1932

Abstract

The advent of the second data release of the mission, in combination with data from large spectroscopic surveys, is revolutionizing our understanding of the Galaxy. Thanks to these transformational data sets and the knowledge accumulated thus far, a new, more mature picture of the evolution of the early Milky Way is currently emerging.

  • ▪   Two of the traditional Galactic components, namely, the stellar halo and the thick disk, appear to be intimately linked: Stars with halo-like kinematics originate in similar proportions from a heated (thick) disk and from debris from a system named Gaia-Enceladus. Gaia-Enceladus was the last big merger event experienced by the Milky Way and was completed around 10 Gyr ago. The puffed-up stars now present in the halo as a consequence of the merger have thus exposed the existence of a disk component at ∼ 1.8. This is likely related to the previously known metal-weak thick disk and may be traceable to metallicities [Fe/H] −4. As importantly, there is evidence that the merger with Gaia-Enceladus triggered star formation in the early Milky Way, plausibly leading to the appearance of the thick disk as we know it.
  • ▪   Other merger events have been characterized better, and new ones have been uncovered. These include, for example, the Helmi streams, Sequoia, and Thamnos, which add to the list of those discovered in wide-field photometric surveys, such as the Sagittarius streams. Current knowledge of their progenitors’ properties, star formation, and chemical evolutionary histories is still incomplete.
  • ▪   Debris from different objects shows different degrees of overlap in phase-space. This sometimes confusing situation can be improved by determining membership probabilities via quantitative statistical methods. A task for the next few years will be to use ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys for chemical labeling and to disentangle events from one another using dimensions other than phase-space, metallicity, or [α/Fe].
  • ▪   These large surveys will also provide line-of-sight velocities missing for faint stars in releases and more accurate distance determinations for distant objects, which in combination with other surveys could also lead to more accurate age dating. The resulting samples of stars will cover a much wider volume of the Galaxy, allowing, for example, the linking of kinematic substructures found in the inner halo to spatial overdensities in the outer halo.
  • ▪   All the results obtained so far are in line with the expectations of current cosmological models. Nonetheless, tailored hydrodynamical simulations to reproduce in detail the properties of the merger debris, as well as constrained cosmological simulations of the Milky Way, are needed. Such simulations will undoubtedly unravel more connections between the different Galactic components and their substructures, and will aid in pushing our knowledge of the assembly of the Milky Way to the earliest times.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-032620-021917
2020-08-18
2024-06-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/astro/58/1/annurev-astro-032620-021917.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-032620-021917&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abadi MG, Navarro JF, Steinmetz M, Eke VR 2003. Ap. J 597:21–34
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abbott TMC, Abdalla FB, Allam S et al. 2018. Ap. J. Suppl. 239:18
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Adibekyan VZ, Santos NC, Sousa SG, Israelian G 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 535:L11
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alves-Brito A, Meléndez J, Asplund M, Ramírez I, Yong D 2010. Astron. Astrophys. 513:A35
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Amorisco NC. 2017. MNRAS 464:2882–95
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Antoja T, Helmi A, Romero-Gómez M et al. 2018. Nature 561:360–62
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Antoja T, Monari G, Helmi A et al. 2015. Ap. J. Lett. 800:L32
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Aoki W, Beers TC, Christlieb N et al. 2007. Ap. J 655:492–521
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Arenou F, Luri X, Babusiaux C et al. 2018. Astron. Astrophys. 616:A17
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Arlandini C, Käppeler F, Wisshak K et al. 1999. Ap. J 525:886–900
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Auvergne M, Bodin P, Boisnard L et al. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 506:411–24
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bahcall JN, Soneira RM. 1984. Ap. J. Suppl. 55:67–99
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Banerjee A, Jog CJ. 2011. Ap. J. Lett. 732:L8
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Barbá RH, Minniti D, Geisler D et al. 2019. Ap. J. Lett. 870:L24
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Barbuy B, Chiappini C, Gerhard O 2018. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 56:223–76
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Barnes JE. 1992. Ap. J 393:484–507
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Battistini C, Bensby T. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 586:A49
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Baugh CM, Cole S, Frenk CS, Lacey CG 1998. Ap. J 498:504–21
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Beers TC, Carollo D, Ivezić Ž et al. 2012. Ap. J 746:34
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Beers TC, Chiba M, Yoshii Y et al. 2000. Astron. J. 119:2866–81
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Beers TC, Drilling JS, Rossi S et al. 2002. Astron. J. 124:931–48
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bekki K, Freeman KC. 2003. MNRAS 346:L11–15
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Belokurov V. 2013. New Astron. Rev. 57:100–21
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Belokurov V, Erkal D, Evans NW, Koposov SE, Deason AJ 2018. MNRAS 478:611–19
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Belokurov V, Evans NW, Bell EF et al. 2007. Ap. J. Lett. 657:L89–92
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Belokurov V, Sanders JL, Fattahi A et al. 2020. MNRAS 494:3880–98
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Belokurov V, Zucker DB, Evans NW et al. 2006. Ap. J. Lett. 642:L137–40
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bensby T, Feltzing S, Lundström I 2003. Astron. Astrophys. 410:527–51
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Bensby T, Feltzing S, Oey MS 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 562:A71
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bernard EJ, Ferguson AMN, Schlafly EF et al. 2016. MNRAS 463:1759–68
