Initially identified as a key regulator of female fertility in , the FERONIA (FER) receptor kinase is now recognized as crucial for almost all aspects of plant growth and survival. FER partners with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of the LLG family to act as coreceptors on the cell surface. The FER-LLG coreceptor interacts with different RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) peptide ligands to function in various growth and developmental processes and to respond to challenges from the environment. The RALF-FER-LLG signaling modules interact with molecules in the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus and mediate an interwoven signaling network. Multiple FER-LLG modules, each anchored by FER or a FER-related receptor kinase, have been studied, illustrating the functional diversity and the mechanistic complexity of the FER family signaling modules. The challenges going forward are to distill from this complexity the unifying schemes where possible and attain precision and refinement in the knowledge of critical details upon which future investigations can be built. By focusing on the extensively characterized FER, this review provides foundational information to guide the next phase of research on FER in model as well as crop species and potential applications for improving plant growth and resilience.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 75 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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