1932

Abstract

The detection of exoplanets orbiting other stars has revolutionized our view of the cosmos. First results suggest that it is teeming with a fascinating diversity of rocky planets, including those in the habitable zone. Even our closest star, Proxima Centauri, harbors a small planet in its habitable zone, Proxima b. With the next generation of telescopes, we will be able to peer into the atmospheres of rocky planets and get a glimpse into other worlds. Using our own planet and its wide range of biota as a Rosetta stone, we explore how we could detect habitability and signs of life on exoplanets over interstellar distances. Current telescopes are not yet powerful enough to characterize habitable exoplanets, but the next generation of telescopes that is already being built will have the capabilities to characterize close-by habitable worlds. The discussion on what makes a planet a habitat and how to detect signs of life is lively. This review will show the latest results, the challenges of how to identify and characterize such habitable worlds, and how near-future telescopes will revolutionize the field. For the first time in human history, we have developed the technology to detect potential habitable worlds. Finding thousands of exoplanets has taken the field of comparative planetology beyond the Solar System.

[Erratum, Closure]

An erratum has been published for this article:
Corrigendum: How to Characterize Habitable Worlds and Signs of Life
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-082214-122238
2017-08-18
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/astro/55/1/annurev-astro-082214-122238.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-082214-122238&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abbot DS. 2016. Ap. J. 827:117 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abbot DS, Cowan NB, Ciesla FJ. 2012. Ap. J. 756:2178 [Google Scholar]
  3. Abe Y, Abe-Ouchi A, Sleep NH, Zahnle KJ. 2011. Astrobiology 11:5 [Google Scholar]
  4. Agol E, Jansen T, Lacy B. et al. 2015. Ap. J. 812:5 [Google Scholar]
  5. Agol E, Steffen J, Sari R, Clarkson W. 2005. MNRAS 359:567 [Google Scholar]
  6. Airapetian VS, Glocer A, Gronoff G. et al. 2016. Nat. Geosci. 9:452–55 [Google Scholar]
  7. Anglada-Escudé G, Amado PJ, Barnes J. et al. 2016. Nature 536:437–40 [Google Scholar]
  8. Arney G, Domagal-Goldman SD, Meadows VS. et al. 2016. Astrobiology 16:11873–99 [Google Scholar]
  9. Arnold L. 2008. Space Sci. Rev. 135:323–33 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bains W. 2004. Astrobiology 4:137–67 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bains W, Seager S. 2012. Astrobiology 12:271–81 [Google Scholar]
  12. Barnes JW, O'Brien DP. 2002. Ap. J. 575:1087 [Google Scholar]
  13. Barnes R, Jackson B, Greenberg R, Raymond SN. 2009. Ap. J. Lett. 700:1L30–33 [Google Scholar]
  14. Baross J. Comm. Limits Org. Life Planet Syst., Comm Orig. Evol. Life et al. 2007. The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems. Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. [Google Scholar]
  15. Barstow JK, Irwin PGJ. 2016. MNRS Lett 461:1L92–96 [Google Scholar]
  16. Batalha NM. 2014. PNAS 111:3512647–54 [Google Scholar]
  17. Berner RA, Lasaga AC, Garrels RM. 1983. Am. J. Sci. 283:641–83 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bétrémieux Y, Kaltenegger L. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 772:L31 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bétrémieux Y, Kaltenegger L. 2014. Ap. J. 791:7 [Google Scholar]
  20. Bonfils X, Delfosse X, Udry S. et al. 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 549:A109 [Google Scholar]
  21. Borucki WJ, Agol E, Fressin F. et al. 2013. Science 340:587–90 [Google Scholar]
  22. Boyajian TS, von Braun K, van Belle G. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 757:112 [Google Scholar]
  23. Brack A, Horneck G, Cockell C. et al. 2010. Astrobiology 10:169–76 [Google Scholar]
  24. Broeg C, Fortier A, Ehrenreich D. et al. 2013. EPJ Web Conf 47:03005 [Google Scholar]
  25. Buccino AP, Lemarchand GA, Mauas PJ. 2006. Icarus 183:491 [Google Scholar]
  26. Burrows AS. 2014. Nature 513:7518345–52 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cabrera J, Schneider J. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 464:1133 [Google Scholar]
  28. Campante TL, Barclay T, Swift JJ. 2015. Ap. J. 799:2 [Google Scholar]
  29. Catanzarite JH, Shao M. 2011. Ap. J. 738:151 [Google Scholar]
  30. Charbonneau D, Brown TM, Latham DW, Mayor M. 2000. Ap. J. Lett. 529:1L45–48 [Google Scholar]
  31. Chen EMA, Nimmo F, Glatzmaier GA. 2014. Icarus 229:11–30 [Google Scholar]
  32. Christensen PR, Pearl JC. 1997. J. Geophys. Res. 102:10875–80 [Google Scholar]
  33. Chyba CF, Hand KP. 2005. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 43:31–74 [Google Scholar]
  34. Cincunegui C, Díaz RF, Mauas PJ. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 461:1107–13 [Google Scholar]
  35. Clampin M. JWST Sci. Work. Group, JWST Transit Work. Group et al. 2009. AST2010 Sci. White Pap., James Webb Space Telesc. (JWST) Transit Sci..