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bica E, Bonatto C, Barbuy B, Ortolani S 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 450:105–15
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bignone LA, Helmi A, Tissera PB 2019. Ap. J. Lett. 883:L5
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Binney J, Tremaine S. 2008. Galactic Dynamics Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Bird JC, Kazantzidis S, Weinberg DH et al. 2013. Ap. J 773:43
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Bisterzo S, Gallino R, Straniero O, Cristallo S, Käppeler F 2010. MNRAS 404:1529–44
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Bland-Hawthorn J. 1999. Nature 400:220–21
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Bland-Hawthorn J, Freeman K. 2000. Science 287:79
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Bland-Hawthorn J, Gerhard O. 2016. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 54:529–96
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Bland-Hawthorn J, Sharma S, Tepper-Garcia T, Binney J, Freeman KC et al. 2019. MNRAS 486:1167–91
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Bonaca A, Conroy C, Wetzel A, Hopkins PF, Kereš D 2017. Ap. J 845:101
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Bonaca A, Hogg DW, Price-Whelan AM, Conroy C 2019. Ap. J 880:38
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Borsato NW, Martell SL, Simpson JD 2020. MNRAS 492:1370–84
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Bournaud F, Elmegreen BG, Elmegreen DM 2007. Ap. J 670:237–48
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Bournaud F, Elmegreen BG, Martig M 2009. Ap. J 707:L1–5
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Bovy J. 2015. Ap. J. Suppl. 216:29
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Bovy J, Erkal D, Sanders JL 2017. MNRAS 466:628–68
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Bovy J, Rix HW, Hogg DW 2012. Ap. J 751:131
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Bowden A, Evans NW, Williams AA 2016. MNRAS 460:329–37
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Brauer K, Ji AP, Frebel A et al. 2019. Ap. J 871:247
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Brinchmann J, Charlot S, White SDM et al. 2004. MNRAS 351:1151–79
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Brook CB, Kawata D, Gibson BK, Flynn C 2003. Ap. J. Lett. 585:L125–29
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Brook CB, Kawata D, Gibson BK, Freeman KC 2004. Ap. J 612:894–99
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Buckley MR, Hogg DW, Price-Whelan AM 2019. arXiv:1907.00987 [astro-ph.GA]
  54. Buist HJT, Helmi A. 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 584:A120
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Buist HJT, Helmi A. 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 601:A37
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Burton WB. 1988. Trans. Int. Astron. Union Ser. A 20A:377–421
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Busso M, Gallino R, Wasserburg GJ 1999. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 37:239–309
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Cantat-Gaudin T, Jordi C, Vallenari A, Bragaglia A, Balaguer-Núñez, et al. 2018. Astron. Astrophys. 618:A93
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Carney BW, Laird JB, Latham DW, Aguilar LA 1996. Astron. J. 112:668
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Carollo D, Beers TC, Chiba M, Norris JE, Freeman KC et al. 2010. Ap. J 712:692–727
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Carollo D, Beers TC, Lee YS et al. 2007. Nature 450:1020–25
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Carollo D, Freeman K, Beers TC et al. 2014. Ap. J 788:180
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Carollo D, Tissera PB, Beers TC et al. 2018. Ap. J. Lett. 859:L7
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Carretta E, Bragaglia A, Gratton RG et al. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 505:117–38
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Casey AR, Hawkins K, Hogg DW et al. 2017. Ap. J 840:59
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Chambers KC, Magnier EA, Metcalfe N et al. 2016. arXiv:1612.05560 [astro-ph.IM]
  67. Chaplin WJ, Basu S, Huber D et al. 2014. Ap. J. Suppl. 210:1
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Chaplin WJ, Miglio A. 2013. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 51:353–92
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Cheng JY, Rockosi CM, Morrison HL et al. 2012. Ap. J 752:51
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Chiappini C, Matteucci F, Gratton R 1997. Ap. J 477:765–80
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Chiba M, Beers TC. 2000. Astron. J. 119:2843–65
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Chiba M, Yoshii Y. 1998. Astron. J. 115:168–92
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Christlieb N, Battistini C, Bonifacio P et al. 2019. Messenger 175:26–29
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Conroy C, Bonaca A, Cargile P et al. 2020. Ap. J 883:107
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Conti PS, Greenstein JL, Spinrad H, Wallerstein G, Vardya MS 1967. Ap. J 148:105–27
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Cooper AP, Cole S, Frenk CS et al. 2010. MNRAS 406:744–66
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Cowan JJ, Sneden C, Lawler JE et al. 2019. arXiv:1901.01410 [astro-ph.HE]
  78. Dalton G, Trager S, Abrams DC et al. 2016. Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, Vol. 9908 CJ Evans, L Simard, H Takami Bellingham, WA: SPIE
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Das P, Hawkins K, Jofre P 2020. MNRAS 493:5195–207
    [Google Scholar]
  80. de Boer TJL, Belokurov V, Koposov SE et al. 2018. MNRAS 477:1893–902
    [Google Scholar]
  81. de Jong JTA, Yanny B, Rix HW et al. 2010. Ap. J 714:663–74
    [Google Scholar]
  82. de Jong RS, Agertz O, Berbel AA et al. 2019. Messenger 175:3–11
    [Google Scholar]
  83. De Silva GM, Freeman KC, Bland-Hawthorn J et al. 2015. MNRAS 449:2604–17
    [Google Scholar]
  84. De Silva GM, Sneden C, Paulson DB et al. 2006. Astron. J. 131:455–60
    [Google Scholar]
  85. de Zeeuw T, Norris J 1999. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111:653–55
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Deason AJ, Belokurov V, Evans NW 2011. MNRAS 416:2903–15
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Deason AJ, Belokurov V, Evans NW, Johnston KV 2013. Ap. J 763:113
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Deason AJ, Belokurov V, Koposov SE et al. 2017. MNRAS 470:1259–73
