1932

Abstract

Our understanding of massive star evolution is in flux due to recent upheavals in our view of mass loss and observations of a high binary fraction among O-type stars. Mass-loss rates for standard metallicity-dependent winds of hot stars are lower by a factor of 2–3 compared with rates adopted in modern stellar evolution codes, due to the influence of clumping on observed diagnostics. Weaker hot star winds shift the burden of H-envelope removal to the winds, pulsations, and eruptions of evolved supergiants, as well as binary mass transfer. Studies of stripped-envelope supernovae, in particular, require binary mass transfer. Dramatic examples of eruptive mass loss are seen in Type IIn supernovae, which have massive shells ejected just a few years earlier. These eruptions are a prelude to core collapse, and may signify severe instabilities in the latest nuclear burning phases. We encounter the predicament that the most important modes of mass loss are also the most uncertain, undermining the predictive power of single-star evolution models. Moreover, the influence of winds and rotation has been evaluated by testing single-star models against observed statistics that, it turns out, are heavily influenced by binary evolution. Altogether, this may alter our view about the most basic outcomes of massive-star mass loss—are Wolf-Rayet stars and Type Ibc supernovae the products of winds, or are they mostly the result of binary evolution and eruptive mass loss? This is not fully settled, but mounting evidence points toward the latter. This paradigm shift impacts other areas of astronomy, because it changes predictions for ionizing radiation and wind feedback from stellar populations, it may alter conclusions about star-formation rates and initial mass functions, it affects the origin of compact stellar remnants, and it influences how we use supernovae as probes of stellar evolution across cosmic time.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040025
2014-08-18
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/astro/52/1/annurev-astro-081913-040025.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040025&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Arcavi I, Gal-Yam A, Kasliwal MM. et al. 2010. Ap. J. 721:777 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aretxaga I, Benetti S, Terlevich RJ. et al. 1999. MNRAS 309:343 [Google Scholar]
  3. Arnett WD, Bahcall JN, Kirshner RP, Woosley SE. 1989. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 27:629 [Google Scholar]
  4. Arnett WD, Meakin C. 2011. Ap. J. 741:33 [Google Scholar]
  5. Barlow J, Drew JE, Meaburn J, Massey RM. 1994. MNRAS 268:L29 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bastian N, Covey KR, Meyer MR. 2010. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 48:339 [Google Scholar]
  7. Beers TC, Christlieb N. 2005. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 43:531 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bennett PD. 2010. Hot and Cool: Bridging Gaps in Massive Star Evolution C Leitherer, P Bennett, P Morris, J van Loon ASP Conf. Ser. 425181 San Francisco: ASP [Google Scholar]
