhlbusch TAJ. 1997. Proposed bio-geological and chemical based terminology for fire-altered plant matter. In Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change ed. JS Clark, H Cachier, JG Goldammer, B Stocks pp. 9–22 Berlin: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  39. Kershaw AP, Martin HA, McEwen Mason JRC. 1994. The Neogene: a period of transition. In The History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent ed. RS Hill pp. 299–327 Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  40. Kershaw AP, Moss PT, van der Kaars S. 1997. Environmental change and the human occupation of Australia. Anthropologie 35:35–43 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kershaw AP, Clark JS, Gill MA, D’Costa DM. 2002. A history of fire in Australia. In Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent ed. RA Bradstock, JE Williams, MA Gill pp. 3–25 Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  42. Kershaw AP, van der Kaars S, Moss PT. 2003a. Late Quaternary Milankovich-scale climatic change and variability and its impact on monsoonal Australasia. Mar. Geol. 201:81–95 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kershaw P, Moss P, van der Kaars S. 2003b. Causes and consequences of long-term climatic variability on the Australian continent. Freshwater Biol. 48:1274–83 [Google Scholar]
  44. Kershaw P, van der Kaars S, Moss P, Opdyke B, Guichard F. et al. 2006. Environmental change and the arrival of people in the Australian region. Before Farm. 2006:1 Art. 2 [Google Scholar]
  45. Krusel N, Packham D, Tapper N. 1993. Wildfire activity in the Mallee shrubland of Victoria, Australia. Int. J. Wildland Fire 3:217–27 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lamont BB, Ward DF, Eldridge J, Korczynshyj D, Colangelo WI. et al. 2003. Believing the Balga: a new method for gauging the fire history of vegetation using grasstrees. In Fire in Ecosystems of South-West Western Australia: Impacts and Management ed. I Abbott, N Burrows, MD Fox, AS George pp. 146–69 Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys [Google Scholar]
  47. Leahy PJ, Tibby J, Kershaw AP, Heijnis H, Kershaw JS. 2005. The impact of European settlement on Bolin Billabong, a Yarra River floodplain lake, Melbourne, Australia. River Res. Appl. 21:131–49 [Google Scholar]
  48. Levine JS, Cofer WR III, Cahoon DRJ, Winstead EL. 1995. Biomass burning: a driver for global change. Environm. Sci. Technol. 29:120A–25 [Google Scholar]
  49. Long CJ, Whitlock C, Bartlein PJ, Millspaugh SH. 1998. A 9000-year fire history from the Oregon Coast Range, based on a high-resolution charcoal study. Can. J. Fores. Res. 28:774–87 [Google Scholar]
  50. Luly JG. 2001. On the equivocal fate of Late Pleistocene Callitris Vent. (Cupressaceae) woodlands in arid south Australia. Quaternary Int. 83:155–68 [Google Scholar]
  51. Lynch AH, Rivers AR, Bartlein PJ. 2003. An assessment of the influence of land cover uncertainties on the simulation of global climate in the early Holocene. Clim. Dyn. 21:241–56 [Google Scholar]
  52. Lynch JA, Clark JS, Stocks BJ. 2004. Charcoal production, dispersal, and deposition from the Fort Provence experimental fire: interpreting fire regimes from charcoal records in boreal forests. Can. J. Forest Res. 34:1642–56 [Google Scholar]
  53. Marshall AG, Lynch AH. 2006. Time slice analysis of the Australian summer monsoon during the late Quaternary using the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model. J. Quat. Sci. 21:789–801 [Google Scholar]
  54. Martinson DG, Pisias NG, Hays JD, Imbrie J, More TC, Shackleton NJ. 1987. Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages: development of a high-resolution 0–300,000-year chronostratigraphy. Quaternary Res. 27:1–27 [Google Scholar]
  55. McGlone MS, Kershaw AP, Markgraf V. 1992. El Niño/Southern Oscillation climatic variability in Australasian and South American palaeoenvironmental records. In El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation ed. HF Diaz, V Markgraf pp. 435–62 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  56. McKenzie GM. 1997. The Late Quaternary vegetation history of the south-central highlands of Victoria, Australia. I. Sites above 900 m. Aust. J. Ecol. 22:19–36 [Google Scholar]
  57. McLeod A. 2004. Spatial and temporal vegetation variation and soil processes interpreted from soil charcoal, Central Highlands, Victoria, Australia. Aust. Quat. Assoc. Conf. Abstr. pp. 33–34 Cradle Mountain, Tasmania [Google Scholar]
  58. Miller GH, McGee JW, Johnson BJ, Fogel ML, Spooner NA. et al. 1999. Pleistocene extinction of Genyornis Newtoni: human impact on Australian megafauna. Science 283:205–8 [Google Scholar]
  59. Miller GH, Mangan J, Pollard D, Thompson S, Felzer B, McGee J. 2005. Sensitivity of the Australian monsoon to insolation and vegetation: implications for human impact on continental moisture balance. Geol. Soc. Am. 33:65–68 [Google Scholar]
  60. Millspaugh SH, Whitlock C, Bartlein PJ. 2000. Variations in fire frequency and climate over the past 17,000 yr in central Yellowstone National Park. Geology 28:211–14 [Google Scholar]
  61. Mooney S, Radford K. 2001. A simple and fast method for the quantification of microscopic charcoal in sediments. Quat. Aust. 19:43–46 [Google Scholar]
  62. Mooney SD, Radford KL, Hancock G. 2001. Clues to the ‘burning question’: pre-European fire in the Sydney coastal region from sedimentary charcoal and palynology. Ecol. Manag. Restor. 2:203–12 [Google Scholar]
  63. Mooney SD, Black MP. 2003. A simple and fast method for calculating the area of macroscopic charcoal isolated from sediments. Quat. Aust. 21:18–21 [Google Scholar]
  64. Mooney SD, Maltby EL. 2006. Two proxy records revealing the late Holocene fire history at a site on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. Aust. Ecol. 31:682–95 [Google Scholar]
  65. Moss PT. 1999. Late Quaternary environments of the humid Tropics of northeastern Australia. PhD thesis, Melbourne: Monash Univ., 269 pp.