  36. Cnossen I, Sanz-Forcada J, Favata F. et al. 2007. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 112:2008 [Google Scholar]
  37. Cockell CS. 1998. J. Theor. Biol. 193:717 [Google Scholar]
  38. Cockell CS. 2016. Mol. Biol. Cell 27:101553–55 [Google Scholar]
  39. Cockell CS, Kaltenegger L, Raven J. 2009. Astrobiology 9:7623–36 [Google Scholar]
  40. Cohen O, Drake JJ, Glocer A. et al. 2014. Ap. J. 790:57 [Google Scholar]
  41. Cowan NB, Abbot DS, Voigt A. 2012. Ap. J. Lett. 752:1L3 [Google Scholar]
  42. Cowan NB, Agol E, Meadows VS. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 700:2915 [Google Scholar]
  43. Cowan NB, Strait TE. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 765:1L17 [Google Scholar]
  44. Crossfield IJM. 2015. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 127:956941–60 [Google Scholar]
  45. Cullum J, Stevens DP, Joshi MM. 2014. Astrobiology 14:8645–50 [Google Scholar]
  46. Cullum J, Stevens DP, Joshi MM. 2016. PNAS 113:164278–83 [Google Scholar]
  47. Cuntz M. 2014. Ap. J. 780:114 [Google Scholar]
  48. Cuntz M, Guinan EF. 2016. Ap. J. 827:79 [Google Scholar]
  49. Danchi W, Lopez B. 2013. Ap. J. 769:27 [Google Scholar]
  50. Deming D, Seager S, Winn J. et al. 2009. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121:952–67 [Google Scholar]
  51. Demory B-O, Gillon M, Madhusudhan N, Queloz D. 2016. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 455:22018–27 [Google Scholar]
  52. Des Marais DJ, Harwit MO, Jucks KW. et al. 2002. Astrobiology 2:2153–81 [Google Scholar]
  53. Dobos V, Turner EL. 2015. Ap. J. 804:41 [Google Scholar]
  54. Domagal-Goldman SD, Meadows VS, Claire MW, Kasting JF. 2011. Astrobiology 11:419–41 [Google Scholar]
  55. Domagal-Goldman SD, Segura A, Claire MW. et al. 2014. Ap. J. 792:290 [Google Scholar]
  56. Donahue TM, Hoffman JH, Hodges RR Jr., Waxson AJ. 1982. Science 216:630–33 [Google Scholar]
  57. Dressing CD, Charbonneau D. 2013. Ap. J. 767:95 [Google Scholar]
  58. Dressing CD, Charbonneau D. 2015. Ap. J. 807:145 [Google Scholar]
  59. Dumusque X, Pepe F, Lovis C. et al. 2012. Nature 1:54–8 [Google Scholar]
  60. Dvorak R, Pilat-Lohinger E, Bois E. et al. 2010. Astrobiology 10:133–43 [Google Scholar]
  61. Edson AR, Kasting JF, Pollard D. et al. 2012. Astrobiology 12:562–71 [Google Scholar]
  62. Edson AR, Lee S, Bannon P. et al. 2011. Icarus 212:1–13 [Google Scholar]
  63. Ehrenreich D, Tinetti G, Lecavelier des Etangs A. et al. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 448:379 [Google Scholar]
  64. Elkins-Tanton LT, Seager S. 2008. Ap. J. 685:1237–46 [Google Scholar]
  65. Ferreira D, Marshall J, O'Gorman PA, Seager S. 2014. Icarus 243:236–48 [Google Scholar]
  66. Foley BJ. 2015. Ap. J. 812:36 [Google Scholar]
  67. Ford E, Seager S, Turner EL. 2001. Nature 412:885–87 [Google Scholar]
  68. Forgan D. 2014. MNRAS 437:1352 [Google Scholar]