  9. Boissier S, Prantzos N. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 503:137 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bouret JC, Lanz T, Hillier DJ. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 438:301 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bromm V, Larson RB. 2004. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 42:79 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bromm V, Yoshida N. 2011. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49:373 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cantiello M, Langer N, Brott I. et al. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 499:279 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cantiello M, Yoon SC, Langer N, Livio M. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 465:L29 [Google Scholar]
  15. Castor JI, Abbott DC, Klein RI. 1975. Ap. J. 195:157 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chatzopoulos E, Wheeler JC, Vinko J, Horvath ZL, Nagy A. 2013. Ap. J. 773:76 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chesneau O, Meilland A, Chapellier E. et al. 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 563:A71 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chevalier RA, Fransson C. 1994. Ap. J. 420:268 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chevalier RA, Irwin. 2011. Ap. J. 729:L6 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chini R, Hoffmeister VH, Nasseri A, Stahl O, Zinnecker H. 2012. MNRAS 424:1925 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chiosi C, Maeder A. 1986. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 24:329 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chugai NN, Blinnikov SI, Cumming RJ. et al. 2004. MNRAS 352:1213 [Google Scholar]
  23. Claeys JSW, de Mink SE, Pols OR, Eldridge JJ, Baes M. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 528:A131 [Google Scholar]
  24. Clark JS, Larionov VM, Arkharov A. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 435:239 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cohen DH, Cassinelli JP, Macfarlane JJ. 1997. Ap. J. 487:867 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cohen DH, Gagne M, Leutenegger MA. et al. 2011. MNRAS 415:3354 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cohen DH, Kuhn MA, Gagne M, Jensen ELN, Miller NA. 2008. MNRAS 306:1855 [Google Scholar]
  28. Cohen DH, Leutenegger MA, Wollman EE. et al. 2010. MNRAS 405:2391 [Google Scholar]
  29. Conti PS. 1976. Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Lie'ge 9:193 [Google Scholar]
  30. Conti PS. 1984. Observational Tests of the Stellar Evolution Theory, IAU Symp. 105 A Maeder, A Renzini 233 Dordrecht: Reidel [Google Scholar]
  31. Couch S, Ott C. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 778:7 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cox DP. 2005. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 43:337 [Google Scholar]
  33. Cranmer SR, Owocki SP. 1996. Ap. J. 462:469 [Google Scholar]
  34. Crockett RM, Eldridge JJ, Smartt SJ. et al. 2008. MNRAS 391L5 [Google Scholar]
  35. Crowther PA. 2007. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 45:177 [Google Scholar]
  36. Crowther PA, Hillier DJ, Evans CJ. et al. 2002. Ap. J. 579:774 [Google Scholar]
  37. Davidson K. 1987. Ap. J. 317:760 [Google Scholar]
  38. Davies B, de la Fuente D, Najarro F. et al. 2012. MNRAS 419:1860 [Google Scholar]
  39. Davies B, Figer DF, Law CJ. et al. 2008. Ap. J. 676:1016 [Google Scholar]
  40. Becker M, Rauw G, Manfroid J, Eenens P. De 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 456:1121 [Google Scholar]
  41. de Jager C. 1998. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 8:145 [Google Scholar]