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Deason AJ, Belokurov V, Koposov SE, Lancaster L 2018. Ap. J. Lett. 862:L1
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Deason AJ, Belokurov V, Sanders JL 2019. MNRAS 490:3426–39
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Dehnen W. 2000. Astron. J. 119:800–12
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Dekel A, Birnboim Y, Engel G et al. 2009. Nature 457:451–54
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Deng LC, Newberg HJ, Liu C et al. 2012. Res. Astron. Astrophys. 12:735–54
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Di Matteo P, Gómez A, Haywood M et al. 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 577:A1
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Di Matteo P, Haywood M, Lehnert MD et al. 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 632:A4
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Di Matteo P, Lehnert MD, Qu Y, van Driel W 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 525:L3
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Diemand J, Madau P, Moore B 2005. MNRAS 364:367–83
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Dierickx M, Klement R, Rix HW, Liu C 2010. Ap. J. Lett. 725:L186–90
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Dierickx MIP, Loeb A. 2017. Ap. J 836:92
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Dinescu DI. 2002. Omega Centauri, A Unique Window into Astrophysics F van Leeuwen, JD Hughes, G Piotto 143–54 San Francisco: Astron. Soc. Pac.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Donlon T II, Newberg HJ, Weiss J, Amy P, Thompson J 2019. Ap. J 886:76
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Eadie G, Jurić M. 2019. Ap. J 875:159
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Eggen OJ, Lynden-Bell D, Sandage AR 1962. Ap. J 136:748–66
    [Google Scholar]
  104. El-Badry K, Bland-Hawthorn J, Wetzel A et al. 2018. MNRAS 480:652–68
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Elbaz D, Dickinson M, Hwang HS et al. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 533:A119
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Eneev TM, Kozlov NN, Sunyaev RA 1973. Astron. Astrophys. 22:41
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Erkal D, Belokurov V, Laporte CFP et al. 2019. MNRAS 487:2685–700
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Fardal MA, van der Marel RP, Law DR et al. 2019. MNRAS 483:4724–41
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Fattahi A, Belokurov V, Deason AJ et al. 2019. MNRAS 484:4471–83
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Fernández-Alvar E, Carigi L, Schuster WJ et al. 2018. Ap. J 852:50
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Fernández-Trincado JG, Beers TC, Placco VM et al. 2019. Ap. J. Lett. 886:L8
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Font AS, Johnston KV, Bullock JS, Robertson BE 2006. Ap. J 646:886–98
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Fragkoudi F, Di Matteo P, Haywood M et al. 2018. Astron. Astrophys. 616:A180
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Frebel A, Norris JE. 2015. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 53:631–88
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Freeman K, Bland-Hawthorn J. 2002. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40:487–537
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Frenk CS, White SDM. 2012. Ann. Phys. 524:507–34
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Fuhrmann K. 2011. MNRAS 414:2893–922
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Gaia Collab., Babusiaux C, van Leeuwen F et al. 2018a. Astron. Astrophys. 616:A10
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Gaia Collab, Brown AGA, Vallenari A et al. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 595:A2
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Gaia Collab., Brown AGA, Vallenari A et al. 2018b. Astron. Astrophys. 616:A1
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Gaia Collab., Helmi A, van Leeuwen F et al. 2018c. Astron. Astrophys. 616:A12
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Gaia Collab., Katz D, Antoja T et al. 2018d. Astron. Astrophys. 616:A11
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Gallart C, Bernard EJ, Brook CB et al. 2019. Nat. Astron. 3:932–39
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Gerin M, Combes F, Athanassoula E 1990. Astron. Astrophys. 230:37–54
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Gibson BK, Axelrod RS, Putman ME 1999. The Third Stromlo Symposium: The Galactic Halo San Francisco: Astron. Soc. Pac.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Gilliland RL, Brown TM, Christensen-Dalsgaard J et al. 2010. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 122:131
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Gilmore G, Reid N. 1983. MNRAS 202:1025–47
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Gilmore G, Wyse RFG, Jones JB 1995. Astron. J. 109:1095–1111
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Gilmore G, Wyse RFG, Kuijken K 1989. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 27:555–627
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Gilmore G, Wyse RFG, Norris JE 2002. Ap. J. Lett. 574:L39–42
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Gómez FA, Helmi A. 2010. MNRAS 401:2285–98
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Gómez FA, Helmi A, Cooper AP et al. 2013. MNRAS 436:3602–13
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Gómez FA, Minchev I, Villalobos Á, O'Shea BW, Williams MEK 2012. MNRAS 419:2163–72
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Gouda N. 2015. IAU Gen. Assembl. 29:2247720
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Gould A. 2003. Ap. J. Lett. 592:L63–L66
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Grand RJJ, Gómez FA, Marinacci F et al. 2017. MNRAS 467:179–207
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Grand RJJ, Helly J, Fattahi A et al. 2018. MNRAS 481:1726–43
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Gratton R, Bragaglia A, Carretta E et al. 2019. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 27:8
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Gravity Collab, Abuter R, Amorim A et al. 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 625:L10
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Grillmair CJ. 2011. Ap. J 738:98
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Grillmair CJ, Carlin JL. 2016. Tidal Streams in the Local Group and Beyond HJ Newberg, JL Carlin 87–112 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Hagen JHJ. 2020. Galactic dynamics in the era of Gaia PhD Thesis, Univ. Groningen, Neth .
