This is a tale of a career in plant physiological ecology that enjoyed the freedom to address photosynthetic physiology and biochemistry in leaves of plants from diverse environments. It was supported by block funding (now sadly a thing of the past) for research at the Australian National University, by grants during appointments in the United States and in Germany, and by Columbia University. It became a “career experiment” in which long-term, high-trust support for curiosity-driven plant biology in Australia, and at times in the United States, led to surprisingly innovative results. Although the rich diversity of short-term competitive grant opportunities in the United States sustained ongoing research, it proved difficult to mobilize support for more risky long-term projects. A decade after the closure of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory, this article highlights the achievements of colleagues in experimental climate change research from 1998 to 2003.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abrell L, Guerenstein PG, Mechaber WL, Stange G, Christensen TA. 1.  et al. 2005. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on oviposition behaviour in Manduca sexta moths. Glob. Change Biol. 11:1272–82Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams WW III, Osmond CB, Sharkey TD. 2.  1987. Response of two CAM species to different irradiances during growth and susceptibility to photoinhibition by high light. Plant Physiol. 83:213–18 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ananyev G, Kolber ZS, Klimov D, Falkowski PG, Berry JA. 3.  et al. 2005. Remote sensing of heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, electron transport and dissipation of excess light in Populus deltoides stands under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, and in a tropical forest canopy, using a new laser-induced fluorescence transient (LIFT) device. Glob. Change Biol. 11:1195–206Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  4. Arain MA, Shuttleworth WJ, Farnsworth B, Adams J, Sen OL. 4.  2000. Comparing micrometeorology of rain forests in Biosphere-2 and Amazon basin. Agric. For. Meteorol. 100:273–89Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  5. Arnold DN, Fowler KA. 5.  2011. Nefarious numbers. Not. Am. Math. Soc. 58:434–37 [Google Scholar]
  6. Atkinson MJ, Barnett H, Aceves H, Langdon C, Carpenter SJ. 6.  et al. 1999. The Biosphere 2 coral reef biome. Ecol. Eng. 13:147–71Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  7. Atkinson MJ, Falter J, Hearn J. 7.  2001. Nutrient dynamics in the Biosphere 2 coral reef mesocosm: water velocity controls NH4 and PO4 uptake. Coral Reefs 20:12–21Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  8. Azcon-Bieto J, Osmond CB. 8.  1983. Relationship between photosynthesis and dark respiration. The effect of carbohydrate status on the rate of CO2 production by dark respiration in darkened and illuminated wheat leaves. Plant Physiol. 71:574–81 [Google Scholar]
  9. Badger MR, Andrews TJ, Osmond CB. 9.  1975. Detection in C3, C4 and CAM plant leaves of a low Km(CO2) form of RuDP carboxylase, having high RuDP oxygenase activity at physiological pH. Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Photosynthesis Research M Avron 1421–29 Amsterdam: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  10. Balachandran S, Osmond CB, Daley PF. 10.  1994. Diagnosis of the earliest strain-specific interactions between tobacco mosaic virus and chloroplasts of tobacco leaves in-vivo by means of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Plant Physiol. 104:1058–65 [Google Scholar]
  11. Barron-Gafford GA, Grieve KA, Murthy R. 11.  2007. Leaf- and stand-level responses of a forested mesocosm to independent manipulations of temperature and vapor pressure deficit. New Phytol. 174:614–25Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  12. Barron-Gafford GA, Martens D, Grieve K, Biel K, Kudeyarov V. 12.  et al. 2005. Growth of Eastern Cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in elevated [CO2] stimulates stand-level respiration and rhizodeposition of carbohydrates, accelerates soil nutrient depletion, yet stimulates above- and belowground biomass production. Glob. Change Biol. 11:1220–33Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  13. Ben G-Y, Osmond CB, Sharkey TD. 13.  1987. Comparisons of photosynthetic responses of Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus to chronic and acute water stress in sun and shade. Plant Physiol. 84:476–82 [Google Scholar]
  14. Berry JA. 14.  2012. There ought to be an equation for that. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 63:1–17 [Google Scholar]
  15. Berry JA, Osmond CB, Lorimer GH. 15.  1978. Fixation of 18O2 during photorespiration: kinetic and steady state studies of the photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle with intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts of C3 plants. Plant Physiol. 62:954–67 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bil' KY. 16.  2000. Yurii S. Karpilov: the man, the scientist, and discoverer of cooperative photosynthesis.. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 47:565–68 [Google Scholar]