  66. Moss PT, Kershaw AP. 2000. The last glacial cycle from the humid Tropics of northeastern Australia: comparison of a terrestrial and a marine record. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 155:155–76 [Google Scholar]
  67. Moy CM, Seltzer GO, Rodbell DT, Anderson DM. 2002. Variability of El Niño/Southern Oscillation activity at millennial timescales during the Holocene epoch. Nature 420:162–65 [Google Scholar]
  68. Nicholls N, Collins D, Trewin B, Hope P. 2006. Historical instrumental climate data for Australia—quality and utility for palaeoclimate studies. J. Quaternary. Res. 21:681–88 [Google Scholar]
  69. Ohlson M, Tryterud E. 2000. Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal. Holocene 10:519–25 [Google Scholar]
  70. Peerdeman FM, Davies PJ, Chivas AR. 1993. The stable oxygen isotope signal in shallow-water, upper-slope sediments off the Great Barrier Reef. (Hole 820A). Proc. Ocean Drilling Program Sci. Res. 133:163–73 [Google Scholar]
  71. Rivers AR, Lynch AH. 2004. On the influence of land cover on early Holocene climate in northern latitudes. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 109 Art. No. D21114 [Google Scholar]
  72. Roberts RG, Jones R, Smith MA. 1990. Thermoluminescence dating of a 50,000 year-old human occupation site in northern Australia. Nature 345:153–56 [Google Scholar]
  73. Roberts RG, Jones R, Spooner NA, Head MJ, Murray AS, Smith MA. 1994. The human colonization of Australia—optical dates of 53,000 and 60,000 years bracket human arrival at Deaf-Adder Gorge, Northern Territory. Quat. Sci. Rev. 13:575–83 [Google Scholar]
  74. Rodbell DT, Seltzer GO, Anderson DM, Abbott MB, Enfield DB, Newman JH. 1999. An ∼15,000-year record of El Niño-driven alluviation in southwestern Ecuador. Science 283:516–20 [Google Scholar]
  75. Russell-Smith J, Yates C, Edwards A, Allan GE, Cook GD. 2003. Contemporary fire regimes of northern Australia, 1997–2001: change since Aboriginal occupancy, challenges for sustainable management. Int. J. Wildl. Fire 12:283–97 [Google Scholar]
  76. Russell-Smith J. 2004. Bushfire in a Changing Environment. New South Wales, Aust.: Nat. Conserv. Council [Google Scholar]
  77. Sandweiss DH, Richardson JB, Reitz EJ, Rollins HB, Maasch KA. 1996. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5000 years BP onset of El Nino. Science 273:1531–33 [Google Scholar]
  78. Singh G, Kershaw AP, Clark R. 1981. Quaternary vegetation and fire history in Australia. In Fire and Australian Biota ed. AM Gill, RA Groves, IR Noble pp. 23–54 Canberra: Australian Acad. Sci. [Google Scholar]
  79. Singh G, Luly J. 1991. Changes in the vegetation and seasonal climate since the last full glacial at Lake Frome, South Australia. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 84:75–86 [Google Scholar]
  80. Sitch S, Smith BP, Prentice IC. 2003. Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Glob. Chan. Biol. 9:161–85 [Google Scholar]
  81. Smith DM, Gritten H, Goldberg ED. 1973. Elemental carbon in marine sediments: a baseline for burning. Nature 241:268–70 [Google Scholar]
  82. Spessa A, Harrison SP, Prentice IC, Cramer W, Mahowald N. 2003. Confronting a burning question: the role of fire on Earth. Eos. Trans. AGU 84:(3)23 [Google Scholar]
  83. Thonicke K, Venevsky S, Sitch S, Cramer W. 2001. The role of fire disturbance for global vegetation dynamics: coupling fire into a dynamic global vegetation model. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. Lett. 10:661–77 [Google Scholar]
  84. Tibby J, Kershaw AP, Builth H, Philibert A, White C, Hope GS. 2006. Environmental change and variability in southwestern Victoria: changing constraints and opportunities for occupation and land use. In The Social Archaeology of Indigenous Societies: Essays on Aboriginal History in Honour of Harry Lourandos ed. B David, B Barker, I McNiven Canberra: Aboriginal Stud. Press.384pp. [Google Scholar]
