1932

Abstract

Astrometry provides the foundation for astrophysics. Accurate positions are required for the association of sources detected at different times or wavelengths, and distances are essential to estimate the size, luminosity, mass, and ages of most objects. Very long baseline interferometry at radio wavelengths, with diffraction-limited imaging at submilliarcsecond resolution, has long held the promise of microarcsecond astrometry. However, only in the past decade has this been routinely achieved. Currently, parallaxes for sources across the Milky Way are being measured with ∼10 μas accuracy, and proper motions of galaxies are being determined with accuracies of ∼1 μas year−1. The astrophysical applications of these measurements cover many fields, including star formation, evolved stars, stellar and supermassive black holes, Galactic structure, the history and fate of the Local Group, the Hubble constant, and tests of general relativity. This review summarizes the methods used and the astrophysical applications of microarcsecond radio astrometry.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040006
2014-08-18
2024-04-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/astro/52/1/annurev-astro-081913-040006.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040006&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ando K, Nagayama T, Omodaka T, Handa T, Imai H. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:45–51
  2. André P, Men'schikov A, Bontemps S, Könyves V, Motte F. et al. 2010. Astron. Astrophys. 518:L102
  3. Antreasian PG, Baird DT, Border JS, Burckhart PD, Graat EJ. et al. 2005. J. Spacecr. Rockets 42:394–405
  4. Asada H. 2002. Ap. J. Lett. 574:L69–70
  5. Asaki Y, Deguchi S, Imai H, Hachisuka K, Miyoshi M, Honma M. 2010. Ap. J. 721:267–77
  6. Bailes M, Manchester R, Kesteven M, Norris RP, Reynolds JE. 1990a. Nature 343:240–41
  7. Bailes M, Manchester R, Kesteven MJ, Norris RP, Revnolds JE. 1990b. MNRAS 247:322
  8. Bartel N, Herring TA, Ratner MI, Shapiro II, Corey BE. 1986. Nature 319:733–83
  9. Bartkiewicz A, Brunthaler A, Szymczak M, van Langevelde HJ, Reid MJ. 2008. Astron. Astrophys. 490:787–92
  10. Bietenholz MF, Bartel N, Rupen MP. 2004. Ap. J. 615:173–80
  11. Bietenholz MF, Kondratiev V, Ransom S, Slane P, Bartel N, Buchner S. 2013. MNRAS 431:2590–98
  12. Blandford RD, Königl A. 1979. Ap. J. 232:34–48
  13. Border JS, Folkner WM, Kahn RD, Zukor KS. 1992. Telecommun. Data Acquis. Prog. Rep. 42:110
  14. Bourda G, Collioud A, Charlot P, Porcas R, Garrington S. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 526:102
  15. Bower GC, Bolatto A, Ford EB, Fries A, Kalas P. et al. 2011. Astron. J. 740:32
  16. Bower GC, Bolatto A, Ford EB, Kalas P. 2009. Astron. J. 701:1922–39
  17. Braatz JA, Reid MJ, Humphreys EML, Henkel C, Condon JJ, Lo KY. 2010. Ap. J. 718:657–65
  18. Braatz J, Reid M, Kuo CY, Impellizzeri V, Condon J. et al. 2013. Advancing the Physics of Cosmic Distances, Proc. IAU Symp. 289 R de Grijs, G Bono 8255–61 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  19. Brisken WF, Benson JM, Beasley AJ, Fomalont EB, Goss WM, Thorsett SE. 2000. Ap. J. 541:959–62
  20. Brisken WF, Benson JM, Goss WM, Thorsett SE. 2002. Ap. J. 571:906–17
