1932

Abstract

The magnetic field is the main driver of the activity in the solar upper atmosphere, but its measurement is notoriously difficult. In order to determine the magnetic field in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona, we need to measure and interpret the polarization signals that the scattering of anisotropic radiation and the Hanle and Zeeman effects introduce in the emitted spectral line radiation. A number of recent advances have activated the development of this research field.

  • ▪  The quantum theory of the generation and transfer of polarized radiation allows us to explain the polarization signals observed in chromospheric and coronal lines and to make successful predictions in unexplored spectral regions.
  • ▪  The development of diagnostic techniques for the solar upper atmosphere has served to improve our empirical knowledge of the magnetic field in a variety of plasma structures, as well as to pave the way for their application to the unprecedented data that the new generation of solar telescopes are expected to provide. However, further improvements are required.
  • ▪  The CLASP suborbital experiments have opened a new diagnostic window, namely ultraviolet (UV) spectropolarimetry as a tool for probing the magnetism and geometry of the upper chromosphere and transition region. A space telescope equipped with a UV spectropolarimeter would lead to major advances in our empirical understanding of solar magnetism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-041122-031043
2022-08-18
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/astro/60/1/annurev-astro-041122-031043.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-041122-031043&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alissandrakis CE, Gary DE. 2021. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 7:77
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alsina Ballester E, Belluzzi L, Trujillo Bueno J 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 831:2L15
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alsina Ballester E, Belluzzi L, Trujillo Bueno J 2019. Ap. J. 880:285
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alsina Ballester E, Belluzzi L, Trujillo Bueno J 2021. Phys. Rev. Lett. 127:8081101
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Alsina Ballester E, Belluzzi L, Trujillo Bueno J 2022. Astron. Astrophys. In pressarXiv:2204.12523
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Antolin P. 2020. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 62:1014016
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Antolin P, Rouppe van der Voort L 2012. Ap. J. 745:2152
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Asensio Ramos A, de la Cruz Rodríguez J 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 577:A140
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Asensio Ramos A, de la Cruz Rodríguez J, Martínez González MJ, Socas-Navarro H 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 599:A133
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Asensio Ramos A, de la Cruz Rodríguez J, Pastor Yabar A 2018. Astron. Astrophys. 620:A73
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Asensio Ramos A, Díaz Baso CJ 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 626:A102
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Asensio Ramos A, Trujillo Bueno J 2010. Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 81:625–30
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Asensio Ramos A, Trujillo Bueno J, Landi Degl'Innocenti E 2008. Ap. J. 683:1542–65
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Auer LH, Rees DE, Stenflo JO 1980. Astron. Astrophys. 88:302–8
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bąk-Sţeślicka U, Gibson SE, Fan Y et al. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 770:2L28
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bellot Rubio L, Orozco Suárez D 2019. Living Rev. Sol. Phys. 16:1
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Belluzzi L, Trujillo Bueno J 2012. Ap. J. Lett. 750:L11
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Belluzzi L, Trujillo Bueno J 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 564:A16
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Belluzzi L, Trujillo Bueno J, Štěpán J 2012. Ap. J. Lett. 755:L2
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bommier V. 1997. Astron. Astrophys. 328:726–51
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bommier V. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 591:A59
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bommier V. 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 607:A50
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bommier V, Sahal-Brechot S. 1982. Sol. Phys. 78:157–78