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Hawkins K, Jofré P, Gilmore G, Masseron T 2014. MNRAS 445:2575–88
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Hayden MR, Bovy J, Holtzman JA et al. 2015. Ap. J 808:132
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Hayes CR, Majewski SR, Shetrone M et al. 2018. Ap. J 852:49
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Haynes CJ, Kobayashi C. 2019. MNRAS 483:5123–34
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Haywood M, Di Matteo P, Lehnert MD, Katz D, Gómez A 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 560:A109
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Haywood M, Di Matteo P, Lehnert MD et al. 2018. Ap. J 863:113
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Haywood M, Di Matteo P, Snaith O, Lehnert MD 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 579:A5
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Helmi A. 2004. Ap. J. Lett. 610:L97–100
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Helmi A. 2008. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 15:145–88
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Helmi A, Babusiaux C, Koppelman HH et al. 2018. Nature 563:85–88
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Helmi A, de Zeeuw PT 2000. MNRAS 319:657–65
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Helmi A, Irwin M, Deason A et al. 2019. Messenger 175:23–25
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Helmi A, Navarro JF, Nordström B et al. 2006. MNRAS 365:1309–23
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Helmi A, Veljanoski J, Breddels MA, Tian H, Sales LV 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 598:A58
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Helmi A, White SDM. 1999. MNRAS 307:495–517
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Helmi A, White SDM, de Zeeuw PT, Zhao H 1999. Nature 402:53–55
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Helmi A, White SDM, Springel V 2002. Phys. Rev. D 66:063502
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Helmi A, White SDM, Springel V 2003. MNRAS 339:834–48
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Helmi A, Williams M, Freeman KC, Bland-Hawthorn J, De Silva G 2014. Ap. J 791:135
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Hendel D, Johnston KV. 2015. MNRAS 454:2472–85
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Hobbs D, Brown A, Høg E et al. 2019. arXiv:1907.12535 [astro-ph.IM]
  164. Homma H, Murayama T, Kobayashi MAR, Taniguchi Y 2015. Ap. J 799:230
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Hopkins PF, Kerěs D, Oñorbe J et al. 2014. MNRAS 445:581–603
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Ibata R, Lewis GF, Irwin M, Totten E, Quinn T 2001. Ap. J 551:294–311
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Ibata R, Lewis GF, Martin NF, Bellazzini M, Correnti M 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 765:L15
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Ibata RA, Bellazzini M, Malhan K, Martin N, Bianchini P 2019. Nat. Astron. 3:667–72
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Ibata RA, Gilmore G, Irwin MJ 1994. Nature 370:194–96
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Ibata RA, Malhan K, Martin NF 2019. Ap. J 872:152
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Iorio G, Belokurov V. 2019. MNRAS 482:3868–79
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Ishigaki MN. 2019. Star Clusters: From the Milky Way to the Early Universe A Bragaglia, M Davies, A Sills, E Vesperini 24–33 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Ivezić , Goldston J, Finlator K et al. 2000. Astron. J. 120:963–77
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Ivezić , Kahn SM, Tyson JA et al. 2019. Ap. J 873:111
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Jean-Baptiste I, Di Matteo P, Haywood M et al. 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 604:A106
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Ji AP, Frebel A, Chiti A, Simon JD 2016. Nature 531:610–13
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Johnston KV. 1998. Ap. J 495:297–308
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Johnston KV. 2016. Tidal Streams in the Local Group and Beyond HJ Newberg, JL Carlin 141–67 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Johnston KV, Hernquist L, Bolte M 1996. Astrophys. J. 465:278
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Johnston KV, Law DR, Majewski SR 2005. Ap. J 619:800–6
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Jurić M, Ivezić , Brooks A et al. 2008. Ap. J 673:864–914
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Kafle PR, Sharma S, Lewis GF, Bland-Hawthorn J 2014. Ap. J 794:59
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Käppeler F, Gallino R, Bisterzo S, Aoki W 2011. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83:157–94