  69. Forgan D, Kipping D. 2013. MNRAS 432:2994 [Google Scholar]
  70. Forget P, Pierrehumbert H. 1997. Science 278:1273–74 [Google Scholar]
  71. Fortier A, Beck T, Benz W. et al. 2014. Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave JM Oschmann Jr., M Clampin, GG Fazio, HA MacEwen Proc. SPIE 914391432J Bellingham, WA: SPIE [Google Scholar]
  72. France K, Froning CS, Linsky JL. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 763:149 [Google Scholar]
  73. Fu R, O'Connell RJ, Sasselov DD. 2010. Ap. J. 708:1326–34 [Google Scholar]
  74. Fujii Y, Kawahara H, Suto Y. et al. 2010. Ap. J. 715:2866–80 [Google Scholar]
  75. Fujii Y, Kawahara H, Suto Y. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 738:2184 [Google Scholar]
  76. Gaidos E. 2013. Ap. J. 770:290 [Google Scholar]
  77. Gaidos E, Williams DM. 2004. New Astron 10:167–77 [Google Scholar]
  78. García Muñoz A, Zapatero Osorio MR, Barrena R. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 755:2103 [Google Scholar]
  79. Gardner JP, Mather JC, Clampin M. et al. 2006. Space Sci. Rev. 123:485 [Google Scholar]
  80. Gillon M, Jehin E, Lederer SM. et al. 2017. Nature 542:456–60 [Google Scholar]
  81. Goldblatt C, Robinson TD, Zahnle KJ, Crisp D. 2013. Nat. Geosc. 6:8 [Google Scholar]
  82. Goldblatt C, Watson AJ. 2012. Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 370:19744197–216 [Google Scholar]
  83. Goldblatt C, Zahnle K. 2011. Clim. Past 7:203–20 [Google Scholar]
  84. Gómez-Leal I, Pallé E, Selsis F. 2012. Ap. J. 752:128 [Google Scholar]
  85. Grasset O, Schneider J, Sotin C. 2009. Ap. J. 693:722 [Google Scholar]
  86. Grenfell JL, Gebauer S, von Paris P. et al. 2011. Icarus 211:181–88 [Google Scholar]
  87. Grenfell JL, Rauer H, Selsis F. et al. 2010. Astrobiology 10:177–88 [Google Scholar]
  88. Grenfell JL, Stracke B, von Paris P. et al. 2007. Planet Space Sci 55:661–71 [Google Scholar]
  89. Grießmeier J-M, Stadelmann A, Grenfell JL. et al. 2009. Icarus 199:526–35 [Google Scholar]
  90. Haghighipour N, Kaltenegger L. 2013. Ap. J. 777:2172 [Google Scholar]
  91. Han C. 2008. Ap. J. 684:684 [Google Scholar]
  92. Hansen BMS. 2014. Int. J. Astrobiol. 14:267–78 [Google Scholar]
  93. Haqq-Misra JD, Saxena P, Wolf ET, Kopparapu RK. 2016. Ap. J. 827:2 [Google Scholar]
  94. Harman CE, Schwieterman EW, Schottelkotte JC, Kasting JF. 2015. Ap. J. 812:2137 [Google Scholar]
  95. Hart MH. 1978. Icarus 33:23–39 [Google Scholar]
  96. Heath MJ, Doyle LR, Joshi MM, Haberle RM. 1999. 29405
  97. Hedelt P, von Paris P, Godolt M. et al. 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 553:A9 [Google Scholar]
  98. Hegde S, Kaltenegger L. 2013. Astrobiology 13:147–56 [Google Scholar]
  99. Hegde S, Paulino-Lima IG, Kent R. et al. 2015. PNAS 112:133886–91 [Google Scholar]
  100. Heller R, Pudritz R. 2015. Ap. J. 806:181 [Google Scholar]
  101. Heller R, Williams D, Kipping D. et al. 2014. Astrobiology 14:798 [Google Scholar]