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Born M, Wolf E. 1999. Principles of Optics Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cargill PJ. 2009. Space Sci. Rev. 144:1–4413–21
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Carlin ES 2015. Polarimetry: From the Sun to Stars and Stellar Environments, Proc. IAU Symp. 305, ed. KN Nagendra, S Bagnulo, R Centeno, MJ Martínez González pp.146–53 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Carlin ES, Manso Sainz R, Asensio Ramos A, Trujillo Bueno J 2012. Ap. J. 751:5
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Carlsson M, De Pontieu B, Hansteen VH. 2019. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 57:189–226
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Carlsson M, Hansteen VH, Gudiksen BV, Leenaarts J, De Pontieu B. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 585:A4
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Carrington RC. 1859. MNRAS 20:13–15
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Casini R, del Pino Alemán T, Manso Sainz R 2017a. Ap. J. 848:299
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Casini R, Judge PG. 1999. Ap. J. 522:1524–39
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Casini R, Landi Degl'Innocenti M, Manso Sainz R, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Landolfi M 2014. Ap. J. 791:294
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Casini R, López Ariste A, Tomczyk S, Lites BW. 2003. Ap. J. Lett. 598:1L67–70
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Casini R, Manso Sainz R, Low BC 2009. Ap. J. Lett. 701:1L43–46
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Casini R, White SM, Judge PG. 2017b. Space Sci. Rev. 210:1–4145–81
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Centeno R, Trujillo Bueno J, Asensio Ramos A 2010. Ap. J. 708:1579–84
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Charvin P. 1965. Ann. d'Astrophys. 28:877–82
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Cohen-Tannoudji C, Dupont-Roc J, Grynberg G. 1998. Atom-Photon Interactions: Basic Processes and Applications New York: Wiley-VCH
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Collados M, Trujillo Bueno J, Asensio Ramos A 2003. Solar Polarization 3 J Trujillo Bueno, J Sánchez Almeida ASP Conf. Ser. 307:468–73 San Francisco: ASP
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Cranmer SR, Winebarger AR. 2019. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 57:157–87
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Curdt W, Tian H, Teriaca L, Schühle U, Lemaire P. 2008. Astron. Astrophys. 492:1L9–12
    [Google Scholar]
  43. de la Cruz Rodríguez J, Leenaarts J, Danilovic S, Uitenbroek H. 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 623:A74
    [Google Scholar]
  44. de la Cruz Rodríguez J, Socas-Navarro H. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 527:L8
    [Google Scholar]
  45. de la Cruz Rodríguez J, van Noort M. 2017. Space Sci. Rev. 210:1–4109–43
    [Google Scholar]
  46. De Rosa ML, Schrijver CJ, Barnes G et al. 2009. Ap. J. 696:21780–91
    [Google Scholar]
  47. del Pino Alemán T. 2015. Radiative transfer modeling of the spectral line polarization produced by optically pumped atoms in the solar atmosphere PhD Thesis, Univ. La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain:
    [Google Scholar]
  48. del Pino Alemán T, Casini R, Manso Sainz R 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 830:L24
    [Google Scholar]
  49. del Pino Alemán T, Trujillo Bueno J, Casini R, Manso Sainz R 2020. Ap. J. 891:191
    [Google Scholar]
  50. del Toro Iniesta JC, Ruiz Cobo B 2016. Living Rev. Solar Phys. 13:14
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Del Zanna G, DeLuca EE. 2018. Ap. J. 852:152
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Del Zanna G, Storey PJ, Badnell NR, Andretta V. 2020. Ap. J. 898:172
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Díaz Baso CJ, Martínez González MJ, Asensio Ramos A 2016. Ap. J. 822:150
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Díaz Baso CJ, Martínez González MJ, Asensio Ramos A 2019a. Astron. Astrophys. 625:A128
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Díaz Baso CJ, Martínez González MJ, Asensio Ramos A 2019b. Astron. Astrophys. 625:A129
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Dima G, Kuhn J, Berdyugina S. 2016. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 3:13
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Dima GI, Kuhn JR, Mickey D, Downs C 2018. Ap. J. 852:123
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Dima GI, Schad TA. 2020. Ap. J. 889:2109
