Traditionally, clinicians have viewed heart failure either as a problem of excessive salt and water retention caused by abnormalities of renal blood flow, or as a hemodynamic problem associated with a reduced cardiac output and excessive peripheral vasoconstriction. Recently, clinicians have begun to adopt a neurohormonal model in which heart failure progresses because of the toxic effects of endogenous biological systems that become activated in heart failure. We review the rationale for existing heart failure therapies and discuss the reasoning behind the development of some emerging therapies.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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