New electron spin resonance (ESR) technologies have been developed, which have led to new and improved applications. () The development of two-dimensional Fourier transform (FT) ESR required spectrometers providing intense π/2 microwave pulses of very short (3–5 ns) duration, wide bandwidths, and very short dead times. It has enabled studies that resolve sophisticated details of molecular dynamics in complex fluids. () Methods that produce multiple quantum coherences by pulsed ESR now enable accurate measurements of large distances (>12Å). () One of the most important advances has been the extension of ESR to high magnetic fields and high frequencies. This has benefited from the utilization of quasi-optical methods, especially above 150 GHz. The greatly improved orientational resolution and the faster “snapshot” of motions that are provided by ESR at high frequencies enhance studies of molecular dynamics. The use of both high and lower frequencies enables one to unravel faster and slower modes from the complex dynamics of fluids and macromolecules. () The development of FT-ESR imaging required substantial pulsed field gradients lasting only 50–100 ns. ESR imaging is effective in studying diffusion in fluids. Areas for further development are also described.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error