  21. Brisken WF, Thorsett S, Golden A, Goss WM. 2003. Ap. J. 593:89–92
  22. Broderick AE, Loeb A, Reid MJ. 2011. Ap. J. 735:57
  23. Brunthaler A, Reid MJ, Falcke H, Greenhill LJ, Henkel C. 2005. Science 307:1440–43
  24. Brunthaler A, Reid MJ, Falcke H, Henkel C, Menten KM. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 462:101–6
  25. Brunthaler A, Reid MJ, Menten KM, Zheng XW, Moscadelli L, Xu Y. 2009. Ap. J. 693:424–29
  26. Caballero-Nieves SM, Gies DR, Bolton CT, Hadrava P, Herrero A. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 701:1895–905
  27. Campbell R, Bartel N, Shapiro II, Ratner MI, Cappallo RJ. et al. 1996. Ap. J. Lett. 461:95
  28. Cernis K. 1990. Ap. Space Sci. 166:315–30
  29. Chatterjee S, Brisken WF, Vlemmings WHT, Goss WM, Lazio TJW. 2009. Ap. J. 698:250–65
  30. Chatterjee S, Cordes JM, Vlemmings WHT, Arzoumanian Z, Goss WM, Lazio TJW. 2004. Ap. J. 604:339–45
  31. Choi Y, Hirota T, Honma M, Kobayashi H, Bushimata T. et al. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:1007–12
  32. Clark TA, Hutton LK, Marandino GE, Counselman CC, Robertson DS. et al. 1976. Astron. J. 81:599–603
  33. Counselman CC III, Gourevitch SA, King RW, Loriot GB, Prinn RG. 1979. Science 205:85–86
  34. Counselman CC III, Hinteregger HF, King RW, Shapiro II. 1973. Science 181:772–4
  35. Damour T, Taylor JH. 1991. Ap. J. 366:501–11
  36. Darling J. 2011. Ap. J. 732:2
  37. Deller AT, Archibald AM, Brisken WF, Chatterjee S, Janssen GH. et al. 2012a. Ap. J. Lett. 756:L25
  38. Deller AT, Bailes M, Tingay SJ. 2009. Science 323:1327–29
  39. Deller AT, Camilo F, Reynolds JE, Halpern JP. 2012b. Ap. J. Lett. 748:L1
  40. Deller AT, Tingay SJ, Bailes M, Reynolds JE. 2009. Ap. J. 701:1243–57
  41. Deller AT, Verbiest J, Tingay SJ, Bailes M. 2008. Ap. J. Lett. 685:L67–70
  42. Dodson R, Legge D, Revnolds JE, McCulloch PM. 2003. Ap. J. 596:1137–41
  43. Doeleman SS, Weintroub J, Rogers AEE, Plambeck R, Freund R. et al. 2008. Nature 455:78–80
  44. Duev DA, Calves GM, Pogrebenko SV, Gurvits LI, Cimó G, Bocanegra BT. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 541:43
  45. Duncan RC, Thompson C. 1992. Ap. J. Lett. 392:L9–12
  46. Dyson FW, Eddington AS, Davidson C. 1919. Ap. J. 220:291–333
  47. Dzib S, Loinard L, Mioduszewski AJ, Boden AF, Rodríguez LF, Torres RM. 2010. Ap. J. 718:610–9
  48. Dzib SA, Rodriguez LF, Loinard L, Mioduszewski AJ, Ortiz-Leon GN, Araudo AT. 2013. Ap. J. 763:139
  49. Eiroa C, Djupvik AA, Casali MM. 2008. Handbook of Star Forming Regions Vol. II B Reipurth ASP Monogr. Publ 5693–734 San Francisco: ASP
  50. Evans NJ II, Dunham MM, Jørgensen JK, Enoch ML, Merín B. et al. 2009. Ap. J. Suppl. 181:321–50
  51. Everitt C, DeBra D, Parkinson B, Turneaure J, Conklin J. et al. 2011. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:1
  52. Falcke H, Melia F, Agol E. 2000. Ap. J. Lett. 528:L13–6
  53. Folkner WM, Border JS, Nandi S, Zukor KS. 1993. Telecommun. Data Acquis. Prog. Rep. 42–113:22–36
  54. Fomalont EB, Kopeikin S. 2003. Ap. J. 598:704
  55. Fomalont EB, Kopeikin S. 2009. A Giant Step: From Milli- to Micro- Arcsecond Astrometry, Proc. IAU Symp. 248 W Jin, I Platais, MAC Perryman 3383–86 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  56. Fomalont EB, Kopeikin S, Lanyi G, Benson J. 2009. Ap. J. 699:1395
