Climate change profoundly affects the timing of seasonal activities of organisms, known as phenology. The impact of climate change is not unidirectional; it is also influenced by plant phenology as plants modify atmospheric composition and climatic processes. One important aspect of this interaction is the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which link the Earth's surface, atmosphere, and climate. BVOC emissions exhibit significant diurnal and seasonal variations and are therefore considered essential phenological traits. To understand the dynamic equilibrium arising from the interplay between plant phenology and climate, this review presents recent advances in comprehending the molecular mechanisms underpinning plant phenology and its interaction with climate. We provide an overview of studies investigating molecular phenology, genome-wide gene expression analyses conducted in natural environments, and how these studies revolutionize the concept of phenology, shifting it from observable traits to dynamic molecular responses driven by gene–environment interactions. We explain how this knowledge can be scaled up to encompass plant populations, regions, and even the globe by establishing connections between molecular phenology, changes in plant distribution, species composition, and climate.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 75 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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