  102. Henning WG, Hurford T. 2014. Ap. J. 789:130 [Google Scholar]
  103. Henning WG, O'Connell, Sasselov DD. 2009. Ap. J. 707:Scharf 20061000 [Google Scholar]
  104. Hinkel NR, Kane SR. 2013. Ap. J. 774:27 [Google Scholar]
  105. Holland HD. 2006. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 361:903–15 [Google Scholar]
  106. Holman MJ, Murray NW. 2005. Science 307:5713 [Google Scholar]
  107. Hoyle F. 1958. Stellar Populations: Proc. Conf. Spons. Pontif. Acad. Sci. Vatican Obs DJK O'Connell 223–30 Amsterdam: North Holland [Google Scholar]
  108. Hu R, Ehlmann BL, Seager S. 2012. Ap. J. 752:17 [Google Scholar]
  109. Hu R, Seager S, Bains W. 2013. Ap. J. 769:6 [Google Scholar]
  110. Huang SS. 1959. Am. Sci. 47:397 [Google Scholar]
  111. Joshi MM. 2003. Astrobiology 3:415–27 [Google Scholar]
  112. Joshi MM, Haberle RM. 2012. Astrobiology 12:3 [Google Scholar]
  113. Kadoya S, Tajika E. 2014. Ap. J. 790:107 [Google Scholar]
  114. Kaltenegger L. 2000. Explor. Util. Moon 462:199 [Google Scholar]
  115. Kaltenegger L. 2010. Ap. J. Lett. 712:2L125–30 [Google Scholar]
  116. Kaltenegger L, Haghighipour N. 2013. Ap. J. 777:2165 [Google Scholar]
  117. Kaltenegger L, Henning WG, Sasselov DD. 2010. Astron. J. 140:1370–80 [Google Scholar]
  118. Kaltenegger L, Sasselov DD. 2010. Ap. J. 708:1162–67 [Google Scholar]
  119. Kaltenegger L, Sasselov DD. 2011. Ap. J. Lett. 736:2L25 [Google Scholar]
  120. Kaltenegger L, Sasselov DD, Rugheimer S. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 775:2L47 [Google Scholar]
  121. Kaltenegger L, Selsis F, Fridlund M. et al. 2009. Astrobiology 10:166 [Google Scholar]
  122. Kaltenegger L, Traub WA. 2009. Ap. J. 698:519 [Google Scholar]
  123. Kaltenegger L, Traub WA, Jucks KW. 2007. Astron. J. 658:1598–616 [Google Scholar]
  124. Kane SR, Hill ML, Kasting JF. et al. 2016. Ap. J. 830:11 [Google Scholar]
  125. Kane SR, Hinkel NR. 2013. Ap. J. 762:7 [Google Scholar]
  126. Kasper ME, Beuzit J-L, Verinaud. et al. 2008. Proc. SPIE 7015:70151S [Google Scholar]
  127. Kasting JF. 1988. Icarus 74:3472–94 [Google Scholar]
  128. Kasting JF. 1992. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 20:199–231 [Google Scholar]
  129. Kasting JF. 2010. Nature 464:7289687–89 [Google Scholar]
  130. Kasting JF, Catling D. 2003. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 41:429–63 [Google Scholar]
  131. Kasting JF, Kopparapu R, Ramirez RM, Harman CE. 2014. PNAS 111(35):12641–46 [Google Scholar]
  132. Kasting JF, Whitmire DP, Reynolds RT. 1993. Icarus 101:108–28 [Google Scholar]
  133. Kerwin BA, Remmele RL. 2007. J. Pharm. Sci. 96:1468 [Google Scholar]
  134. Kharecha P, Kasting J, Siefert J. 2005. Geobiology 3:253–76 [Google Scholar]
  135. Kiang NY, Segura A, Tinetti G. et al. 2007a. Astrobiology 7:252–74 [Google Scholar]
  136. Kiang NY, Siefert J, Govindjee, Blankenship RE. 2007b. Astrobiology 7:222–51 [Google Scholar]