  42. de Jager C, Nieuwenhuijzen H, van der Hucht KA. 1988. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 72:259 [Google Scholar]
  43. de Koter A, Lamers HJGLM, Schmutz W. 1996. Astron. Astrophys. 306:501 [Google Scholar]
  44. de Mink SE, Langer N, Izzard RG, Sana H, de Koter A. 2013. Ap. J. 764:166 [Google Scholar]
  45. de Mink SE, Pols OR, Hilditch RW. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 467:1181 [Google Scholar]
  46. Decin L, Hony S, de Koter A. et al. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 456:549 [Google Scholar]
  47. Dessart L, Hillier DJ, Livne E. et al. 2011. MNRAS 414:2985 [Google Scholar]
  48. Dessart L, Livne E, Waldman R. 2010. MNRAS 405:2113 [Google Scholar]
  49. Dessart L, Owocki SP. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 437:657 [Google Scholar]
  50. Drake AJ, Djorgovski SG, Prieto JL. et al. 2010. Ap. J. 718:L127 [Google Scholar]
  51. Drew JE, Hoare MG, Denby M. 1994. MNRAS 266:917 [Google Scholar]
  52. Drout M, Massey P, Maynet G. 2012. Ap. J. 750:97 [Google Scholar]
  53. Dwarkadas VV, Owocki SP. 2002. Ap. J. 581:1337 [Google Scholar]
  54. Ekström S, Georgy C, Eggenberger P. et al. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 537:A146 [Google Scholar]
  55. Eldridge JJ, Izzard RG, Tout CA. 2008. MNRAS 384:1109 [Google Scholar]
  56. Eldridge JJ, Stanway ER. 2009. MNRAS 400:1019 [Google Scholar]
  57. Elmegreen BG, Lada CJ. 1977. Ap. J. 214:725 [Google Scholar]
  58. Evans CJ, Crowther PA, Fullerton AW, Hillier DJ. 2004. Ap. J. 610:1021 [Google Scholar]
  59. Evans CJ, Lennon DJ, Smartt SJ, Trundle C. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 456:623 [Google Scholar]
  60. Fan X, Carilli CL, Keating B. 2006. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 44:415 [Google Scholar]
  61. Feldmeier A. 1995. Astron. Astrophys. 299:523 [Google Scholar]
  62. Figer DF, Najarro F, Gilmore D. et al. 2002. Ap. J. 581:258 [Google Scholar]
  63. Filippenko AV. 1997. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35:309 [Google Scholar]
  64. Foellmi C, Moffat AFJ, Guerrero MA. 2003. MNRAS 338:360 [Google Scholar]
  65. Foley RJ, Berger E, Fox O. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 732:32 [Google Scholar]
  66. Foley RJ, Smith N, Ganeshalingam M. et al. 2007. Ap. J. 657:L105 [Google Scholar]
  67. Fox O, Chevalier RA, Skrutskie MF. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 741:7 [Google Scholar]
  68. Fraser M, Inserra C, Jerkstrand A. et al. 2013a. MNRAS 433:1312 [Google Scholar]
  69. Fraser M, Magee M, Kotak R. et al. 2013b. Ap. J. 779:L8 [Google Scholar]
  70. Fullerton AW, Massa DL, Prinja RK. 2006. Ap. J. 637:1025 [Google Scholar]
  71. Fullerton AW, Massa D, Prinja RK. et al. 1997. Astron. Astrophys. 327:699 [Google Scholar]
  72. Gal-Yam A. 2012. Science 337:927 [Google Scholar]
  73. Gal-Yam A, Leonard DC. 2009. Nature 458:865 [Google Scholar]
  74. Gal-Yam A, Leonard DC, Fox DB. et al. 2007. Ap. J. 656:372 [Google Scholar]
  75. Garcia B, Mermilliod J. 2001. Astron. Astrophys. 368:122 [Google Scholar]
  76. Gehrels N, Ramirez-Ruiz E, Fox DB. 2009. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47:567 [Google Scholar]
  77. Gehrz RD, Woolf NJ. 1971. Ap. J. 165:285 [Google Scholar]
  78. Georgy C, Ekstrom S, Meynet G. et al. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 542:A29 [Google Scholar]
  79. Gerardy CL, Fesen RA, Nomoto K. et al. 2002. Ap. J. 575:1007 [Google Scholar]