  85. Tinner W, Hu FS. 2003. Size parameters, size-class distribution and area-number relationship of microscopic charcoal: relevance for fire reconstruction. Holocene 13:499–505 [Google Scholar]
  86. Turney CSM, Hobbs D. 2006. ENSO influence on Holocene Aboriginal populations. J. Archaeolog. Sci. 33:1744–48 [Google Scholar]
  87. Turney CSM, Bird MI. 2002. Determining the Timing and Pattern of Human Colonisation in Australia: Proposals for Radiocarbon Dating ‘Early’ Sequences. Aust. Archaeol. 54:1–5 [Google Scholar]
  88. Turney CSM, Bird MI, Fifield LK, Kershaw AP, Cresswell RG. et al. 2001a. Development of a robust 14C chronology for Lynch's Crater (North Queensland, Australia) using different pretreatment strategies. Radiocarbon 43:45–54 [Google Scholar]
  89. Turney CSM, Bird MI, Fifield LK, Roberts RG, Smith MA. et al. 2001b. Early human occupation at Devil's Lair, southwestern Australia 50,000 years ago. Quaternary Res. 55:3–13 [Google Scholar]
  90. Turney CSM, Bird MI, Roberts RG. 2001c. Elemental δ13C at Allen's Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Australia: assessing post-depositional disturbance and reconstructing past environments. J. Quat. Sci. 16:779–84 [Google Scholar]
  91. Turney CSM, Kershaw AP, Clemens SC, Branch N, Moss PT, Fifield LK. 2004. Millenial and orbital variations of El Niño/Southern Oscillation and high-latitude climate in the Last Glacial Period. Nature 428:306–10 [Google Scholar]
  92. Turney CSM, Kershaw AP, Moss P, Bird MI, Fifield LK. et al. 2001d. Redating the onset of burning at Lynch's Crater (North Queensland): implications for human settlement in Australia. J. Quat. Sci. 16:767–71 [Google Scholar]
  93. van der Kaars S. 2001. Pollen distribution in marine sediments from the south-eastern Indonesian waters. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 171:341–61 [Google Scholar]
  94. van der Kaars WA, De Deckker P. 2002. A Late Quaternary pollen record from deap-sea core Fr10/95, GC17 offshore Cape Range Peninsula, northwestern western Australia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 120:17–39 [Google Scholar]
  95. van der Kaars WA, De Deckker P. 2003. Pollen distribution in marine surface sediments offshore western Australia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 124:113–29 [Google Scholar]
  96. Venevsky S, Thonicke K, Sitch S, Cramer W. 2002. Simulating fire regimes in human-dominated ecosystems: Iberian Peninsula case study. Global Change Biol. 8:984–98 [Google Scholar]
  97. Wahlquist A. 2006. Deadly cost of arson. In The Australian. 25 January 2006 [Google Scholar]
  98. Walker D, Chen Y. 1987. Palynological light on tropical rainforest dynamics. Quat. Sci. Rev. 6:77–92 [Google Scholar]
  99. Wang X, van der Kaars S, Kershaw P, Bird M, Jansen F. 1999. A record of fire, vegetation and climate through the last three glacial cycles from Lombok Ridge Core G6-4, eastern Indian Ocean, Indonesia. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 147:241 [Google Scholar]
  100. Ward DJ, Lamont BB, Burrows CL. 2001. Grasstrees reveal contrasting fire regimes in eucalypt forest before and after European settlement of southwestern Australia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 150:323–29 [Google Scholar]
  101. Wardle R. 2003. Using anticyclonicity to determine the position of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies: implications for the LGM. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30:Art. No. 2200 [Google Scholar]
  102. Whitlock C, Millspaugh SH. 1996. Testing the assumptions of fire history studies: an examination of modern charcoal accumulation in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Holocene 6:7–15 [Google Scholar]
  103. Williams A, Karoly D, Tapper N. 2001. The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Clim. Chan. 49:171–91 [Google Scholar]
  104. Wyputta U, McAvaney BJ. 2001. Influence of vegetation changes during the Last Glacial Maximum using the BMRC Atmospheric General Circulation Model. Clim. Dyn. 17:923–32 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error