Changes in the levels of Ca2+, pH, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as key cellular regulators involved in diverse physiological and developmental processes in plants. Critical to understanding how they exert such widespread control is an appreciation of their spatial and temporal dynamics at levels from organ to organelle and from seconds to many hours. With appropriate controls, fluorescent sensors can provide a robust approach with which to quantify such changes in Ca2+, pH, and ROS in real time, in vivo. The fluorescent cellular probes available for visualization split into two broad classes: () dyes and () an increasingly diverse set of genetically encoded sensors based around green fluorescent proteins (GFPs). The GFP probes in particular can be targeted to well-defined subcellular locales, offering the possibility of high-resolution mapping of these signals within the cell.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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