  80. Gezari S, Halpern JP, Grupe D. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 690:1313 [Google Scholar]
  81. Gies DR. 1987. Ap. J. Suppl. 64:545 [Google Scholar]
  82. Glatzel W, Kiriakidis M. 1993. MNRAS 263:375 [Google Scholar]
  83. Glatzel W, Kiriakidis M, Chernigovskij S, Fricke KJ. 1999. MNRAS 303:116 [Google Scholar]
  84. Gräfener G, Owocki SP, Vink JS. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 538:A40 [Google Scholar]
  85. Gräfener G, Vink JS, de Koter A, Langer N. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 535:A56 [Google Scholar]
  86. Groh JH, Hillier DJ, Damineli A. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 698:1698 [Google Scholar]
  87. Grundstrom ED, Gies DR, Hillwig TC. et al. 2007. Ap. J. 667:505 [Google Scholar]
  88. Guzik JA, Lovekin CC. 2012. Astron. Rev. 7:c13 [Google Scholar]
  89. Gvaramadze VV, Kniazev AY, Fabrika S. 2010. MNRAS 405:520 [Google Scholar]
  90. Gvaramadze VV, Langer N, Mackey J. 2012. MNRAS 427:L50 [Google Scholar]
  91. Habing HJ. 1996. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 7:97 [Google Scholar]
  92. Hachinger S, Mazzali PA, Tautenberger S. et al. 2012. MNRAS 422:70 [Google Scholar]
  93. Hamann W-R, Feldmeier A, Oskinova LM. 2008. Clumping in Hot-Star Winds Potsdam: Potsdam Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  94. Hamann W-R, Gräfener G, Liermann A. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 457:1015 [Google Scholar]
  95. Heger A, Fryer CL, Woosley SE, Langer N, Hartmann DH. 2003. Ap. J. 591:288 [Google Scholar]
  96. Heger A, Jeannin L, Langer N, Baraffe I. 1997. Astron. Astrophys. 327:224 [Google Scholar]
  97. Hellings P. 1984. Ap. Space Sci. 104:83 [Google Scholar]
  98. Hillier DJ. 1991. Astron. Astrophys. 247:455 [Google Scholar]
  99. Hillier DJ, Davidson K, Ishibashi K, Gull T. 2001. Ap. J. 553:837 [Google Scholar]
  100. Hillier DJ, Lanz T, Heap SR. et al. 2003. Ap. J. 588:1039 [Google Scholar]
  101. Hopkins AM, Beacom JF. 2006. Ap. J. 651:142 [Google Scholar]
  102. Howarth ID, Prinja RK, Massa D. 1995. Ap. J. 452:L65 [Google Scholar]
  103. Hubble E, Sandage A. 1953. Ap. J. 118:353 [Google Scholar]
  104. Huenemoerder DP, Oskinova LM, Ignace R. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 756:L34 [Google Scholar]
  105. Humphreys RM, Davidson K. 1994. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106:1025 [Google Scholar]
  106. Humphreys RM, Davidson K, Smith N. 1999. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111:1124 [Google Scholar]
  107. Humphreys RM, Smith N, Davidson K. et al. 1997. Astron. J. 114:2778 [Google Scholar]
  108. Izotov YI, Guseva NG, Fricke KJ, Henkel C. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 533:A25 [Google Scholar]
  109. Izotov YI, Thuan TX. 2009. Ap. J. 690:1797 [Google Scholar]
  110. Kasen D, Bildsten L. 2010. Ap. J. 717:245 [Google Scholar]
  111. Kashi A, Soker N. 2009. New Astron. 14:11 [Google Scholar]
  112. Kennicutt RC. 1998. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36:189 [Google Scholar]
  113. Kennicutt RC, Evans NJ. 2012. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 50:531 [Google Scholar]
  114. Kiminki DC, Kobulnicky HA. 2012. Ap. J. 751:4 [Google Scholar]
  115. Kiminki DC, Kobulnicky HA, Erwig I. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 747:41 [Google Scholar]
  116. Kobulnicky HA, Fryer CL. 2007. Ap. J. 670:747 [Google Scholar]
