The hypocotyl is the embryonic stem connecting the primary root to the cotyledons. Hypocotyl length varies tremendously depending on the conditions. This developmental plasticity and the simplicity of the organ explain its success as a model for growth regulation. Light and temperature are prominent growth-controlling cues, using shared signaling elements. Mechanisms controlling hypocotyl elongation in etiolated seedlings reaching the light differ from those in photoautotrophic seedlings. However, many common growth regulators intervene in both situations. Multiple photoreceptors including phytochromes, which also respond to temperature, control the activity of several transcription factors, thereby eliciting rapid transcriptional reprogramming. Hypocotyl growth often depends on sensing in green tissues and interorgan communication comprising auxin. Hypocotyl auxin, in conjunction with other hormones, determines epidermal cell elongation. Plants facing cues with opposite effects on growth control hypocotyl elongation through intricate mechanisms. We discuss the status of the field and end by highlighting open questions.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 75 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error