Dyspepsia, defined as “pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen” is reported by one in four adults in Western societies. The most important causes are non-ulcer (functional) dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux, and, rarely, gastric cancer. Persons with heartburn alone are not considered to have dyspepsia. The division of dyspepsia into symptom-based subgroups (ulcer-like, dysmotility-like, reflux-like, and unnspecified dyspepsia) has proven to be of doubtful value for the clinician, as it has a low predictive value for identifying the causes of dyspepsia. Upper endoscopy remains the “gold standard” test; ultrasound and blood tests have a low yield. The role of in peptic ulcer disease is well known, but the clinical role of the infection in non-ulcer dyspepsia remains very controversial. In uninvestigated dyspeptic patients who are infected based on a non-invasive test, empiric anti– therapy is a reasonable and probably cost-effective option. In documented non-ulcer dyspepsia, prokinetics are superior to placebo while antisecretory therapy is of less certain efficacy.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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