  137. Kipping DM. 2009. MNRAS 396:1797 [Google Scholar]
  138. Kipping DM, Bakos , Buchhave LA, Nesvorný D, Schmitt A. 2012. Ap. J. 750:115 [Google Scholar]
  139. Kipping DM, Fossey SJ, Campanella G. 2009. MNRAS 400:398 [Google Scholar]
  140. Kite ES, Manga M, Gaidos E. 2009. Ap. J. 700:21732–49 [Google Scholar]
  141. Kitzmann D. 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 600:A111 [Google Scholar]
  142. Kitzmann D, Alibert Y, Godolt M. et al. 2015. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 452:43752–58 [Google Scholar]
  143. Knutson HA, Charbonneau D, Allen LE. et al. 2007. Nature 447:183–85 [Google Scholar]
  144. Kopparapu RK. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 767:1L8 [Google Scholar]
  145. Kopparapu RK, Ramirez R, Kasting JF. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 765:2131 [Google Scholar]
  146. Kopparapu RK, Ramirez RM, Schottel Kotte J. et al. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 787:2L29 [Google Scholar]
  147. Kopparapu RK, Wolf ET, Haqq-Misra J. et al. 2016. Ap. J. 819:84 [Google Scholar]
  148. Korenaga J. 2013. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci. 41:117–51 [Google Scholar]
  149. Krissansen-Totton J, Schwieterman EW, Charnay B. et al. 2016. Ap. J. 817:31 [Google Scholar]
  150. Krüger M, Frenzel P, Conrad R. 2001. Global Change Biol 7:49–63 [Google Scholar]
  151. Kuchner M. 2003. Ap. J. Lett. 596:L105 [Google Scholar]
  152. Lammer H, Kislyakova KG, Holmström M, Khodachenko ML, Grießmeier J-M. 2011. Ap. Space Sci. 335:9 [Google Scholar]
  153. Lammer H, Lichtenegger HI, Kulikov YN. et al. 2007. Astrobiology 7:185 [Google Scholar]
  154. Latham DW, Mazeh T, Stefanik RP, Mayor M, Burki G. 1989. Nature 339:38 [Google Scholar]
  155. Leconte J, Forget F, Charnay B. et al. 2013a. Nature 504:7479268–71 [Google Scholar]
  156. Leconte J, Forget F, Charnay B. et al. 2013b. Astron. Astrophys. 554:A69 [Google Scholar]
  157. Leconte J, Wu H, Menou K, Murray N. 2015. Science 347:6222632–35 [Google Scholar]
  158. Lederberg J. 1965. Nature 207:49929–13 [Google Scholar]
  159. Léger A, Grasset O, Fegley B. et al. 2011. Icarus 213:11–11 [Google Scholar]
  160. Léger A, Pirre M, Marceau FJ. 1993. Astron. Astrophys. 277:309–13 [Google Scholar]
  161. Léger A, Selsis F, Sotin C. et al. 2004. Icarus 169:499–504 [Google Scholar]
  162. Levi A, Sasselov D, Podolak M. 2013. Ap. J. 769:129 [Google Scholar]
  163. Levi A, Sasselov D, Podolak M. 2017. Ap. J. 838:124 [Google Scholar]
  164. Lewis KM, Sackett PD, Mardling RA. 2008. Ap. J. Lett. 685:L153 [Google Scholar]
  165. Lin HW, Abad GG, Loeb A. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 792:1L7 [Google Scholar]
  166. Lineweaver CH, Chopra A. 2012. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 40:597–623 [Google Scholar]
  167. Linsenmeier M, Pascale S, Lucarini V. 2015. Planet. Space Sci. 105:43–59 [Google Scholar]