  117. Kochanek CS. 2011. Ap. J. 743:73 [Google Scholar]
  118. Kochanek CS, Szczygiel DM, Stanek KZ. 2011. Ap. J. 737:76 [Google Scholar]
  119. Kotak R, Vink JS. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 460:L5 [Google Scholar]
  120. Kramer RH, Cohen DH, Owocki SP. 2003. Ap. J. 592:532 [Google Scholar]
  121. Kratter KM, Matzner CD, Krumholz MR, Klein RI. 2010. Ap. J. 708:1585 [Google Scholar]
  122. Kudritzki RP, Puls J. 2000. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 38:613 [Google Scholar]
  123. Langer N. 1998. Astron. Astrophys. 329:551 [Google Scholar]
  124. Langer N. 2012. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 50:107 [Google Scholar]
  125. Leitherer C, Schaerer D, Goldader JD. et al. 1999. Ap. J. Suppl. 123:3 [Google Scholar]
  126. Leonard DC, Filippenko AV, Barth AJ, Matheson T. 2000. Ap. J. 536:239 [Google Scholar]
  127. Levesque E, Stringfellow GS, Ginsburg AG, Bally J, Keeney BA. 2014. Astron. J. 147:23 [Google Scholar]
  128. Li W, Leaman J, Chornock R. et al. 2011. MNRAS 412:1441 [Google Scholar]
  129. Loeb A, Barkana R. 2001. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 39:19 [Google Scholar]
  130. Lucy LB, Solomon PM. 1970. Ap. J. 159:879 [Google Scholar]
  131. MacFadyen AI, Woosley SE. 1999. Ap. J. 524:262 [Google Scholar]
  132. Madau P, Pozzetti L, Dickenson M. 1998. Ap. J. 498:106 [Google Scholar]
  133. Maeder A. 1992. Instabilities in Evolved Super and Hypergiants C de Jager, H Nieuwenhuijzen 138 Amsterdam: North-Holland [Google Scholar]
  134. Maeder A, Meynet G. 2000. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 38:143 [Google Scholar]
  135. Mahy L, Naze Y, Rauw G. et al. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 502:937 [Google Scholar]
  136. Margutti R, Milisavljevic D, Soderberg AM. et al. 2014. Ap. J. 780:21 [Google Scholar]
  137. Markova N, Puls J, Repolust T, Markhov H. 2004. Astron. Astrophys. 413:693 [Google Scholar]
  138. Mason BD, Hartkopf WI, Geis DR, Henry TJ, Helsel JY. 2009. Astron. J. 110:2715 [Google Scholar]
  139. Massa D, Fullerton AW, Nichols JS. et al. 1995. Ap. J. 452:L53 [Google Scholar]
  140. Massa D, Fullerton AW, Sonneborn G, Hutchings JB. 2003. Ap. J. 586:996 [Google Scholar]
  141. Massey P. 2003. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 41:15 [Google Scholar]
  142. Massey P. 2006. Ap. J. Lett. 683:93 [Google Scholar]
  143. Massey P. 2007. Astron. J. 134:2474 [Google Scholar]
  144. Massey P, Waterhouse E, DeGioia-Eastwood K. 2000. Astron. J. 119:2214 [Google Scholar]
  145. Mauerhan JC, Smith N, Filippenko AV. et al. 2013a. MNRAS 430:1801 [Google Scholar]
  146. Mauerhan JC, Smith N, Silverman JM. et al. 2013b. MNRAS 431:2599 [Google Scholar]
  147. Maund JR, Smartt SJ. 2009. Science 324:486 [Google Scholar]
  148. Meakin C, Arnett WD. 2007. Ap. J. 667:448 [Google Scholar]
  149. Meynet G, Maeder A, Schaller G, Shaerer D, Charbonnel C. 1994. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 103:97 [Google Scholar]
  150. Miller AA, Chornock R, Perley DA. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 690:1303 [Google Scholar]
  151. Modjaz M, Kewley L, Kirshner RP. et al. 2008. Ap. J. 702:226 [Google Scholar]
  152. Moffat AFJ, Robert C. 1994. Ap. J. 421:310 [Google Scholar]
  153. Mokiem MR, de Koter A, Vink JS. et al. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 473:603 [Google Scholar]
  154. Monnier JD, Millan-Gabet R, Tuthill PG. et al. 2004. Ap. J. 605:436 [Google Scholar]