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Dove JB, Gibson SE, Rachmeler LA, Tomczyk S, Judge P. 2011. Ap. J. Lett. 731:1L1
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Faurobert-Scholl M. 1996. Sol. Phys. 164:1–279–90
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Fontenla JM, Avrett EH, Loeser R. 1993. Ap. J. 406:319–45
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Fox NJ, Velli MC, Bale SD et al. 2016. Space Sci. Rev. 204:1–47–48
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Gabriel AH. 1971. Sol. Phys. 21:392–400
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Gabriel AH, Garton WRS, Goldberg L et al. 1971. Ap. J. 169:595–614
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Gibson S, Kucera T, White S et al. 2016. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 3:8
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Gibson SE, Dalmasse K, Rachmeler LA et al. 2017. Ap. J. Lett. 840:2L13
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Hale GE. 1908. Ap. J. 28:315–43
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hanle W. 1924. Z. Phys. 30:93–105
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Harvey JW. 2012. Sol. Phys. 280:169–81
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Heinzel P, Štěpán J, Bemporad A et al. 2020. Ap. J. 900:8
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Henze W, Stenflo JO. 1987. Sol. Phys. 111:243–54
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Hodgson R. 1859. MNRAS 20:15–16
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Ishikawa R, Narukage N, Kubo M et al. 2014. Sol. Phys. 289:124727–47
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Ishikawa R, Trujillo Bueno J, del Pino Alemán T et al. 2021. Sci. Adv. 7:8eabe8406
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Ishikawa R, Trujillo Bueno J, Uitenbroek H et al. 2017. Ap. J. 841:31
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Janett G, Alsina Ballester E, Guerreiro N et al. 2021. Astron. Astrophys. 655:A13
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Jaume Bestard J, Trujillo Bueno J, Štěpán J, del Pino Alemán T 2021. Ap. J. 909:183
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Judge P, Casini R, Paraschiv AR. 2021a. Ap. J. 912:118
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Judge P, Rempel M, Ezzeddine R et al. 2021b. Ap. J. 917:127
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Judge PG. 1998. Ap. J. 500:21009–22
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Judge PG. 2007. Ap. J. 662:1677–90
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Judge PG, Kleint L, Sainz Dalda A 2015. Ap. J. 814:2100
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Judge PG, Low BC, Casini R. 2006. Ap. J. 651:21229–37
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Jurčák J, Štěpán J, Trujillo Bueno J 2021. Ap. J. 911:123
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Kano R, Trujillo Bueno J, Winebarger A et al. 2017. Ap. J. Lett. 839:L10
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Khan A. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 545:A52
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Khan A, Belluzzi L, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Fineschi S, Romoli M 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 529:A12
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Khan A, Landi Degl'Innocenti E 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 543:A158
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Kleint L. 2017. Ap. J. 834:126
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Kobayashi K, Kano R, Trujillo Bueno J et al. 2012. Fifth Hinode Science Meeting L Golub, I De Moortel, T Shimizu ASP Conf. Ser. 456:233–40
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Kramar M, Lin H, Tomczyk S. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 819:2L36
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Kriginsky M, Oliver R, Antolin P, Kuridze D, Freij N. 2021. Astron. Astrophys. 650:A71
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Kriginsky M, Oliver R, Freij N et al. 2020. Astron. Astrophys. 642:A61
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Kuckein C, Centeno R, Martínez Pillet V et al. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 501:31113–21
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Kuckein C, Martínez Pillet V, Centeno R 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 539:A131
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Kuhn JR, Arnaud J, Jaeggli S, Lin H, Moise E 2007. Ap. J. Lett. 667:2L203–5
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Kuridze D, Henriques VMJ, Mathioudakis M et al. 2018. Ap. J. 860:110
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Kuridze D, Mathioudakis M, Morgan H et al. 2019. Ap. J. 874:2126
