Intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria subvert all the major cellular functions of their hosts. Targeted host processes include protein synthesis, membrane trafficking, modulation of gene expression, antigen presentation, and apoptosis. In recent years, it has become evident that protozoan pathogens, including members of the phylum Apicomplexa, also hijack their host cell's functions to access nutrients and to escape cellular defenses and immune responses. These obligate intracellular parasites provide superb illustrations of the subversion of host cell processes such as the recruitment and reorganization of host cell compartments without fusion around the parasitophorous vacuole of ; the export of proteins on the surface of infected erythrocytes; and the induced transformation of the lymphocytes infected by which leads to clonal extension.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error