are gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature, carried by the majority of insect species as well as some mites, crustaceans, and filarial nematodes. can range from parasitic to symbiotic, depending upon the interaction with the host species. The success of is attributed to efficient maternal transmission and manipulations of host reproduction that favor infected females, such as sperm-egg cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Much remains unknown about the mechanistic basis for -host interactions. Here we summarize the current understanding of interaction with insect hosts, with a focus on . The areas of discussion include transmission in oogenesis, distribution in spermatogenesis, induction and rescue of the CI phenotype, genomics, and -membrane interactions.


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