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Landi Degl'Innocenti M, Landolfi M 1997. Science with THÉMIS, Obs. de Paris-Meudon, Nov. 14–15, 1996 P Mein, S Sahal-Bréchot 59–77 Paris: Obs. Paris-Meudon
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Landolfi M 2004. Polarization in Spectral Lines, Vol. 307 Astrophys. Space Sci. Libr Dordrecht, Neth: Kluwer
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Leenaarts J, Carlsson M, Rouppe van der Voort L 2015. Ap. J. 802:2136
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Levens PJ, Labrosse N, Fletcher L, Schmieder B. 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 582:A27
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Li H, del Pino Alemán T, Trujillo Bueno J, Casini R 2022. Ap. J 933:2145
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Li H, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Qu Z 2017. Ap. J. 838:169
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Li W, Li M, Wang K et al. 2021. Ap. J. Lett. 913:2135
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Li X, Morgan H, Leonard D, Jeska L 2012. Ap. J. Lett. 752:2L22
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Libbrecht T, de la Cruz Rodríguez J, Danilovic S, Leenaarts J, Pazira H. 2019. Astron. Astrophys. 621:A35
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Lin H, Kuhn JR, Coulter R. 2004. Ap. J. Lett. 613:2L177–80
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Lites BW, Kubo M, Socas-Navarro H et al. 2008. Ap. J. 672:21237–53
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Liu Y. 2009. Ann. Geophys. 27:72771–77
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Liu Y, Lin H. 2008. Ap. J. 680:21496–507
    [Google Scholar]
  112. López Ariste A, Aulanier G 2007. The Physics of Chromospheric Plasmas P Heinzel, I Dorotovič, RJ Rutten ASP Conf. Ser. 368:291–305 San Francisco: ASP
    [Google Scholar]
  113. López Ariste A, Aulanier G, Schmieder B, Sainz Dalda A 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 456:2725–35
    [Google Scholar]
  114. López Ariste A, Casini R. 2002. Ap. J. 575:1529–41
    [Google Scholar]
  115. López Ariste A, Casini R. 2003. Ap. J. Lett. 582:1L51–54
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Loukitcheva M. 2020. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 7:45
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Mackay DH, Karpen JT, Ballester JL, Schmieder B, Aulanier G. 2010. Space Sci. Rev. 151:4333–99
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Manso Sainz R, del Pino Alemán T, Casini R, McIntosh S 2019. Ap. J. Lett. 883:2L30
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Manso Sainz R, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Trujillo Bueno J 2004. Ap. J. Lett. 614:L89–91
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Manso Sainz R, Trujillo Bueno J 2003a. Solar Polarization 3 J Trujillo Bueno, J Sánchez Almeida ASP Conf. Ser. 307:251–62 San Francisco: ASP
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Manso Sainz R, Trujillo Bueno J 2003b. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91:11111102
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Manso Sainz R, Trujillo Bueno J 2009. Solar Polarization 5: In Honor of Jan Olof Stenflo SV Berdyugina, KN Nagendra, R Ramelli ASP Conf. Ser. 405:423–28 San Francisco: ASP
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Manso Sainz R, Trujillo Bueno J 2010. Ap. J. 722:1416–36
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Martínez González MJ, Asensio Ramos A, Arregui I et al. 2016. Ap. J. 825:2119
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Martínez González MJ, Manso Sainz R, Asensio Ramos A et al. 2015. Ap. J. 802:13
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Martínez-Sykora J, De Pontieu B, Carlsson M, Hansteen V. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 831:1L1
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Merenda L, Trujillo Bueno J, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Collados M 2006. Ap. J. 642:1554–61
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Mghebrishvili I, Zaqarashvili TV, Kukhianidze V et al. 2015. Ap. J. 810:289
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Mihalas D. 1978. Stellar Atmospheres San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Co. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Milić I, van Noort M. 2018. Astron. Astrophys. 617:A24
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Moise E, Raymond J, Kuhn JR 2010. Ap. J. 722:21411–15
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Moses JD, Antonucci E, Newmark J et al. 2020. Nat. Astron. 4:1134–39