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Kauffmann G, White SDM, Guiderdoni B 1993. MNRAS 264:201–18
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Kawata D, Chiappini C. 2016. Astron. Nachr. 337:976
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Kepley AA, Morrison HL, Helmi A et al. 2007. Astron. J. 134:1579–95
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Khanna S, Sharma S, Tepper-Garcia T et al. 2019. MNRAS 489:4962–79
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Kilic M, Munn JA, Harris HC et al. 2017. Ap. J 837:162
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Kinman TD, Cacciari C, Bragaglia A, Buzzoni A, Spagna A 2007. MNRAS 375:1381–98
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Klement RJ. 2010. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 18:567–94
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Klypin A, Kravtsov AV, Valenzuela O, Prada F 1999. Ap. J 522:82–92
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Kollmeier J, Fuller J, Gaensicke B et al. 2019. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 51:503
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Koposov SE, Belokurov V, Li TS et al. 2019. MNRAS 485:4726–42
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Koposov SE, Rix HW, Hogg DW 2010. Ap. J 712:260–73
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Koppelman H, Helmi A, Veljanoski J 2018. Ap. J. Lett. 860:L11
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Koppelman HH, Bos ROY, Helmi A 2020. arXiv:2006.07620
  197. Koppelman HH, Helmi A, Massari D, Price-Whelan AM, Starkenburg TK 2019a. Astron. Astrophys. 631:L9
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Koppelman HH, Helmi A, Massari D, Roelenga S, Bastian U 2019b. Astron. Astrophys. 625:A5
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Kordopatis G, Hill V, Irwin M et al. 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 555:A12
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Kruijssen JMD, Pfeffer JL, Reina-Campos M, Crain RA, Bastian N 2019. MNRAS 486:3180–202
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Kunder A, Kordopatis G, Steinmetz M et al. 2017. Astron. J. 153:75
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Lanfranchi GA, Matteucci F. 2010. Astron. Astrophys. 512:A85
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Laporte CFP, Gómez FA, Besla G, Johnston KV, Garavito-Camargo N 2018a. MNRAS 473:1218–30
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Laporte CFP, Johnston KV, Gómez FA, Garavito-Camargo N, Besla G 2018b. MNRAS 481:286–306
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Laporte CFP, Minchev I, Johnston KV, Gómez FA 2019. MNRAS 485:3134–52
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Larsen JA, Cabanela JE, Humphreys RM 2011. Astron. J. 141:130
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Larsen JA, Humphreys RM. 1996. Ap. J. Lett. 468:L99–102
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Law DR, Majewski SR. 2010. Ap. J 718:1128–50
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Lee YS, Beers TC, Kim YK 2019. Ap. J 885:102
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Lehnert MD, Di Matteo P, Haywood M, Snaith ON 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 789:L30
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Levi M, Allen LE, Raichoor A et al. 2019. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 51:57
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Liang XL, Zhao JK, Oswalt TD et al. 2017. Ap. J 844:152
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Licquia TC, Newman JA. 2015. Ap. J 806:96
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Lindegren L, Hernández J, Bombrun A et al. 2018. Astron. Astrophys. 616:A2
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Lindegren L, Lammers U, Bastian U et al. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 595:A4
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Liu C, van de Ven G 2012. MNRAS 425:2144–56
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Lowing B, Wang W, Cooper A et al. 2015. MNRAS 446:2274–90
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Mackereth JT, Bovy J. 2020. MNRAS 492:3631–46
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Mackereth JT, Schiavon RP, Pfeffer J et al. 2019. MNRAS 482:3426–42
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Majewski SR, Munn JA, Hawley SL 1994. Ap. J. Lett. 427:L37
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Majewski SR, Munn JA, Hawley SL 1996. Ap. J. Lett. 459:L73
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Majewski SR, Schiavon RP, Frinchaboy PM et al. 2017. Astron. J. 154:94
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Malhan K, Ibata RA. 2018. MNRAS 477:4063–76
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Malhan K, Ibata RA, Carlberg RG, Valluri M, Freese K 2019. Ap. J 881:106
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Malhan K, Ibata RA, Martin NF 2018. MNRAS 481:3442–55
