1932

Abstract

Many internal organs in the vertebrate body are asymmetrically oriented along the left-right (L-R) body axis. Organ asymmetry and some components of the molecular signaling pathways that direct L-R development are highly conserved among vertebrate species. Although individuals with full reversal of organ L-R asymmetry () are healthy, significant morbidity and mortality is associated with perturbations in laterality that result in discordant orientation of organ systems and complex congenital heart defects. In humans and other vertebrates, genetic alterations of L-R signaling pathways can result in a wide spectrum of laterality defects. In this review we categorize laterality defects in humans, mice, and zebrafish into specific classes based on altered patterns of asymmetric gene expression, organ defects, and midline phenotypes. We suggest that this classification system provides a conceptual framework to help consolidate the disparate laterality phenotypes reported in humans and vertebrate model organisms, thereby refining our understanding of the genetics of L-R development. This approach helps suggest candidate genes and genetic pathways that might be perturbed in human laterality disorders and improves diagnostic criteria.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.genom.4.070802.110428
2003-09-01
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.genom.4.070802.110428
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.genom.4.070802.110428
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error