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Nagendra KN, Sampoorna M. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 535:A88
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Nakariakov VM, Verwichte E. 2005. Living Rev. Solar Phys. 2:13
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Narukage N, Auchère F, Ishikawa R et al. 2015. Appl. Opt. 54:82080
    [Google Scholar]
  136. NASA's GSFC & SDO AIA Team 2018. Astronomy picture of the day, Sept. 16. NASA https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap180916.html
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Orozco Suárez D, Asensio Ramos A, Trujillo Bueno J 2012. Ap. J. Lett. 761:2L25
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Orozco Suárez D, Asensio Ramos A, Trujillo Bueno J 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 566:A46
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Orozco Suárez D, Asensio Ramos A, Trujillo Bueno J 2015. Ap. J. Lett. 803:2L18
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Paletou F, López Ariste A, Bommier V, Semel M. 2001. Astron. Astrophys. 375:L39–42
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Panasenco O, Martin SF, Velli M. 2014. Sol. Phys. 289:2603–22
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Penn MJ, Kuhn JR. 1995. Ap. J. Lett. 441:L51–54
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Pettit E. 1932. Ap. J. 76:9–49
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Pietarila A, Hirzberger J, Zakharov V, Solanki SK. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 502:2647–60
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Plowman J. 2014. Ap. J. 792:123
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Querfeld CW, Smartt RN, Bommier V, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, House LL 1985. Sol. Phys. 96:2277–92
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Rachmeler LA, Platten SJ, Bethge C, Seaton DB, Yeates AR. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 787:1L3
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Rachmeler LA, Trujillo Bueno J, McKenzie DEet al 2022. Ap. J In press. arXiv:2207.01788
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Raouafi NE, Lemaire P, Sahal-Bréchot S. 1999. Astron. Astrophys. 345:999–1005
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Raouafi NE, Riley P, Gibson S, Fineschi S, Solanki SK. 2016. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 3:20
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Ruiz Cobo B, Quintero Noda C, Gafeira R et al. 2022. Astron. Astrophys. 660:A37
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Sahal-Bréchot S, Raouafi NE. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 445:2681–92
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Sainz Dalda A, de la Cruz Rodríguez J, De Pontieu B, Gošić M. 2019. Ap. J. Lett. 875:2L18
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Sasso C, Lagg A, Solanki SK. 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 561:A98
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Schad T, Dima G. 2020. Sol. Phys. 295:798
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Schad T, Dima G. 2021. Sol. Phys. 296:11166
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Schad TA, Penn MJ, Lin H. 2013. Ap. J. 768:2111
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Schad TA, Penn MJ, Lin H, Judge PG. 2016. Ap. J. 833:15
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Schmieder B, Kucera TA, Knizhnik K et al. 2013. Ap. J. 777:2108
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Smitha HN, Nagendra KN, Sampoorna M, Stenflo JO. 2013. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 115:46–59
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Socas-Navarro H, de la Cruz Rodríguez J, Asensio Ramos A, Trujillo Bueno J, Ruiz Cobo B 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 577:A7
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Socas-Navarro H, Trujillo Bueno J, Ruiz Cobo B 2000. Ap. J. 530:2977–93
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Solanki SK, Barthol P, Danilovic S et al. 2010. Ap. J. Lett. 723:2L127–33
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Sparr G, Strahlen K. 1998. Vector field tomography, an overview Lund Univ. (Lund Institute Of Technology: Center For Mathematical Sciences)/Tech. Rep., Lund, Sweden
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Stenflo JO. 1982. Sol. Phys. 80:209–26
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Stenflo JO. 2013. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 21:66
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Stenflo JO 1994. Solar Magnetic Fields: Polarized Radiation DiagnosticsAstrophys. Space Sci. Libr. Vol. 189 Dordrecht, Neth: Kluwer Acad.
