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Abstract

Diverse molecular processes regulate the interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Here, we review genes and proteins that are involved in plant–herbivore interactions and discuss how their discovery has structured the current standard model of plant–herbivore interactions. Plants perceive damage-associated and, possibly, herbivore-associated molecular patterns via receptors that activate early signaling components such as Ca2+, reactive oxygen species, and MAP kinases. Specific defense reprogramming proceeds via signaling networks that include phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and transcription factors. Local and systemic regulation of toxins, defense proteins, physical barriers, and tolerance traits protect plants against herbivores. Herbivores counteract plant defenses through biochemical defense deactivation, effector-mediated suppression of defense signaling, and chemically controlled behavioral changes. The molecular basis of plant–herbivore interactions is now well established for model systems. Expanding molecular approaches to unexplored dimensions of plant–insect interactions should be a future priority.

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2019-04-29
2024-06-21
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