  17. Biskup B, Küsters R, Scharr H, Walter A, Rascher U. 17.  2009. Quantification of plant surface structures from small baseline stereo images to measure the three-dimensional surface from the leaf to canopy scale. Nova Acta Leopoldina 96:35731–47Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  18. Boardman NK, Osmond CB, Lüttge U. 18.  2002. Michael George Pitman 1933–2000. Hist. Rec. Aust. Sci. 14:193–208 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bobich EG. 19.  2005. Vegetative reproduction, population structure, and morphology of Cylindropuntia fulgida var. Mamillata in a desert grassland. Int. J. Plant Sci. 166:97–104Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  20. Bobich EG, Barron-Gafford GA, Rascher KG, Murthy R. 20.  2010. Effects of drought and changes in vapour pressure deficit on water relations of Populus deltoides growing in ambient and elevated CO2. Tree Physiol. 30:866–75Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  21. Borowitzka MA, Larkum AWD. 21.  1976. Calcification in the green alga Halimeda III. The sources of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis and calcification and a model of the mechanism of calcification. J. Exp. Bot. 27:879–93 [Google Scholar]
  22. Broecker WS. 22.  1996. The Biosphere and me. GSA Today 6:71–7 [Google Scholar]
  23. Broecker WS, Langdon C, Takahashi T, Peng T-S. 23.  2001. Factors controlling the rate of CaCO3 precipitation on Grand Bahama Bank. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 15:589–96Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  24. Burr GO, Hartt CE, Brodie HW, Tanimoto T, Kortschak HP. 24.  et al. 1957. The sugarcane plant. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 8:275–98 [Google Scholar]
  25. Canvin DT, Berry JA, Badger MR, Fock H, Osmond CB. 25.  1980. Oxygen exchange in leaves in the light. Plant Physiol. 66:302–7 [Google Scholar]
  26. Casper C, Eickmeier WG, Osmond CB. 26.  1993. Changes of fluorescence and xanthophyll pigments during dehydration in the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla in low and medium light intensities. Oecologia 94:528–33 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cernusak LA, Winter K, Dalling JW, Holtum JAM, Jaramillo C. 27.  et al. 2013. Tropical forest responses to increasing atmospheric CO2: current knowledge and opportunities for future research. Funct. Plant Biol. 40:531–55 [Google Scholar]
  28. Colodner D, Fine L, Harris W, Venkataraman B. 28.  2001. Biosphere 2: a place for integrative studies in chemical research and chemical education in defense of planet Earth. J. Chem. Educ. 78:144–49Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  29. Cornic G, Woo KC, Osmond CB. 29.  1982. Photoinhibition of CO2-dependent O2 evolution by intact chloroplasts from spinach leaves. Plant Physiol. 70:1310–15 [Google Scholar]
  30. de Wit CT. 30.  1970. Dynamic concepts in biology. Prediction and Measurement of Photosynthetic Productivity: Proceedings of the IBB/PP Technical Meeting, Trebon, 1969 I Šetlîk 17–23 Wageningen, Neth.: Cent. Agric. Publ. Doc. [Google Scholar]
  31. Druart N, Rodríguez-Buey M, Barron-Gafford G, Sjödin A, Bhalerao R. 31.  et al. 2006. Effects of elevated CO2 on gene expression in leaves and stems of cottonwood grown in the intensive forest biome at Biosphere 2: implications for tree growth. Funct. Plant Biol. 33:121–31Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  32. Engel VC, Griffin KL, Murthy R, Patterson L, Klimas C. 32.  et al. 2004. Growth CO2 modifies the hydraulic response to drought and vapor pressure deficit. Tree Physiol. 24:1137–45Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  33. Esteban R, Jiménez MS, Morales D, Jiménez ET, Hormaetxe K. 33.  et al. 2006. Short- and long-term modulation of the lutein-epoxide and violaxanthin cycles in two species of the Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Plant Biol. 10:288–97 [Google Scholar]
  34. Evans LT. 34.  2003. Conjectures, refutations and extrapolations. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54:1–21 [Google Scholar]
  35. Falter J, Atkinson MJ, Langdon C. 35.  2001. Production-respiration relationships at different time-scales within the Biosphere 2 coral reef biome. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46:1653–60Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  36. Ferrar PJ, Osmond CB. 36.  1986. Nitrogen supply as a factor influencing photoinhibition and photosynthetic acclimation after transfer of shade grown Solanum dulcamara to bright light. Planta 168:563–70 [Google Scholar]
  37. Flexas J, Badger M, Chow WS, Medrano H, Osmond CB. 37.  1999. Analysis of the relative increase in photosynthetic O2 evolution when photosynthesis in grapevine leaves is inhibited following low night temperature and/or water stress. Plant Physiol. 121:675–84 [Google Scholar]
  38. Förster B, Osmond CB, Pogson BJ. 38.  2005. Improved survival of very high light and oxidative stress is conferred by spontaneous gain-of-function mutations in Chlamydomonas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1709:45–57 [Google Scholar]
  39. Förster B, Osmond CB, Pogson BJ. 39.  2011. Lutein from de-epoxidation of lutein epoxide replaces zeaxanthin to sustain enhanced capacity for nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in avocado shade leaves in the dark. Plant Physiol. 156:393–403 [Google Scholar]
  40. Foster SG, Varghese MM. 40.  1996. The Making of the Australian National University St. Leonards, Aust.: Allen & Unwin [Google Scholar]
  41. Furbank RT. 41.  2009. Plant phenomics: from gene to form and function. Funct. Plant Biol. 36:v–vi [Google Scholar]
  42. Furbank RT, Badger MR, Osmond CB. 42.  1983. Photo-reduction of oxygen in mesophyll chloroplasts of C4 plants. A model system for studying an in vivo Mehler reaction. Plant Physiol. 73:1038–41 [Google Scholar]