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Maoz D, Mannucci F, Nelemans G 2014. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 52:107–70
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Martell SL, Shetrone MD, Lucatello S et al. 2016. Ap. J 825:146
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Martinez-Valpuesta I, Gerhard O. 2013. Ap. J 766:L3
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Massari D, Koppelman HH, Helmi A 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 630:L4
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Mateu C, Read JI, Kawata D 2018. MNRAS 474:4112–29
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Matsuno T, Aoki W, Suda T 2019. Ap. J. Lett. 874:L35
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Matteucci F, Recchi S. 2001. Ap. J 558:351–58
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Matteucci F, Spitoni E, Rojas-Arriagada A, Schultheis M 2018. Presentation at The Galactic Bulge at the Crossroads (GBX2018), Pucón. Chile, Dec 10–14
    [Google Scholar]
  234. McMillan PJ. 2018. Res. Notes Am. Astron. Soc. 2:51
    [Google Scholar]
  235. McMillan PJ, Binney JJ. 2008. MNRAS 390:429–37
    [Google Scholar]
  236. McWilliam A. 1997. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35:503–56
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Meza A, Navarro JF, Abadi MG, Steinmetz M 2005. MNRAS 359:93–103
    [Google Scholar]
  238. Michel E, Baglin A, Auvergne M et al. 2008. Science 322:558
    [Google Scholar]
  239. Miglio A, Chiappini C, Morel T et al. 2013. MNRAS 429:423–28
    [Google Scholar]
  240. Minchev I, Famaey B, Quillen AC et al. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 548:A127
    [Google Scholar]
  241. Minchev I, Martig M, Streich D et al. 2015. Ap. J. Lett. 804:L9
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Minchev I, Steinmetz M, Chiappini C et al. 2017. Ap. J 834:27
    [Google Scholar]
  243. Mints A, Hekker S. 2018. Astron. Astrophys. 618:A54
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Mo H, van den Bosch FC, White S 2010. Galaxy Formation and Evolution Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Mo HJ, Mao S, White SDM 1998. MNRAS 295:319–36
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Moore B, Ghigna S, Governato F et al. 1999. Ap. J. Lett. 524:L19–22
    [Google Scholar]
  247. Morrison HL. 1993. Astron. J. 105:539
    [Google Scholar]
  248. Morrison HL, Flynn C, Freeman KC 1990. Astron. J. 100:1191
    [Google Scholar]
  249. Morrison HL, Helmi A, Sun J et al. 2009. Ap. J 694:130–43
    [Google Scholar]
  250. Myeong GC, Evans NW, Belokurov V, Amorisco NC, Koposov SE 2018a. MNRAS 475:1537–48
    [Google Scholar]
  251. Myeong GC, Evans NW, Belokurov V, Sanders JL, Koposov SE 2018b. Ap. J. Lett. 863:L28
    [Google Scholar]
  252. Myeong GC, Vasiliev E, Iorio G, Evans NW, Belokurov V 2019. MNRAS 488:1235–47
    [Google Scholar]
  253. Naiman JP, Pillepich A, Springel V et al. 2018. MNRAS 477:1206–24
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Navarrete C, Chanamé J, Ramírez I et al. 2015. Ap. J 808:103
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Necib L, Lisanti M, Garrison-Kimmel S et al. 2019a. Ap. J 883:27
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Necib L, Ostdiek B, Lisanti M et al. 2019b. arXiv:1907.07681 [astro-ph.GA]
  257. Nelson D, Springel V, Pillepich A et al. 2019. Comput. Astrophys. Cosmol. 6:2
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Ness M, Bird J, Johnson J et al. 2019. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 51:238
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Ness M, Freeman K, Athanassoula E et al. 2013. MNRAS 430:836–57
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Newberg HJ, Carlin JL 2016. Tidal Streams in the Local Group and Beyond: Observations and Implications New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  261. Newberg HJ, Yanny B, Rockosi C et al. 2002. Ap. J 569:245–74
    [Google Scholar]
  262. Nissen PE, Schuster WJ. 1997. Astron. Astrophys. 326:751–62
    [Google Scholar]
  263. Nissen PE, Schuster WJ. 2010. Astron. Astrophys. 511:L10
    [Google Scholar]
  264. Nissen PE, Schuster WJ. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 530:A15
    [Google Scholar]
  265. Nordström B, Mayor M, Andersen J et al. 2004. Astron. Astrophys. 418:989–1019
    [Google Scholar]
  266. Norris J, Bessell MS, Pickles AJ 1985. Ap. J. Suppl. 58:463–92
    [Google Scholar]
  267. Norris JE. 1994. Ap. J 431:645
    [Google Scholar]
  268. O'Hare CAJ, Evans NW, McCabe C, Myeong G, Belokurov V 2020. Phys. Rev. D 101:023006
    [Google Scholar]
  269. Pasquini L, Delabre B, Ellis RS et al. 2018. Rediscovering Our Galaxy C Chiappini, I Minchev, E Starkenburg, M Valentini 242–47 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Perryman MAC, Lindegren L, Kovalevsky J et al. 1997. Astron. Astrophys. 500:501–4
    [Google Scholar]
  271. Pillepich A, Madau P, Mayer L 2015. Ap. J 799:184