  155. Morales MF, Wyithe JSB. 2010. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 48:127 [Google Scholar]
  156. Moriya TJ, Blinnikov SI, Baklanov PV, Sorokina EI, Dolgov AP. 2013. MNRAS 430:1402 [Google Scholar]
  157. Morton DC. 1967. Ap. J. 147:1017 [Google Scholar]
  158. Muijres LE, Vink JS, de Koter A, Müller PE, Langer N. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 537:A37 [Google Scholar]
  159. Najarro F, Kudritzki RP, Cassinelli JP, Stahl O, Hillier DJ. 1996. Astron. Astrophys. 306:892 [Google Scholar]
  160. Neill JD, Sullivan M, Gal-Yam A. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 727:15 [Google Scholar]
  161. Nieuwenhuijzen H, de Jager C. 1990. Astron. Astrophys. 231:134 [Google Scholar]
  162. Nugis T, Lamers HJGLM. 2000. Astron. Astrophys. 360:227 [Google Scholar]
  163. Ofek EO, Cameron PB, Kasliwal MM. et al. 2007. Ap. J. 659:L13 [Google Scholar]
  164. Ofek EO, Lin L, Kouveliotou C. et al. 2013a. Ap. J. 768:47 [Google Scholar]
  165. Ofek EO, Sullivan M, Cenko SB. et al. 2013b. Nature 494:65 [Google Scholar]
  166. Owocki SP, Castor JI, Rybicki GB. 1988. Ap. J. 335:914 [Google Scholar]
  167. Owocki SP, Cranmer SR, Gayey KG. 1996. Ap. J. 472:L115 [Google Scholar]
  168. Owocki SP, Gayey KG, Shaviv NJ. 2004. Ap. J. 616:525 [Google Scholar]
  169. Owocki SP, Puls J. 1999. Ap. J. 510:355 [Google Scholar]
  170. Owocki SP, Rybicki GB. 1984. Ap. J. 284:337 [Google Scholar]
  171. Paczynski B. 1966. Acta Astron. 16:231 [Google Scholar]
  172. Paczynski B. 1967. Acta Astron. 17:355 [Google Scholar]
  173. Paczynski B. 1971. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 9:183 [Google Scholar]
  174. Parker EN. 1958. Ap. J. 128:664 [Google Scholar]
  175. Pastorello A, Cappaellaro E, Inserra C. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 767:1 [Google Scholar]
  176. Pastorello A, Quimby RM, Smartt SJ. et al. 2008. MNRAS 389:131 [Google Scholar]
  177. Pastorello A, Smartt SJ, Mattila S. et al. 2007. Nature 447:829 [Google Scholar]
  178. Paxton B, Bildsten L, Dutter A. et al. 2011. Ap. J. Suppl. 192:3 [Google Scholar]
  179. Petrovic J, Langer N, van der Hucht KA. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 435:1013 [Google Scholar]
  180. Podsiadlowski P, Ivanova N, Justham S, Pappaport S. 2010. MNRAS 406:840 [Google Scholar]
  181. Podsiadlowski P, Joss PC, Hsu JJL. 1992. Ap. J. 391:246 [Google Scholar]
  182. Prantzos N, Boissier S. 2003. Astron. Astrophys. 406:259 [Google Scholar]
  183. Prieto JL, Brimacombe J, Drake AJ. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 763:L27 [Google Scholar]
  184. Prieto JL, Stanek KZ, Beacom JF. 2008a. Ap. J. 673:999 [Google Scholar]
  185. Prieto JL, Stanek KZ, Kochanek CS. et al. 2008b. Ap. J. 673:L59 [Google Scholar]
  186. Puls J, Markova N, Scuderi S. et al. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 454:625 [Google Scholar]
  187. Puls J, Vink JS, Najarro F. 2008. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 16:209 [Google Scholar]
  188. Putman ME, Peek JEG, Joung MR. 2012. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 50:491 [Google Scholar]
  189. Quataert E, Shiode J. 2012. MNRAS 423:L92 [Google Scholar]
  190. Quimby RM, Kulkarni SR, Kasliwal MM. et al. 2011. Nature 474:487 [Google Scholar]
  191. Remillard RA, McClintock JE. 2006. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 44:49 [Google Scholar]