  43. Gonzalez-Meler MA, Rucks JS, Aubanell G. 42a.  2014. Mechanistic insights on the responses of plant and ecosystem gas exchange to global environmental change: lessons from Biosphere 2. Plant Sci In press: [Google Scholar]
  44. Gouws LM, Osmond CB, Schurr U, Walter A. 43.  2005. Distinctive diel growth cycles in leaves and cladodes of CAM plants: complex interactions with substrate availability, turgor and cytoplasmic pH. Funct. Plant Biol. 32:421–28Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  45. Greenway H, Osmond CB. 44.  1972. Electrolyte responses of enzymes from species differing in salt tolerance. Plant Physiol. 49:256–59 [Google Scholar]
  46. Griffin KL, Anderson OR, Gastrich MD, Lewis JD, Lin G-H. 45.  et al. 2001. Plant growth in elevated CO2 alters mitochondrial number and chloroplast fine structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:2473–78Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  47. Griffin KL, Turnbull MH, Murthy R. 46.  2002. The effect of canopy position on the temperature response of leaf respiration in Populus deltoides. New Phytol. 154:609–19Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  48. Griffin KL, Turnbull MH, Murthy R, Lin G-H, Adams J. 47.  et al. 2002. Leaf respiration is differentially affected by leaf versus stand-level night-time warming. Glob. Change Biol. 8:479–85Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  49. Harari H. 48.  2003. Assigning funds between competing disciplines. Science Between Evaluation and Innovation: A Conference on Peer Review U Opolka 249–55 München, Ger.: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft [Google Scholar]
  50. Harte J. 49.  2002. Towards a synthesis of the Newtonian and Darwinian world views. Phys. Today 55:29–39 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hartley IP, Armstrong AF, Murthy R, Barron-Gafford GA, Ineson P. 50.  et al. 2006. The dependence of respiration on photosynthetic substrate supply and temperature: integrating leaf, soil and ecosystem measurements. Glob. Change Biol. 12:1954–68Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  52. Hatch MD, Osmond CB, Slatyer RO. 51.  1971. Photosynthesis and Photorespiration New York: Wiley-Interscience [Google Scholar]
  53. Hatch MD, Osmond CB, Wiskich JT. 52.  2003. Rutherford Ness Robertson 1913–2001. Hist. Rec. Aust. Sci. 14:485–507 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hattersley PW, Watson L, Osmond CB. 53.  1977. In situ immunofluorescent labelling of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in C3 and C4 plants. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 4:523–39 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hearn CJ, Atkinson MJ, Falter J. 54.  2001. A physical derivation of nutrient uptake rates in coral reefs: effects of roughness and waves. Coral Reefs 20:5–11Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  56. Heifetz PB, Förster B, Osmond CB, Giles LJ, Boynton JE. 55.  2000. Effects of acetate on facultative autotrophy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii assessed by photosynthetic measurements and stable isotope analysis. Plant Physiol. 122:1439–45 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hendrickson L, Ball MC, Osmond CB, Furbank RT, Chow WS. 56.  2003. Assessment of photoprotection mechanisms of grapevine at low temperature. Funct. Plant Biol. 30:621–42 [Google Scholar]
  58. Henley WJ, Levavasseur G, Franklin LA, Osmond CB, Ramus J. 57.  1991. Photoacclimation and photoinhibition in Ulva rotundata as influenced by nitrogen availability. Planta 184:235–43 [Google Scholar]
  59. Ho DT, Zappa CJ, McGillis WR, Bliven LF, Ward B. 58.  et al. 2004. Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: lessons from a model ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 109:C08S18Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  60. Holtum JAM, Osmond CB. 59.  1981. Gluconeogenesis during pyruvate metabolism in the light. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 8:31–44 [Google Scholar]
  61. Huang L-K, Osmond CB, Terashima I. 60.  1989. Chilling injury in mature leaves of rice. II. Varietal differences in response to the interactions between low temperature and light measured by chlorophyll fluorescence at 77K and the quantum yield of photosynthesis. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 16:339–52 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hurry V, Anderson JM, Chow WS, Osmond CB. 61.  1997. Accumulation of zeaxanthinin abscisic acid-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis does not affect chloroplast fluorescence quenching or sensitivity to photoinhibition in vivo. Plant Physiol. 113:639–48 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jia HS, Förster B, Chow WS, Pogson BJ, Osmond CB. 62.  2013. Decreased photochemical efficiency of photosystem II following sunlight exposure of shade-grown leaves of avocado (Persea americana Mill.): because of, or in spite of, two kinetically distinct xanthophyll cycles?. Plant Physiol. 161:836–52 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jones HG, Osmond CB. 63.  1973. Photosynthesis of thin leaf slices in solution. I. Preparation and properties. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 26:15–24 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kamen MD. 64.  1963. Primary Processes in Photosynthesis New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  66. Karpilov YS. 65.  1960. The distribution of radioactivity in carbon 14 among the products of photosynthesis in maize. Proc. Kazan Agric. Inst. 41:15–24 (in Russian) [Google Scholar]