    [Google Scholar]
  272. Pillepich A, Nelson D, Springel V et al. 2019. MNRAS 490:3196–233
    [Google Scholar]
  273. Planck Collab, Aghanim N, Arnaud M et al. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 594:A11
    [Google Scholar]
  274. Portail M, Wegg C, Gerhard O, Martinez-Valpuesta I 2015. MNRAS 448:713–31
    [Google Scholar]
  275. Posti L, Helmi A. 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 621:A56
    [Google Scholar]
  276. Price-Whelan AM. 2017. J. Open Source Softw. 2:18388
    [Google Scholar]
  277. Price-Whelan AM, Bonaca A. 2018. Ap. J. Lett. 863:L20
    [Google Scholar]
  278. Price-Whelan AM, Johnston KV, Valluri M et al. 2016. MNRAS 455:1079–98
    [Google Scholar]
  279. Price-Whelan AM, Sipocz B, Lenz D et al. 2019. adrn/gala: v1.0. Software https://zenodo.org/record/2638307#.XsiLOTpKg2w
    [Google Scholar]
  280. Purcell CW, Bullock JS, Kazantzidis S 2010. MNRAS 404:1711–18
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Queiroz ABA, Anders F, Santiago BX et al. 2018. MNRAS 476:2556–83
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Quinn PJ. 1984. Ap. J 279:596–609
    [Google Scholar]
  283. Quinn PJ, Hernquist L, Fullagar DP 1993. Astrophys. J. 403:74–93
    [Google Scholar]
  284. Rauer H, Aerts C, Cabrera J 2016. Astron. Nachr. 337:961
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Re Fiorentin P, Lattanzi MG, Spagna A, Curir A 2015. Astron. J. 150:128
    [Google Scholar]
  286. Recio-Blanco A, de Laverny P, Kordopatis G et al. 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 567:A5
    [Google Scholar]
  287. Richter P. 2017. Gas Accretion onto Galaxies A Fox, R Davé 15–48 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  288. Ricker GR, Winn JN, Vanderspek R et al. 2015. J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 1:014003
    [Google Scholar]
  289. Robin AC, Reylé C, Fliri J et al. 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 569:A13
    [Google Scholar]
  290. Roederer IU, Hattori K, Valluri M 2018. Astron. J. 156:179
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Roederer IU, Sneden C, Thompson IB, Preston GW, Shectman SA 2010. Ap. J 711:573–96
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Roman NG. 1950. Ap. J 112:554–59
    [Google Scholar]
  293. Roman NG. 2019. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 57:1–34
    [Google Scholar]
  294. Sakari CM, Placco VM, Farrell EM et al. 2018. Ap. J 868:110
    [Google Scholar]
  295. Sales LV, Helmi A, Abadi MG et al. 2009. MNRAS 400:L61–65
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Sales LV, Navarro JF, Kallivayalil N, Frenk CS 2017. MNRAS 465:1879–88
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Sanders JL, Binney J. 2013. MNRAS 433:1813–25
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Sanders JL, Binney J. 2016. MNRAS 457:2107–21
    [Google Scholar]
  299. Sanders JL, Das P. 2018. MNRAS 481:4093–110
    [Google Scholar]
  300. Sanderson RE, Wetzel A, Loebman S et al. 2020. Ap. J. Suppl. 246:6
    [Google Scholar]
  301. Santucci RM, Beers TC, Placco VM et al. 2015. Ap. J. Lett. 813:L16
    [Google Scholar]
  302. Schaye J, Crain RA, Bower RG et al. 2015. MNRAS 446:521–54
    [Google Scholar]
  303. Schönrich R, Asplund M, Casagrande L 2011. MNRAS 415:3807–23
    [Google Scholar]
  304. Schönrich R, Binney J. 2009. MNRAS 399:1145–56
    [Google Scholar]
  305. Schuster WJ, Moitinho A, Márquez A, Parrao L, Covarrubias E 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 445:939–58
    [Google Scholar]
  306. Schuster WJ, Moreno E, Nissen PE, Pichardo B 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 538:A21
    [Google Scholar]
  307. Schwarzschild M. 1979. Ap. J 232:236–47
    [Google Scholar]
  308. Searle L, Zinn R. 1978. Ap. J 225:357–79
    [Google Scholar]
  309. Sesar B, Hernitschek N, Mitrović S et al. 2017. Astron. J. 153:204
    [Google Scholar]
  310. Sestito F, Longeard N, Martin NF et al. 2019. MNRAS 484:2166–80
    [Google Scholar]
  311. Sheffield AA, Price-Whelan AM, Tzanidakis A et al. 2018. Ap. J 854:47
    [Google Scholar]
  312. Shen J, Rich RM, Kormendy J et al. 2010. Ap. J. Lett. 720:L72–76
    [Google Scholar]
  313. Shipp N, Drlica-Wagner A, Balbinot E et al. 2018. Ap. J 862:114
    [Google Scholar]
  314. Simion IT, Belokurov V, Koposov SE 2019. MNRAS 482:921–28
    [Google Scholar]
  315. Simpson CM, Gargiulo I, Gómez FA et al. 2019. MNRAS 490:L32–37
    [Google Scholar]
  316. Skúladóttir Á, Hansen CJ, Salvadori S, Choplin A 2019. 631:A171
  317. Smith MC. 2016. Tidal Streams in the Local Group and Beyond HJ Newberg, JL Carlin 113–39 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  318. Snaith ON, Haywood M, Di Matteo P et al. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 781:L31
    [Google Scholar]
  319. Sneden C, Cowan JJ, Gallino R 2008. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 46:241–88
    [Google Scholar]
  320. Sneden C, Lambert DL, Whitaker RW 1979. Ap. J 234:964–72
