Phenylamide-resistant isolates of have gradually become an important part of populations in many countries. However, fungicide mixtures containing a phenylamide component are still an effective strategy for the control of late blight in potato and tomato. The proportion of phenylamide-resistant isolates fluctuates from year to year and within the season. Almost concurrent with the appearance of resistant isolates was the discovery of the A2 mating type of in many European countries and in other parts of the world. However, no genetic correlation exists between resistance and mating type, and the proportion of A2 isolates in European populations remains small. Resistance to phenylamides became established in A1 populations before the appearance of A2 type. Resistant isolates express equal or greater fitness than sensitive isolates, but no correlation was detected between resistance and race structure. The continuous changes in populations require careful adaptation of successful disease control programs.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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