  192. Repolust T, Puls J, Herrero A. 2004. Astron. Astrophys. 415:349 [Google Scholar]
  193. Rest A, Foley RJ, Gezari S. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 729:88 [Google Scholar]
  194. Rest A, Prieto JL, Walborn NR. et al. 2012. Nature 482:375 [Google Scholar]
  195. Reynolds SP. 2008. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 46:89 [Google Scholar]
  196. Ryder SD, Murrowood CE, Stathakis RA. 2006. MNRAS 369:L32 [Google Scholar]
  197. Sana H, de Mink SE, de Koter A. et al. 2012. Science 337:444 [Google Scholar]
  198. Sana H, Evans CJ. 2011. Active OB Stars: Structure, Evolution, Mass Loss, and Critical Limits, IAU Symp. 272 C Neiner, G Wade, G Meynet, G Peters 474–85 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  199. Sana H, Gosset S, Evans CJ. 2009. MNRAS 400:1479 [Google Scholar]
  200. Sana H, Gosset S, Naze Y, Rauw G, Linder N. 2008. MNRAS 386:447 [Google Scholar]
  201. Sanders NE, Soderberg AM, Foley RJ. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 769:39 [Google Scholar]
  202. Shaviv NJ. 2000. Ap. J. 532:L137 [Google Scholar]
  203. Shiode JH, Quataert E. 2014. Ap. J. 780:96 [Google Scholar]
  204. Silverman JM, Nugent PE, Gal-Yam A. et al. 2013. Ap. J. Suppl. 207:3 [Google Scholar]
  205. Smartt SJ. 2009. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47:63 [Google Scholar]
  206. Smith N. 2005. MNRAS 357:1330 [Google Scholar]
  207. Smith N. 2006. Ap. J. 644:1151 [Google Scholar]
  208. Smith N. 2008. Nature 455:201 [Google Scholar]
  209. Smith N. 2011. MNRAS 415:2020 [Google Scholar]
  210. Smith N. 2013a. MNRAS 429:2366 [Google Scholar]
  211. Smith N. 2013b. MNRAS 434:102 [Google Scholar]
  212. Smith N, Arnett WD. 2014. Ap. J. 785:82 [Google Scholar]
  213. Smith N, Chornock R, Li W. et al. 2008. Ap. J. 686:467 [Google Scholar]
  214. Smith N, Chornock R, Silverman JM, Filippenko AV, Foley RJ. 2010a. Ap. J. 709:856 [Google Scholar]
  215. Smith N, Conti PS. 2008. Ap. J. 679:1467 [Google Scholar]
  216. Smith N, Ferland GJ. 2007. Ap. J. 655:911 [Google Scholar]
  217. Smith N, Frew D. 2011. MNRAS 415:2009 [Google Scholar]
  218. Smith N, Gehrz RD, Campbell R. et al. 2011a. MNRAS 418:1959 [Google Scholar]
  219. Smith N, Gehrz RD, Hinz PM. et al. 2003. Astron. J. 125:1458 [Google Scholar]
  220. Smith N, Hartigan P. 2006. Ap. J. 638:1045 [Google Scholar]
  221. Smith N, Hinkle KH, Ryde N. 2009. Astron. J. 137:3558 [Google Scholar]
  222. Smith N, Humphreys RM, Davidson K. et al. 2001. Astron. J. 121:1111 [Google Scholar]
  223. Smith N, Li W, Filippenko AV, Chornock R. 2011b. MNRAS 412:1522 [Google Scholar]
  224. Smith N, Li W, Foley RJ. et al. 2007. Ap. J. 666:1116 [Google Scholar]
  225. Smith N, Li W, Miller AA. et al. 2011c. Ap. J. 732:63 [Google Scholar]
  226. Smith N, Li W, Silverman JM, Ganeshalingam M, Filippenko AV. 2011d. MNRAS 415:773 [Google Scholar]
  227. Smith N, Mauerhan JC, Prieto JL. 2014. MNRAS 438:1191 [Google Scholar]
  228. Smith N, Mauerhan JC, Silverman JM. et al. 2012. MNRAS 426:1905 [Google Scholar]
  229. Smith N, McCray R. 2007. Ap. J. 671:L17 [Google Scholar]
  230. Smith N, Miller AA, Li W. et al. 2010b. Astron. J. 139:1451 [Google Scholar]
  231. Smith N, Owocki SP. 2006. Ap. J. 645:L45 [Google Scholar]
  232. Smith N, Vink JS, de Koter A. 2004. Ap. J. 615:475 [Google Scholar]
  233. Sobolev VV. 1960. Moving Envelopes of Stars Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  234. St. Louis N, Moffatt AFJ, Lapointe L. et al. 1993. Ap. J. 410:342 [Google Scholar]