    [Google Scholar]
  321. Somerville RS, Primack JR. 1999. MNRAS 310:1087–110
    [Google Scholar]
  322. Spite F, Spite M. 1979. Messenger 16:7–8
    [Google Scholar]
  323. Springel V, Wang J, Vogelsberger M et al. 2008. MNRAS 391:1685–711
    [Google Scholar]
  324. Starkenburg E, Oman KA, Navarro JF et al. 2017. MNRAS 465:2212–24
    [Google Scholar]
  325. Stonkutė E, Tautvaišienė G, Nordström B, Ženovienė R 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 541:A157
    [Google Scholar]
  326. Stonkutė E, Tautvaišienė G, Nordström B, Ženovienė R 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 555:A6
    [Google Scholar]
  327. Suda T, Katsuta Y, Yamada S et al. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:1159
    [Google Scholar]
  328. Tamura N, Takato N, Shimono A et al. 2016. Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, Vol. 9908 CJ Evans, L Simard, H Takami Bellingham, WA: SPIE
    [Google Scholar]
  329. Taylor C, Boylan-Kolchin M, Torrey P, Vogelsberger M, Hernquist L 2016. MNRAS 461:3483–93
    [Google Scholar]
  330. Tinsley BM. 1980. Fundam. Cosmic Phys. 5:287–388
    [Google Scholar]
  331. Tissera PB, Scannapieco C, Beers TC, Carollo D 2013. MNRAS 432:3391–400
    [Google Scholar]
  332. Tolstoy E, Hill V, Tosi M 2009. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47:371–425
    [Google Scholar]
  333. Tononi J, Torres S, García-Berro E et al. 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 628:A52
    [Google Scholar]
  334. Toomre A, Toomre J. 1972. Ap. J 178:623–66
    [Google Scholar]
  335. Travaglio C, Gallino R, Arnone E et al. 2004. Ap. J 601:864–84
    [Google Scholar]
  336. Tremaine S. 1999. MNRAS 307:877–83
    [Google Scholar]
  337. Tremonti CA, Heckman TM, Kauffmann G et al. 2004. Ap. J 613:898–913
    [Google Scholar]
  338. Tsujimoto T, Matsuno T, Aoki W, Ishigaki MN, Shigeyama T 2017. Ap. J. Lett. 850:L12
    [Google Scholar]
  339. Tumlinson J. 2010. Ap. J 708:1398–418
    [Google Scholar]
  340. Turon C, Primas F, Binney J et al. 2008. Messenger 134:46–49
    [Google Scholar]
  341. Valentini M, Chiappini C, Davies GR et al. 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 600:A66
    [Google Scholar]
  342. van Dokkum PG, Leja J, Nelson EJ et al. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 771:L35
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Vera-Ciro C, Helmi A. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 773:L4
    [Google Scholar]
  344. Villalobos Á, Helmi A. 2008. MNRAS 391:1806–27
    [Google Scholar]
  345. Villalobos Á, Helmi A. 2009. MNRAS 399:166–76
    [Google Scholar]
  346. Vincenzo F, Spitoni E, Calura F et al. 2019. MNRAS 487:L47–L52
    [Google Scholar]
  347. Vivas AK, Zinn R, Abad C et al. 2004. Astron. J. 127:1158–75
    [Google Scholar]
  348. Vogelsberger M, White SDM, Helmi A, Springel V 2008. MNRAS 385:236–54
    [Google Scholar]
  349. Wang J, Navarro JF, Frenk CS et al. 2011. MNRAS 413:1373–82
    [Google Scholar]
  350. Watkins LL, Evans NW, Belokurov V et al. 2009. MNRAS 398:1757–70
    [Google Scholar]
  351. Watkins LL, van der Marel RP, Sohn ST, Evans NW 2019. Ap. J 873:118
    [Google Scholar]
  352. Watson D, Hansen CJ, Selsing J et al. 2019. Nature 574:497–500
    [Google Scholar]
  353. Wegg C, Gerhard O, Bieth M 2019. MNRAS 485:3296–316
    [Google Scholar]
  354. Wegg C, Gerhard O, Portail M 2015. MNRAS 450:4050–69
    [Google Scholar]
  355. White SDM, Rees MJ. 1978. MNRAS 183:341–58
    [Google Scholar]
  356. White SDM, Springel V. 2000. The First Stars A Weiss, TG Abel, V Hill 327–35 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  357. Wilson ML, Helmi A, Morrison HL et al. 2011. MNRAS 413:2235–41
    [Google Scholar]
  358. Wyse RFG, Gilmore G, Norris JE et al. 2006. Ap. J. Lett. 639:L13–16
    [Google Scholar]
  359. Xing QF, Zhao G, Aoki W et al. 2019. Nat. Astron. 3:631–35
    [Google Scholar]
  360. Xue XX, Rix HW, Ma Z et al. 2015. Ap. J 809:144
    [Google Scholar]
  361. Yang T, Boruah SS, Afshordi N 2020. MNRAS 493:3061–80
    [Google Scholar]
  362. Yanny B, Newberg HJ, Kent S et al. 2000. Ap. J 540:825–41
    [Google Scholar]
  363. York DG, Adelman J, Anderson JE Jr. et al. 2000. Astron. J. 120:1579–87
    [Google Scholar]
  364. Yuan Z, Myeong GC, Beers TC et al. 2020. Ap. J 891:39
    [Google Scholar]
  365. Zaritsky D, McCabe K, Aravena M et al. 2016. Ap. J 818:99
    [Google Scholar]
  366. Ženovienė R, Tautvaišienė G, Nordström B, Stonkutė E, Barisevičius G 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 576:A113
    [Google Scholar]
  367. Zheng Y, Peek JEG, Putman ME, Werk JK 2019. Ap. J 871:35
    [Google Scholar]
  368. Zoccali M. 2019. Bol. Asoc. Argent. Astron. 61:137–44
    [Google Scholar]
  369. Zolotov A, Willman B, Brooks AM et al. 2009. Ap. J 702:1058–67
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-032620-021917
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-032620-021917
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error