  67. Keeley JE, Osmond CB, Raven JA. 66.  1984. Stylites, a vascular land plant without stomata absorbs CO2 via its roots. Nature 310:694–95 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kluge M, Osmond CB. 67.  1971. Pyruvate Pi dikinase in Crassulacean acid metabolism. Naturwissenschaften 58:514–15 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kolber Z, Klimov D, Ananyev G, Rascher U, Berry J. 68.  et al. 2005. Measuring photosynthetic parameters at a distance: Laser Induced Fluorescence Transient (LIFT) method for remote measurements of PSII in terrestrial vegetation. Photosynth. Res. 84:121–29Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  70. Kortschak HP, Hartt CE, Burr GO. 69.  1965. Carbon dioxide fixation in sugar cane leaves. Plant Physiol. 40:209–13 [Google Scholar]
  71. Krause GH, Kirk M, Heber U, Osmond CB. 70.  1978. O2-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic capacity in intact isolated chloroplasts and isolated cells from spinach leaves illuminated in the absence of CO2. Planta 142:229–33 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kudeyarov VN, Biel K, Blagodatsky SA, Semenov VM, Dem'yanova EG. 70a.  et al. 2006. Fertilising effect of the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration in the atmosphere Eurasian Soil Sci 39S6–18Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  73. Kudeyarov VN, Ponizovsky AA, Bil' KY, Blagodatsky SA, Semenov VM. 71.  et al. 2002. The soil in the experiment of the Biosphere 2 Center (USA). Eurasian Soil Sci. 34:S48–56Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  74. Kuhn TS. 72.  1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  75. Laisk A, Oja V. 73.  1998. Dynamics of Leaf Photosynthesis: Rapid-Response Measurements and Their Interpretation Tech. Plant Sci. 1 Melbourne, Aust.: CSIRO [Google Scholar]
  76. Langdon C, Atkinson MJ. 74.  2005. Effect of elevated pCO2 on photosynthesis and calcification of corals and interactions with seasonal change in temperature/irradiance and nutrient enrichment. J. Geophys. Res 110:C09S07Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  77. Langdon C, Broecker W, Hammond D, Glenn E, Fitzsimmons K. 75.  et al. 2003. Effect of elevated CO2 on the community metabolism of an experimental coral reef. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 17:1–14Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  78. Langdon C, Takahashi T, Marubini F, Atkinson MJ, Sweeney C. 76.  et al. 2000. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 14:639–54Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  79. Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H. 77.  1982. Introduction: perspectives in ecological plant physiology. Physiological Plant Ecology I: Responses to the Physical Environment OL Lange, PS Nobel, CB Osmond, H Ziegler, pp. 1–9. Encycl. Plant Physiol. New Ser 12 A Heidelberg, Ger.: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  80. Lawrence PA. 78.  2009. Real lives and white lies in the funding of scientific research. PLoS Biol. 7:e1000197 [Google Scholar]
  81. Li Z, Ahn TK, Avenson TJ, Ballottari M, Cruz JA. 79.  et al. 2009. Lutein accumulation in the absence of zeaxanthin restores nonphotochemical chlorophyll quenching in the Arabidopsis thaliana npq1 mutant. Plant Cell 21:1798–812 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lin G, Adams J, Farnsworth B, Wei Y, Marino BVD. 80.  et al. 1999. Ecosystem carbon exchange in two terrestrial ecosystem mesocosms under changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Oecologia 119:97–108Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  83. Lin G, Marino BDV, Wei Y, Adams J, Tubiello F. 81.  et al. 1998. An experimental and model study of the responses in ecosystem exchanges to increasing CO2 concentrations using a tropical rainforest mesocosm. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25:547–56Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  84. Lipson DA, Blair M, Barron-Gafford G, Grieve K, Murthy R. 82.  2005. Relationships between microbial diversity and soil processes under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Microb. Ecol. 51:302–14Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  85. Lohaus G, Heldt HW, Osmond CB. 83.  2000. Infection with phloem limited Abutilon mosaic virus causes localized carbohydrate accumulation in leaves of Abutilon striatum: relationships to symptom development and effects on chlorophyll fluorescence quenching during photosynthetic induction. Plant Biol. 2:161–67 [Google Scholar]
  86. Lovelock J. 84.  1990. The Ages of Gaia New York: Bantam [Google Scholar]
  87. Lüttge U, Hütt M-T. 85.  2009. Talking patterns: communication of organisms at different levels of organization—an alternative view on systems biology. Nova Acta Leopoldina 96:357161–74 [Google Scholar]
  88. Macilwain C. 86.  2013. Halt the avalanche of performance metrics. Nature 500:255 [Google Scholar]
  89. Makino A, Osmond CB. 87.  1991. Effects of nitrogen nutrition on nitrogen partitioning between chloroplasts and mitochondria in pea and wheat. Plant Physiol. 96:355–62 [Google Scholar]
  90. Marino BDV, Odum HT. 88.  1999. Biosphere 2: Research Past and Present Amsterdam: Elsevier Reprinted from a special issue of Ecological Engineering (Vol. 13, Nos. 1–4) Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  91. Marubini F, Barnett H, Langdon C, Atkinson MJ. 89.  2001. Dependence of calcification on light and carbonate ion concentration for the hermatypic coral Porites compressa. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 220:153–62Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  92. Matsubara S, Förster B, Waterman M, Robinson SA, Pogson BJ. 90.  et al. 2013. From ecophysiology to phenomics: some implications of photoprotection and shade-sun acclimation in situ for dynamics of thylakoids in vitro. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 367:3503–14 [Google Scholar]