  57. Gawronski MP, Gozdziewski K, Katarzynski K. 2013. Project RISARD. Paper presented at EVN Symp., 11th, Oct. 9–12 2012, Bordeaux, France. arXiv:1309:4639
  58. Genzel R, Reid MJ, Moran JM, Downes D. 1981. Ap. J. 244:884–902
  59. Ghez AM, Salim S, Weinberg NN, Lu JR, Do T. et al. 2008. Ap. J. 689:1044–62
  60. Gillessen S, Eisenhauer F, Trippe S, Alexander T, Genzel R. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 692:1074–109
  61. Goossens S, Matsumoto K, Liu Q, Kikuchi F, Sato K. et al. 2011. J. Geod. 85:205–28
  62. Gou L, McClintock JE, Reid MJ, Orosz JA, Steiner JF. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 742:85
  63. Güdel M, Arzner K, Audard M, Bouvier J, Briggs K. et al. 2008. Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 384:65–69
  64. Guirado JC, Marcaide JM, Alberdi A, Elosegui P, Ratner MI. et al. 1995. Astron. J. 110:2586
  65. Guirado JC, Reynolds JE, Lestrade JF, Preston RA, Jauncey DL. et al. 1997. Ap. J. 490:835–9
  66. Guirado JC, Ros E, Jones DL, Lestrade JF, Marcaide JM. et al. 2001. Astron. Astrophys. 371:766–70
  67. Gwinn C, Taylor J, Weisberg JM, Rawley LA. 1986. Astron. J. 91:338–42
  68. Hachisuka K, Brunthaler A, Menten KM, Reid MJ, Hagiwara Y, Mochizuki N. 2009. Ap. J. 696:1981–6
  69. Hachisuka K, Brunthaler A, Menten KM, Reid MJ, Imai H. et al. 2006. Ap. J. 645:337–44
  70. Hada K, Doi A, Kino M, Nagai H, Hagiwara Y, Kawaguchi N. 2011. Nature 477:185–7
  71. Hada K, Kino M, Nagai H, Doi A, Hagiwara Y. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 760:52
  72. Harrison TE, McNamara BJ, Szkody P, McArthur BE, Benedict GF. et al. 1999. Ap. J. Lett. 515:L93–96
  73. Helfand D, Chatterjee S, Brisken WF, Camilo F, Reynolds J. et al. 2007. Ap. J. 662:1198–203
  74. Herbig GH, Jones BF. 1983. Astron. J. 88:1040–52
  75. Hernández-Pajares M, Juan JM, Sanz J, Orus R, Garcia-Rigo A. et al. 2009. J. Geod. 83:265–75
  76. Herrnstein JR, Moran JM, Greenhill LJ, Diamond PJ, Inoue M. et al. 1999. Nature 400:539–41
  77. Herrnstein JR, Moran JM, Greenhill LJ, Trotter AS. 2005. Ap. J. 629:719–38
  78. Hildebrand CE, Iijima BA, Kroger PM, Folkner WM, Edwards CD. 1994. Telecommun. Data Acquis. Prog. Rep. 119:46–82
  79. Hirota T, Bushimata T, Choi YK, Honma M, Imai H. et al. 2007. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 59:5897–903
  80. Hirota T, Bushimata T, Choi YK, Honma M, Imai H. et al. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:137–44
  81. Hirota T, Honma M, Imai H. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:1–8
  82. Hirshfeld A. 2001. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos New York: Freeman
  83. Honma M, Bushimata T, Choi YK, Hirota T, Imai H. et al. 2007. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 59:889–95
  84. Honma M, Fujii T, Hirota T, Horiai K, Iwadate K. et al. 2003. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 55:L57–60
  85. Honma M, Hirota T, Kan-Ya Y, Kawaguchi N, Kobayashi H. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:17–22
  86. Honma M, Kijima M, Suda H, Kawaguchi N, Kobayashi H. et al. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:935–50
  87. Honma M, Nagayama T, Ando K, Bushimata T, Choi YK. et al. 2012. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 64:136