  168. Linsky JL, France K, Ayres T. 2013. Ap. J. 766:69 [Google Scholar]
  169. Lippincott ER, Eck RV, Dayhoff MO, Sagan C. 1967. Ap. J. 147:753 [Google Scholar]
  170. Lissauer JJ. 2007. Ap. J. Lett. 660:2L149 [Google Scholar]
  171. Lissauer JJ, Barnes JW, Chambers JE. 2012. Icarus 217:77 [Google Scholar]
  172. Lissauer JJ, Fabrycky DC, Ford EB. et al. 2011. Nature 470:733253–58 [Google Scholar]
  173. Lloyd-Hart M, Angel R, Milton NM. et al. 2006. Proc. SPIE 6272:62720E [Google Scholar]
  174. Lopez B, Schneider J, Danchi WC. 2005. Ap. J. 627:974–85 [Google Scholar]
  175. Lorenz RD, Lunine JI, McKay CP. 1997. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24:222905–8 [Google Scholar]
  176. Lovelock JE. 1965. Nature 207:997568–70 [Google Scholar]
  177. Luger R, Barnes R. 2015. Astrobiology 15:119–43 [Google Scholar]
  178. Lundock R, Ichikawa T, Okita H. et al. 2009. Astron. Astrophys. 507:1649 [Google Scholar]
  179. Madden J, Kaltenegger L. 2017. MNRS In press [Google Scholar]
  180. Matsunaga T, Hieda K, Nikaido O. 1991. Photochem. Photobiol. 54:403 [Google Scholar]
  181. Mayor M, Queloz D. 1995. Nature 378:355–59 [Google Scholar]
  182. Meadows VS, Arney GN, Schwieterman EW. et al. 2016. Astrobiology. In review. arXiv:1608.08620 [Google Scholar]
  183. Menou K. 2015. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 429:20–24 [Google Scholar]
  184. Miguel Y, Kaltenegger L, Fegley B, Schaefer L. 2011. Ap. J. Lett. 742:L19 [Google Scholar]
  185. Mischna MA, Kasting JF, Pavlov AA, Freedman R. 2000. Icarus 145:2546–54 [Google Scholar]
  186. Misra A, Krissansen-Totton J, Koehler MC, Sholes S. 2015. Astrobiology 15:6462–77 [Google Scholar]
  187. Misra A, Meadows V, Claire M, Crisp D. 2014. Astrobiology 14:67 [Google Scholar]
  188. Mojzsis SJ, Arrhenius G, McKeegan KD. et al. 1996. Nature 384:55–59 [Google Scholar]
  189. Montañés-Rodríguez P, Pallé E, Goode PR. 2006. Ap. J. 651:1544–52 [Google Scholar]
  190. Morton TD, Swift J. 2014. Ap. J. 791:10 [Google Scholar]
  191. Moskovitz NA, Gaidos E, Williams DM. 2009. Astrobiology 9:269 [Google Scholar]
  192. Noack L, Breuer D. 2014. Planet Space Sci 98:41–49 [Google Scholar]
  193. Noack L, Hoening D, Rivoldini A. et al. 2016. Icarus 277:215–36 [Google Scholar]
  194. O'Malley-James JT, Kaltenegger L. 2017a. Ap. J. In press arXiv:1608.06930 [Google Scholar]
  195. O'Malley-James JT, Kaltenegger L. 2017b. MNRS Lett 469:L26–30 [Google Scholar]
  196. O'Malley-James JT, Raven JA, Cockell CS, Greaves JS. 2012. 122115–24
  197. O'Neill C, Jellinek AM, Lenardic A. 2007. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 261:20–32 [Google Scholar]
  198. Owen T. 1980. Strategies for the Search of Life in the Universe MD Papagiannis 177–85 Dordrecht, Neth.: Reidel [Google Scholar]
  199. Pallé E, Ford EB, Seager S. et al. 2008. Ap. J. 676:1319–29 [Google Scholar]