  93. Matsubara S, Krause GH, Seltmann M, Virgo A, Kursar TA. 91.  et al. 2008. Lutein epoxide cycle, light harvesting and photoprotection in species of the tropical tree genus Inga. Plant Cell Environ. 31:548–61 [Google Scholar]
  94. Matsubara S, Morosinotto T, Osmond CB, Bassi R. 92.  2007. Short- and long-term operation of the lutein-epoxide cycle in light-harvesting antenna complexes. Plant Physiol. 144:926–41 [Google Scholar]
  95. Matsubara S, Naumann M, Martin R, Rascher U, Nichol C. 93.  et al. 2005. Slowly reversible de-epoxidation of lutein-epoxide in deep shade leaves of a tropical tree legume may “lock-in” lutein-based photoprotection during acclimation to strong light. J. Exp. Bot. 56:461–67Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  96. 94. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 2013. A short portrait of the Max Planck Society http://www.mpg.de/183251/portrait [Google Scholar]
  97. Maxwell K, Badger MR, Osmond CB. 95.  1998. A comparison of CO2 and O2 exchange patterns and the relationship with chlorophyll fluorescence during photosynthesis in C3 and CAM plants. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25:45–52 [Google Scholar]
  98. Mayer KU. 96.  2003. Introduction. Science Between Evaluation and Innovation: A Conference on Peer Review U Opolka 27–32 M: ünchen, Ger.: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft [Google Scholar]
  99. Mervis J. 97.  2003. Bye, bye Biosphere 2. Science 302:2053 [Google Scholar]
  100. Moore WS, Liu T, Broecker WS, Finkel RC, Wright A. 98.  2001. Factors influencing 7Be accumulation on rock varnish. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28:4475–78Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  101. Murthy R, Barron-Gafford G, Dougherty PM, Engel VC, Grieve K. 99.  et al. 2005. Increased leaf area dominates carbon flux response to elevated CO2 in stands of Populus deltoides (Bartr.) and underlies a switch from canopy light-limited CO2 influx in well-watered treatments to individual leaf, stomatally-limited influx under water stress. Glob. Change Biol. 11:716–31Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  102. Murthy R, Griffin KL, Zarnoch SJ, Dougherty PM, Watson B. 100.  et al. 2003. Response of carbon dioxide efflux from a 550 m3 soil bed to a range of soil temperatures. For. Ecol. Manag. 178:311–27Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  103. Nichol CJ, Pieruschka R, Takayama K, Förster B, Kolber Z. 101.  et al. 2012. Canopy conundrums: building on the Biosphere 2 experience to scale measurements of inner and outer canopy photoprotection from the leaf to the canopy. Funct. Plant Biol. 39:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  104. Nichol CJ, Rascher U, Matsubara S, Osmond CB. 102.  2006. Detecting quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching in an experimental mangrove canopy using optical remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf biochemistry. Trees Struct. Funct. 20:9–15Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  105. Nobel PS, Bobich EG. 103.  2002. Initial net CO2 uptake responses and root growth for a CAM community placed in a closed environment. Ann. Bot. 90:593–98Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  106. Öquist G, Benner M. 104.  2012. Fostering breakthrough research: a comparative study Akademirapport, Kungl. Vetenskapsakad., Stockholm [Google Scholar]
  107. Osmond CB. 105.  1963. Oxalates and ionic equilibria in Australian saltbushes (Atriplex). Nature 198:503–5 [Google Scholar]
  108. Osmond CB. 106.  1967. β-Carboxylation photosynthesis in Atriplex. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 141:197–99 [Google Scholar]
  109. Osmond CB. 107.  1971. Metabolite transport in C4 photosynthesis. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 24:159–63 [Google Scholar]
  110. Osmond CB. 108.  1974. Carbon reduction and photosystem II deficiency in leaves of C4 plants. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 1:41–50 [Google Scholar]
  111. Osmond CB. 109.  1978. Crassulacean acid metabolism: a curiosity in context. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 29:379–414 [Google Scholar]
  112. Osmond CB. 110.  1981. Photorespiration and photoinhibition: some implications for the energetics of photosynthesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 639:77–98 [Google Scholar]
  113. Osmond CB. 111.  1995. Quintessential inefficiencies of plant bioenergetics: tales of two cultures. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22:123–29 [Google Scholar]
  114. Osmond CB. 112.  1997. C4 photosynthesis: thirty (or forty?) years on. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 24:409–12 [Google Scholar]
  115. Osmond CB. 113.  2006. Experimental ecosystem and climate change research in controlled environments: lessons from the Biosphere 2 Laboratory 1996–2003. Plant Responses to Air Pollution and Global Change K Omasa, I Nouchi, LJ DeKok 173–84 Tokyo: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  116. Osmond CB. 114.  2007. Crassulacean acid metabolism: now and then. Progress in Botany 68 K Esser, U Lüttge, W Beyschlag, J Murata 1–32 Berlin: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  117. Osmond CB, Akazawa T, Beevers H. 115.  1975. Localization and properties of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase from castor bean endosperm. Plant Physiol. 55:226–30 [Google Scholar]