  88. Honma M, Tamura Y, Reid MJ. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:951–60
  89. Hubble EP. 1926. Ap. J. 63:236–74
  90. Humphreys EML, Reid MJ, Moran JM, Greenhill LJ, Argon AL. 2013. Ap. J. 775:13
  91. Imai H, Kurayama T, Honma M, Miyaji T. 2013. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 65:28
  92. Imai H, Nakashima K, Bushimata T, Choi YK, Hirota T. et al. 2007. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 59:1107–13
  93. Imai H, Sahai R, Morris M. 2007. Ap. J. 669:424–34
  94. Imai H, Sakai N, Nakanishi H, Sakanoue H, Honma M, Miyaji T. 2012. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 64:142
  95. Imai H, Tafoya D, Honma M, Hirota T, Miyaji T. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:81–87
  96. Immer K, Reid MJ, Menten KM, Brunthaler A, Dame TM. 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 553:117
  97. Jacobson RA, Antreasian PG, Bordi JJ, Criddle KE, Ionasescu R. et al. 2006. Astron. J. 132:2520–6
  98. Jones DL, Fomalont EB, Dhawan V, Romney J, Folkner WM. et al. 2011. Astron. J. 141:29
  99. Kamezaki T, Nakagawa A, Omodaka T, Kurayama T, Imai H. et al. 2012. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 64:7
  100. Kamohara R, Bujarrabal V, Honma M, Nakagawa A, Matsumoto N. et al. 2010. Astron. Astrophys. 510:A69
  101. Kardashev N, Khartov VV, Abramov VV, Avdeev VY, Alakoz AV. et al. 2013. Astron. Rep. 57:153–94
  102. Kikuchi F, Liu Q, Hanada H, Kawano N, Matsumoto K. et al. 2009. Radio Sci. 44:2008–14
  103. Kim MK, Hirota T, Honma M, Kobayashi H, Bushimata T. et al. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:991–99
  104. King RW, Counselman CC III, Shapiro II. 1976. J. Geophys. Res. 81:6251–56
  105. Kovalev YY, Lobanov AP, Pushkarev AB, Zensus JA. 2008. Astron. Astrophys. 483:759–86
  106. Kuo CY, Braatz JA, Reid MJ, Lo KY, Condon JJ. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 767:155
  107. Kurayama T, Nakagawa A, Sawada-Satoh S, Sato K, Honma M. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:513–25
  108. Kurayama T, Sasao T, Kobayashi H. 2005. Ap. J. Lett. 627:L49–52
  109. Lambert SB, Le Poncin-Lafitte C. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 499:331–35
  110. Lambert SB, Le Poncin-Lafitte C. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 529:70
  111. Lanyi G, Bagri DS, Border J. 2007. Proc. IEEE 95:2193–201
  112. Lestrade JF, Jones DL, Preston RA, Phillips RB, Titus MA. et al. 1995. Astron. Astrophys. 304:182–88
  113. Lestrade JF, Phillips RB, Hodges MW, Preston RA. 1993. Ap. J. 410:808–14
  114. Lestrade JF, Phillips RB, Jones DL, Preston RA. 1996. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 101:E614837–42
  115. Lestrade JF, Preston RA, Jones DL, Phillips RB, Rogers AEE. et al. 1999. Astron. Astrophys. 344:1014–26
  116. Loeb A, Reid MJ, Brunthaler A, Falcke H. 2005. Ap. J. 633:894–98
  117. Loinard L, Mioduszewski AJ, Rodríguez LF, González RA, Rodríguez MI, Torres RM. 2005. Ap. J. Lett. 619:L179–82
  118. Loinard L, Torres RM, Mioduszewski AJ, Rodríguez LF. 2008. Ap. J. Lett. 675:L29–32
  119. Loinard L, Torres RM, Mioduszewski AJ, Rodríguez LF, González-Lópezlira RA. et al. 2007. Ap. J. 671:546–54
