As fixed organisms, plants are especially affected by changes in their environment and have consequently evolved extensive mechanisms for acclimation and adaptation. Initially considered by-products from aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as major regulatory molecules in plants and their roles in early signaling events initiated by cellular metabolic perturbation and environmental stimuli are now established. Here, we review recent advances in ROS signaling. Compartment-specific and cross-compartmental signaling pathways initiated by the presence of ROS are discussed. Special attention is dedicated to established and hypothetical ROS-sensing events. The roles of ROS in long-distance signaling, immune responses, and plant development are evaluated. Finally, we outline the most challenging contemporary questions in the field of plant ROS biology and the need to further elucidate mechanisms allowing sensing, signaling specificity, and coordination of multiple signals.


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