  118. Osmond CB, Allaway WG, Sutton BG, Troughton JH, Queiroz O. 116.  et al. 1973. Carbon isotope discrimination in photosynthesis in CAM plants. Nature 246:41–42 [Google Scholar]
  119. Osmond CB, Ananyev G, Berry J, Langdon C, Kolber Z. 117.  et al. 2004. Changing the way we think about global change research: scaling up in experimental ecosystem science. Glob. Change Biol. 10:393–407Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  120. Osmond CB, ap Rees T. 118.  1969. Control of the pentose-phosphate pathway in yeast. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 184:35–42 [Google Scholar]
  121. Osmond CB, Avadhani PN. 119.  1968. Acid metabolism in Atriplex. II. Oxalate synthesis during acid metabolism in the dark. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 21:917–27 [Google Scholar]
  122. Osmond CB, Berry JA, Balachandran S, Büchen-Osmond C, Daley PF. 120.  et al. 1990. Potential consequences of virus infection for shade-sun acclimation in leaves. Bot. Acta 103:226–29 [Google Scholar]
  123. Osmond CB, Björkman O, Anderson DJ. 121.  1980. Physiological Processes in Plant Ecology: Toward a Synthesis with Atriplex Ecol. Stud. 36 Heidelberg, Ger.: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  124. Osmond CB, Chow WS. 122.  1988. Ecology of photosynthesis in the sun and shade: summary and prognostications. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 15:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  125. Osmond CB, Förster B. 123.  2006. Photoinhibition: then and now. Photoprotection, Photoinhibition, Gene Regulation, and Environment B Demmig-Adams, WW Adams III, A Mattoo 11–22 Adv. Photosynth. Respir. 21 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  126. Osmond CB, Harris B. 124.  1971. Photorespiration during C4 photosynthesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 234:270–82 [Google Scholar]
  127. Osmond CB, Laties GG. 125.  1969. Compartmentation of malate in relation to ion absorption in beet. Plant Physiol. 44:7–14 [Google Scholar]
  128. Osmond CB, Ludlow MM, Davis RL, Cowan IR, Powles SB. 126.  et al. 1979. Stomatal responses to humidity in Opuntia inermis in relation to control of CO2 and H2O exchange patterns. Oecologia 41:65–76 [Google Scholar]
  129. Osmond CB, Lüttge U, West KR, Pallaghy CK, Shacher-Hill B. 127.  1969. Ion absorption in Atriplex leaf tissue. II. Secretion of ions to epidermal bladders. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 22:797–814 [Google Scholar]
  130. Osmond CB, Neales T, Stange G. 128.  2008. Curiosity and context revisited: Crassulacean acid metabolism in the Anthropocene. J. Exp. Bot. 59:1489–502 [Google Scholar]
  131. Osmond CB, Schwartz O, Gunning B. 129.  1999. Photoinhibitory printing on leaves, visualised by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and confocal microscopy, is due to diminished fluorescence from grana. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 26:717–24 [Google Scholar]
  132. Osmond CB, Valaane N, Haslam SM, Uotila P, Roksandic Z. 130.  1981. Comparisons of δ13C values in leaves of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats in Britain and Finland; some implications for photosynthetic processes in aquatic plants. Oecologia 50:117–24 [Google Scholar]
  133. Osmond CB, Ziegler H. 131.  1975. Schwere Pflanzen und leichte Pflanzen: Stabile Isotope im Photosynthesestoffwechsel und in der Biochemischen Okologie. Naturwiss. Rundsch. 28:323–28 [Google Scholar]
  134. Passioura JB. 132.  1999. A plant science manifesto. Plants in Action: Adaptation in Nature, Performance in Cultivation B Atwell, P Kriedemann, C Turnbull 5–7 South Yarra: Macmillan Educ. Aust http://www.asps.org.au/publications/plants-in-action [Google Scholar]
  135. Pegoraro E, Abrell L, van Haren J, Barron-Gafford G, Grieve K. 133.  et al. 2005. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and drought on plant production and soil consumption of isoprene in a temperate and a tropical rainforest mesocosm. Glob. Change Biol. 11:1234–46Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  136. Pegoraro E, Potasnak M, Monson R, Rey A, Barron-Gafford G. 134.  et al. 2007. The effect of elevated CO2 atmospheric water deficit and seasonal phenology on leaf and ecosystem isoprene emission. Funct. Plant Biol. 34:793–802Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  137. Pegoraro E, Rey A, Barron-Gafford GA, Monson R, Malhi Y. 135.  et al. 2005. The interacting effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, drought and leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit on ecosystem isoprene fluxes. Oecologia 146:120–29Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  138. Pegoraro E, Rey A, Murthy R, Bobich EG, Barron-Gafford G. 136.  et al. 2004. Effect of CO2 concentration and vapor pressure deficit on isoprene emission from leaves of Populus deltoides during drought. Funct. Plant Biol. 31:1137–47Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  139. Peterson AG, Neofotis PG. 137.  2004. A hierarchical analysis of the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and water availability on the nitrogen and transpiration productivities of velvet mesquite seedlings. Oecologia 141:629–40Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  140. Pophof B, Stange G, Abrell L. 138.  2005. Volatile organic compounds as signals in a plant-herbivore system: electrophysiological responses in olfactory sensilla of the moth Cactoblastis cactorum. J. Chem. Ecol. 30:51–68Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  141. Popp M, Osmond CB, Summons RE. 139.  1982. Pathway of malic acid synthesis in response to ion uptake in wheat and lupin roots; evidence from fixation of 13C and 14C. Plant Physiol. 69:1289–92 [Google Scholar]