  120. Ma C, Clark TA, Ryan JW, Herring TA, Shapiro II. et al. 1986. Astron. J. 92:1020–29
  121. Macri LM, Stanek KZ, Bersier D, Greenhill LJ, Reid MJ. 2006. Ap. J. 652:1113–49
  122. Marcaide JM, Elosegui P, Shapiro II. 1994. Astron. J. 108:368–73
  123. Marcaide JM, Shapiro II, Corey BE, Cotton WD, Gorenstein MV. et al. 1985. Astron. Astrophys. 142:71–84
  124. Marti-Vidal I, Marcaide JM, Alberdi A, Pérez-Torres MA, Ros E, Guirado JC. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 533:A111
  125. Marti-Vidal I, Marcaide JM, Guirado JC, Pérez-Torres MA, Ros E. 2008. Astron. Astrophys. 478:267–75
  126. Matsumoto N, Honma M, Isono Y, Ujihara H, Kimura K. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:1345–56
  127. Menten KM, Reid MJ, Eckart A, Genzel R. 1997. Ap. J. Lett. 475:L111–14
  128. Menten KM, Reid MJ, Forbrich J, Brunthaler A. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 474:515–20
  129. Miller-Jones JCA, Jonker PG, Dhawan V, Brisken W, Rupen MP. et al. 2009. Ap. J. Lett. 706:L230–34
  130. Miller-Jones JCA, Sivakoff GR, Knigge C, Körding EG, Templeton M, Waagen EO. 2013. Science 340:950–52
  131. Min C, Matsumoto N, Kim MK, Hirota T, Shibata KM. et al. 2014. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 6638
  132. Mirabel FI, Rodrigues I. 2003. Science 300:1119–20
  133. Moellenbrock GA, Claussen MJ, Goss WM. 2009. Ap. J. 694:192–204
  134. Mori K, Gotthelf EV, Zhang S, An H, Baganoff FK. et al. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 770:L23
  135. Moscadelli L, Cesaroni R, Rioja MJ, Dodson R, Reid MJ. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 526:66
  136. Motogi K, Sorai K, Habe A, Honma M, Kobayashi H. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:31–44
  137. Nagayama T, Omodaka T, Handa T, Honma M, Kobayashi H. et al. 2011a. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:719–25
  138. Nagayama T, Omodaka T, Nakagawa A, Handa T, Honma M. et al. 2011b. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:23–30
  139. Nakagawa A, Tsushima M, Ando K, Bushimata T, Choi YK. et al. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:1013–21
  140. Ng CY, Romani RW, Brisken WF, Chatterjee S, Kramer M. 2007. Ap. J. 654:487–93
  141. Niinuma K, Nagayama T, Hirota T, Honma M, Motogi K. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:9–16
  142. Nyu D, Nakagawa A, Matsui M, Imai H, Sofue Y. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:63–70
  143. Oh CS, Kobayashi H, Honma M, Hirota T, Sato K. et al. 2010. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 62:101–14
  144. Orosz JA, McClintock JE, Aufdenberg JP, Remillard RA, Reid MJ. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 742:84
  145. Peterson WM, Mutel RL, Lestrade JF, Güdel M, Goss WM. 2011. Astron. J. 737:104
  146. Porcas RW. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 505:L1–4
  147. Ratner MI, Bartel N, Bietenholz MF, Lebach DE, Lestrade JF. et al. 2012. Ap. J. Suppl. 201:5
  148. Reid MJ. 2009. Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 18:889–910
  149. Reid MJ, Braatz JA, Condon JJ, Greenhill LJ, Henkel C, Lo KY. 2009a. Ap. J. 695:287–91
  150. Reid MJ, Braatz JA, Condon JJ, Lo KY, Kuo CY. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 767:154
  151. Reid MJ, Brunthaler A. 2004. Ap. J. 616:872–84