  235. Stoll R, Prieto JL, Stanek KZ. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 730:34 [Google Scholar]
  236. Sundqvist JO, Owocki SP. 2013. MNRAS 428:1837 [Google Scholar]
  237. Taam RE, Sandquist EL. 2000. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 38:113 [Google Scholar]
  238. Taddia F, Stritzinger MD, Sollerman J. et al. 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 555:A10 [Google Scholar]
  239. Tammann GA, Sandage A. 1968. Ap. J. 151:825 [Google Scholar]
  240. Thompson TA, Prieto JL, Stanek KZ. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 705:1364 [Google Scholar]
  241. Townsend RHD, Owocki SP, Groote D. 2005. Ap. J. 630:L81 [Google Scholar]
  242. ud-Doula A, Owocki SP. 2002. Ap. J. 576:413 [Google Scholar]
  243. van der Kruit PC, Freeman KC. 2011. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49:301 [Google Scholar]
  244. Van Dyk SD, Matheson T. 2012. Ap. J. 746:179 [Google Scholar]
  245. Van Dyk SD, Zheng WK, Clubb KI. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 772:L32 [Google Scholar]
  246. Van Dyk SD, Zheng WK, Fox OD. et al. 2014. Astron. J. 147:37 [Google Scholar]
  247. van Genderen A. 2001. Astron. Astrophys. 366:508 [Google Scholar]
  248. van Loon JT, Cioni MRL, Zijlstra AA, Loup C. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 438:273 [Google Scholar]
  249. van Marle AJ, Owocki SP, Shaviv NJ. 2008. MNRAS 389:1353 [Google Scholar]
  250. van Marle AJ, Owocki SP, Shaviv NJ. 2009. MNRAS 394:595 [Google Scholar]
  251. van Marle AJ, Smith N, Owocki SP, van Veelen B. 2010. MNRAS 407:2305 [Google Scholar]
  252. Vanbeveren D. 2009. New Astron. Rev. 53:27 [Google Scholar]
  253. Vanbeveren D, De Loore C, Van Rensbergen W. 1998. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 9:63 [Google Scholar]
  254. Vanbeveren D, Van Bever J, Belkus H. 2007. Ap. J. 662:L107 [Google Scholar]
  255. Vink JS, de Koter A. 2002. Astron. Astrophys. 393:543 [Google Scholar]
  256. Vink JS, de Koter A. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 442:587 [Google Scholar]
  257. Vink JS, de Koter A, Lamers HJGLM. 2001. Astron. Astrophys. 369:574 [Google Scholar]
  258. Vink JS, Muijres LE, Anthonisse D. et al. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 531:A132 [Google Scholar]
  259. Wachter S, Mauerhan JC, Van Dyk SD. et al. 2010. Astron. J. 139:2330 [Google Scholar]
  260. Walmswell JJ, Eldridge JJ. 2012. MNRAS 419:2054 [Google Scholar]
  261. Wellons S, Soderberg AM, Chevalier RA. 2012. Ap. J. 752:17 [Google Scholar]
  262. Willson LA. 2000. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 38:573 [Google Scholar]
  263. Wolf CJE, Rayet GAP. 1867. Comptes Rendus 65:291 [Google Scholar]
  264. Woosley SE. 2010. Ap. J. 719:L204 [Google Scholar]
  265. Woosley SE, Blinnikov S, Heger A. 2007. Nature 450:390 [Google Scholar]
  266. Woosley SE, Bloom JS. 2006. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 44:507 [Google Scholar]
  267. Woosley SE, Heger A, Weaver TA. 2002. Rev. Mod. Phys. 74:1015 [Google Scholar]
  268. Wright AE, Barlow MJ. 1975. MNRAS 170:41 [Google Scholar]
  269. Yoon SC, Cantiello M. 2010. Ap. J. 717:L62 [Google Scholar]
  270. Yoon SC, Woosley SE, Langer N. 2010. Ap. J. 725:940 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040025
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-040025
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error