  142. Powles SB, Osmond CB. 140.  1978. Inhibition of the capacity and efficiency of photosynthesis in bean leaflets illuminated in absence of CO2 at low O2 concentrations—a protective role for photorespiration. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 5:619–29 [Google Scholar]
  143. Rascher U, Bobich EG, Lin G-H, Walter A, Morris T. 141.  et al. 2004. Functional diversity of photosynthesis during drought in model tropical rainforest—the contributions of leaf area, photosynthetic electron transport and stomatal conductance to reduction in net ecosystem carbon exchange. Plant Cell Environ. 27:1239–56Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  144. Rascher U, Bobich EG, Osmond CB. 142.  2006. The “Kluge-Kammer”: preliminary evaluation of an enclosed Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) mesocosm that allows separation of synchronized and desynchronized contributions of CAM plants to whole system gas exchange. Plant Biol. 8:167–74Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  145. Rascher U, Hütt M-T, Siebke K, Osmond CB, Beck F. 143.  et al. 2001. Spatio-temporal variation of metabolism in a plant circadian rhythm: the biological clock as an assembly of coupled individual oscillators. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:11801–5 [Google Scholar]
  146. Rascher U, Nichol CJ, Small C, Hendricks L. 144.  2007. Monitoring spatio-temporal dynamics of photosynthesis with a portable hyperspectral imaging system: a case study to quantify the spatio-temporal effects of drought on the photosynthetic efficiency of leaves of four tropical tree species. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 73:45–56Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  147. Robertson RN. 145.  1951. Mechanisms of absorption and transport of inorganic nutrients in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 2:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  148. Robertson RN. 146.  1992. A dilettante Australian plant physiologist. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 43:1–24 [Google Scholar]
  149. Robinson SA, Yakir D, Ribas-Carbo M, Giles L, Osmond CB. 147.  et al. 1992. Measurements of the engagement of cyanide-resistant respiration in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana with the use of on-line oxygen isotope discrimination. Plant Physiol. 100:1087–91 [Google Scholar]
  150. Rosenstiel T, Potosnak M, Griffin KL, Fall R, Monson R. 148.  2003. Elevated CO2 uncouples growth and isoprene emission in a model agriforest ecosystem. Nature 421:256–59Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  151. Russell AW, Critchley C, Robinson SA, Franklin LA, Seaton GGR. 149.  et al. 1995. Photosystem II regulation and dynamics of the chloroplast D1 protein in Arabidopsis leaves during photosynthesis and photoinhibition. Plant Physiol. 107:943–52 [Google Scholar]
  152. Ruuska S, Andrews TJ, Badger MR, Hudson GS, Laisk A. 150.  et al. 1998. The interplay between limiting processes in C3 photosynthesis studied by rapid-response gas exchange using transgenic tobacco impaired in photosynthesis. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25:859–70 [Google Scholar]
  153. Seemann JR, Sharkey TD, Wang J-L, Osmond CB. 151.  1987. Environmental effects on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency: nitrogen partitioning and metabolite pools in leaves of sun and shade plants. Plant Physiol. 84:796–802 [Google Scholar]
  154. Serjeantson S. 152.  1996. Australia's fifty year experiment: the Institute of Advanced Studies. Nurturing Creativity in Research PM Shearmur, CB Osmond, P Pockley 71–85 Canberra, Aust.: Res. School Biol. Sci. [Google Scholar]
  155. Severinghaus JP, Broecker WS, Dempster WF, MacCallum T, Wahlen M. 153.  1994. Oxygen loss in Biosphere 2. Eos Trans. AGU 75:33–37 [Google Scholar]
  156. Skillman JB, Strain BR, Osmond CB. 154.  1996. Contrasting patterns of photosynthetic acclimation and photoinhibition in two evergreen herbs from a winter deciduous forest. Oecologia 107:446–55 [Google Scholar]
  157. Smith SD, Osmond CB. 155.  1987. Stem photosynthesis in a desert ephemeral, Eriogonum inflatum: morphology, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency in field populations. Oecologia 72:553–41 [Google Scholar]
  158. Stokstad E. 156.  2011. Cash advance, new approach aims to relaunch Biosphere 2. Science 333:146 [Google Scholar]
  159. Summons RE, Boag TS, Osmond CB. 157.  1986. The effect of ammonium on photosynthesis and the pathway of ammonium assimilation in Gymnodinium microadriaticum in vitro and in symbiosis with tridacnid clams and corals. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 227:147–59 [Google Scholar]
  160. Tcherkez GGB, Farquhar GD, Andrews TJ. 158.  2006. Despite slow catalysis and confused substrate specificity, all ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases may be nearly perfectly optimized. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:7246–51 [Google Scholar]