  152. Reid MJ, McClintock JE, Narayan R, Gou L, Remillard RA, Orosz JA. 2011. Ap. J. 742:83
  153. Reid MJ, Menten KM, Brunthaler A, Zheng XW, Dame TM. et al. 2014. Ap. J. 783:130
  154. Reid MJ, Menten KM, Brunthaler A, Zheng XW, Moscadelli L, Xu Y. 2009b. Ap. J. 693:397–405
  155. Reid MJ, Menten KM, Genzel R, Ott T, Schödel R, Eckart A. 2003. Ap. J. 587:208–20
  156. Reid MJ, Menten KM, Zheng XW, Brunthaler A, Moscadelli L. et al. 2009c. Ap. J. 700:137–48
  157. Reid MJ, Schneps MH, Moran JM, Gwinn CR, Genzel R. et al. 1988. Ap. J. 330:809–16
  158. Riess AG, Fliri J, Valls-Gabaud D. 2012. Ap. J. 745:156
  159. Riess AG, Macri L, Casterno S, Lampeitl H, Ferguson HC. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 752:76
  160. Rioja M, Dodson R, Porcas RW, Ferris D, Reynolds J. et al. 2009. Proc. 8th Int. e-VLBI Workshop Madrid, Spain, June 22–26, PoS(EXPReS09)014 http://pos.sissa.it/archive/conferences/082/014/EXPReS09_014.pdf
  161. Rioja MJ, Marcaide JM, Elosegui P, Shapiro II. 1997. Astron. Astrophys. 325:383–90
  162. Rygl KLJ, Brunthaler A, Reid MJ, Menten KM, van Langevelde HJ, Xu Y. 2010. Astron. Astrophys. 511:2
  163. Rygl KLJ, Brunthaler A, Sanna A, Menten KM, Reid MJ. et al. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 539:A79
  164. Sagdeyev RZ, Kerzhanovitch VV, Kogan LR, Kostenko VI, Linkin VM. et al. 1992. Astron. Astrophys. 254:387
  165. Salzberg IM. 1973. Proc. IEEE 61:1233–36
  166. Sandstrom KM, Peek JEG, Bower GC, Bolatto AD, Plambeck RL. 2007. Ap. J. 667:1161–69
  167. Sanna A, Reid MJ, Dame TM, Menten KM, Brunthaler A. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 745:82
  168. Sanna A, Reid MJ, Moscadelli L, Dame TM, Menten KM. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 706:464–70
  169. Sakai N, Honma M, Nakanishi H, Sakanoue H, Kurayama T. et al. 2012. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 64:108
  170. Sato M, Hirota T, Honma M, Kobayashi H, Sasao T. et al. 2008. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60:975–89
  171. Sato M, Hirota T, Reid MJ, Honma M, Kobayashi H. et al. 2010a. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 62:287–99
  172. Sato M, Reid MJ, Brunthaler A, Menten KM. 2010b. Ap. J. 720:1055–65
  173. Schödel R, Ott T, Genzel R, Hofmann R, Lehnert M. et al. 2002. Nature 419:694–96
  174. Shapiro II, Bartel N, Bietenholz MF, Lebach DE, Lestrade JF. et al. 2012. Ap. J. Suppl. 201:1
  175. Shiozaki S, Imai H, Tafoya D, Omodaka T, Hirota T. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:1219–28
  176. Slade MA, Preston RA, Harris AW, Skjerve LJ, Spitzmesser DJ. 1977. Moon 17:133–47
  177. Soderblom DR, Nelan E, Benedict GF, McArthur B, Ramirez I. et al. 2005. Astron. J. 129:1616–24
  178. Sokolovsky KV, Kovalev YY, Pushkarev AB, Lobanov AP. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 532:A38
  179. Steigenberger P, Tesmer V, Krügel M, Thaller D, Schmid R. et al. 2007. J. Geod. 81:503–14
  180. Tafoya D, Imai H, Gomez Y, Torrelles JM, Patel NA. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:71–80
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040006
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040006
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error