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Stenflo JO, Baur TG, Elmore DF. 1980. Astron. Astrophys. 84:60–67
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Stenflo JO, Keller CU, Gandorfer A. 1998. Astron. Astrophys. 329:319–28
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Stenflo JO, Stenholm L. 1976. Astron. Astrophys. 46:69–79
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Štěpán J, del Pino Alemán TJ, Trujillo Bueno J 2022. Astron. Astrophys. 659:A137
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Štěpán J, Trujillo Bueno J 2010. Ap. J. Lett. 711:L133–37
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Štěpán J, Trujillo Bueno J 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 557:A143
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Štěpán J, Trujillo Bueno J 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 826:L10
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Štěpán J, Trujillo Bueno J, Leenaarts J, Carlsson M 2015. Ap. J. 803:265
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Su Y, Gömöry P, Veronig A et al. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 785:1L2
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Su Y, Wang T, Veronig A, Temmer M, Gan W. 2012. Ap. J. Lett. 756:2L41
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Sukhorukov AV, Leenaarts J. 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 597:A46
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Supriya HD, Sampoorna M, Nagendra KN, Ravindra B, Anusha LS. 2013. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 119:67–76
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Supriya HD, Trujillo Bueno J, de Vicente A, del Pino Alemán T 2021. Ap. J. 920:2140
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Toriumi S, Wang H. 2019. Living Rev. Solar Phys. 16:13
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Trujillo Bueno J 2001. Advanced Solar Polarimetry – Theory, Observation, and Instrumentation: 20th NSO/SAC Summer Workshop M Sigwarth ASP Conf. Ser. 236:161–95 San Francisco: ASP
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Trujillo Bueno J 2010. Magnetic Coupling Between the Interior and Atmosphere of the Sun SS Hasan, RJ Rutten 118–40 Heidelberg: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Trujillo Bueno J, Asensio Ramos A 2007. Ap. J. 655:1642–50
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Trujillo Bueno J, Landi Degl'Innocenti E 1997. Ap. J. Lett. 482:L183–86
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Trujillo Bueno J, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Belluzzi L 2017. Space Sci. Rev. 210:1–4183–226
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Trujillo Bueno J, Landi Degl'Innocenti E, Collados M, Merenda L, Manso Sainz R 2002. Nature 415:6870403–6
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Trujillo Bueno J, Shchukina N, Asensio Ramos A 2004. Nature 430:326–29
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Trujillo Bueno J, Štěpán J, Belluzzi L 2012. Ap. J. Lett. 746:L9
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Trujillo Bueno J, Štěpán J, Belluzzi L et al. 2018. Ap. J. Lett. 866:L15
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Trujillo Bueno J, Štěpán J, Casini R 2011. Ap. J. Lett. 738:L11
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Tsiropoula G, Tziotziou K, Kontogiannis I et al. 2012. Space Sci. Rev. 169:1–4181–244
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Uitenbroek H. 2001. Ap. J. 557:389–98
    [Google Scholar]
  194. van Noort M. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 548:A5
    [Google Scholar]
  195. van Noort M, Rouppe van der Voort L, Löfdahl MG 2005. Sol. Phys. 228:1–2191–215
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Vial J-C, Engvold O, eds. 2015. Solar ProminencesAstrophys. Space Sci. Libr. Vol. 415 Cham, Switz: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Vicente Arévalo A, Asensio Ramos A, Esteban Pozuelo S 2022. Ap. J. 928:101
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Wedemeyer S, Scullion E, Rouppe van der Voort L, Bosnjak A, Antolin P 2013. Ap. J. 774:2123
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Woodgate BE, Tandberg-Hanssen EA, Bruner EC et al. 1980. Sol. Phys. 65:173–90
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Xu Z, Lagg A, Solanki S, Liu Y. 2012. Ap. J. 749:2138
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Yadav R, Díaz Baso CJ, de la Cruz Rodríguez J, Calvo F, Morosin R 2021. Astron. Astrophys. 649:A106
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Zhao J, Gibson SE, Fineschi S et al. 2021. Ap. J. 912:2141
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-041122-031043
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-041122-031043
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error