  161. Terashima I, Wong S-C, Osmond CB, Farquhar GD. 159.  1988. Characterization of non-uniform photosynthesis induced by abscisic acid in leaves having different mesophyll anatomies. Plant Cell Physiol. 29:385–94 [Google Scholar]
  162. Ting IP, Osmond CB. 160.  1973. Multiple forms of plant P-enolpyruvate carboxylase associated with different metabolic pathways. Plant Physiol. 51:448–53 [Google Scholar]
  163. Tolbert NE, Osmond CB. 161.  1976. Photorespiration in Marine Plants Melbourne, Aust., and Baltimore, MD: CSIRO and Univ. Park Press [Google Scholar]
  164. Torbert HA, Johnson HB. 162.  2001. Soil of the intensive agriculture biome of Biosphere 2. J. Soil Water Conserv. 56:4–11Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  165. Tribollet A, Langdon C, Atkinson MJ. 163.  2006. Effects of elevated pCO2 on epilithic and endolithic metabolism of reef carbonates. Glob. Change Biol. 12:2200–8Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  166. Trueman R, Gonzalez-Meler MA. 164.  2005. Accelerated belowground C losses in a managed agriforest ecosystem exposed to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Glob. Change Biol. 11:1258–71Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  167. Turnbull MH, Murthy R, Griffin KL. 165.  2002. The relative impacts of daytime and night-time warming on photosynthetic capacity in Populus deltoides. Plant Cell Environ. 25:1729–37Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  168. van Haren JLM, Handley LL, Bil' K, Kudeyarov VN, McLain JET. 166.  et al. 2005. Drought-induced N2O flux dynamics in an enclosed tropical forest. Glob. Change Biol. 11:1247–57Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  169. Walker DA. 167.  1981. Secondary fluorescence kinetics of spinach leaves in relation to the onset of photosynthetic carbon metabolism. Planta 153:273–78 [Google Scholar]
  170. Walter A, Christ MM, Barron-Gafford G, Grieve K, Paige T. 168.  et al. 2005. The effect of elevated CO2 on diel leaf growth cycle, leaf carbohydrate content and canopy growth performance of Populus deltoides. Glob. Change Biol. 11:1207–19Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  171. Walter A, Lambrecht SC. 169.  2004. Biosphere 2 Center as a unique tool for environmental studies. J. Environ. Monit. 6:267–77Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  172. Walter A, Rascher U, Osmond CB. 170.  2004. Transitions in photosynthetic parameters of midvein and interveinal regions of leaves and their importance during leaf growth and development. Plant Biol. 6:184–91Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  173. Wetterer JK, Himler AG, Yospin MM. 171.  2000. Foraging ecology of the desert leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmrx versicolor, in Arizona (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 37:633–49Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  174. Wetterer JK, Miller SE, Wheeler DE, Olson CA, Polhemus DA. 172. , et al. 1999. Ecological dominance by Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an invasive tramp ant, in Biosphere 2. Fla. Entomol. 82:381–88Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  175. 173. Wikipedia 2013. Osmond process Updated March 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmond_process [Google Scholar]
  176. Witte V, Abrell L, Attygalle AB, Wu X, Meinwald J. 174.  2007. Structure and function of Dufour gland pheromones from the crazy ant Paratrechina longicornis. Chemoecology 17:63–69Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  177. Witte V, Attygalle AB, Meinwald J. 175.  2007. Complex chemical communication in the crazy ant Paratrechina longicornis Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Chemoecology 17:57–62Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  178. Wong SC, Osmond CB. 176.  1991. Elevated atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 and plant growth. III. Interactions between Triticum aestivum (C3) and Echinochloa frumentacea (C4) during growth in mixed culture under different CO2, N nutrition and irradiance treatments, with emphasis on below-ground responses estimated using the δ13C value of root biomass. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 18:137–52 [Google Scholar]
  179. Woo KC, Anderson JM, Boardman NK, Downton WJS, Osmond CB. 177.  et al. 1970. Deficient photosystem II in agranal bundle sheath chloroplasts of C4 plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 67:18–25 [Google Scholar]
  180. Woo KC, Morot-Gaudry JF, Summons RE, Osmond CB. 178.  1982. Evidence for the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway during the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle in spinach leaves. Plant Physiol. 70:1514–17 [Google Scholar]
  181. Wydrzynski T, Hillier W, Messinger J. 179.  1996. On the functional significance of substrate accessibility in the photosynthetic water oxidation mechanism. Physiol. Plant. 96:342–50 [Google Scholar]
  182. Xu C-Y, Lin G, Griffin KL, Sambrotto RN. 179.  2004. Leaf respiratory CO2 is 13C-enriched relative to leaf organic components in five species of C3 plants. New Phytol. 163:499–505Citation from Biosphere 2 Laboratory research from 1988 to 2003. [Google Scholar]
  183. Yakir D, Osmond CB, Giles L. 180.  1991. Autotrophy in maize husks: evaluation using natural abundance of stable isotopes. Plant Physiol. 97:1196–98 [Google Scholar]
  184. Yamasaki H, Grace SC. 181.  1998. EPR detection of phytophenoxyl radicals stabilized by zinc ions: evidence for the redox coupling of plant phenolics with ascorbate in the H2O2-peroxidase system. FEBS Lett. 422:377–80 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error