  200. Pallé E, Goode PR, Montañés-Rodríguez P. et al. 2016. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43:94531–38 [Google Scholar]
  201. Pallé E, Osorio MRZ, Barrena R. et al. 2009. Nature 459:814–16 [Google Scholar]
  202. Pavlov AA, Kasting JF, Brown LL. et al. 2000. J. Geophys. Res. 105:11981–90 [Google Scholar]
  203. Petigura EA, Howard AW, Marcy GW. et al. 2013. PNAS 110:19273–78 [Google Scholar]
  204. Pierrehumbert RT. 2010. Principles of Planetary Climate Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press674 [Google Scholar]
  205. Pierrehumbert RT, Gaidos E. 2011. Ap. J. Lett. 734:1L13 [Google Scholar]
  206. Pilcher CB. 2003. Astrobiology 3:3471–86 [Google Scholar]
  207. Planavsky NJ, Reinhard CT, Wang X. et al. 2014. Science 346:635–38 [Google Scholar]
  208. Ramirez RM, Kaltenegger L. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 797:2L25 [Google Scholar]
  209. Ramirez RM, Kaltenegger L. 2016. Ap. J. 823:16 [Google Scholar]
  210. Ramirez RM, Kaltenegger L. 2017. Ap. J. Lett. 837:L4 [Google Scholar]
  211. Ramirez RM, Kopparapu R, Zugger ME. et al. 2014b. Nat. Geosci. 7:159–63 [Google Scholar]
  212. Ramirez RM, Kopparapu RK, Lindner V, Kasting JF. 2014a. Astrobiology 14:8 [Google Scholar]
  213. Ranjan S, Sasselov DD. 2016. Astrobiology 16:68 [Google Scholar]
  214. Rauer H, Catala C, Aerts C. et al. 2014. Exp. Astron. 38:249 [Google Scholar]
  215. Rauer H, Gebauer S, Paris PV. et al. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 529:5A8 [Google Scholar]
  216. Raymond SN, Scalo J, Meadows VS. 2007. Ap. J. 669:1 [Google Scholar]
  217. Read PL. 2014. Astrobiology 14:8627–28 [Google Scholar]
  218. Reynolds RT, McKay CP, Kasting JF. 1987. Adv. Space Res. 7:125 [Google Scholar]
  219. Ribas I, Bolmont E, Selsis F. et al. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 596:A111 [Google Scholar]
  220. Ribas I, Guinan EF, Gudel M, Audard M. 2005. Ap. J. 622:1 [Google Scholar]
  221. Ricker GR, Winn JN, Vanderspek R. et al. 2014. Proc. SPIE 9143:914320 [Google Scholar]
  222. Riedel AR, Murphy SJ, Henry TJ. et al. 2011. Astronomical J 142:4104 [Google Scholar]
  223. Ritson D, Sutherland JD. 2012. Nat. Chem. 4:895–99 [Google Scholar]
  224. Robinson TD, Ennico K, Meadows VS. et al. 2014. Ap. J. 787:171 [Google Scholar]
  225. Robinson TD, Meadows VS, Crisp D. et al. 2011. Astrobiology 11:393–408 [Google Scholar]
  226. Rodler F, López-Morales M. 2014. Ap. J. 781:54 [Google Scholar]
  227. Rogers L. 2015. Ap. J. 801:41 [Google Scholar]
  228. Rogers L, Seager S. 2010. Ap. J. 716:1208 [Google Scholar]
  229. Rothschild LJ. 2008. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:15042787–801 [Google Scholar]
  230. Rothschild LJ, Mancinelli RL. 2001. Nature 409:1092–101 [Google Scholar]
  231. Rowe JF, Bryson ST, Marcy GW. et al. 2014. Ap. J. 784:45 [Google Scholar]
  232. Rugheimer S, Kaltenegger L, Segura A. et al. 2015a. Ap. J. 809:57 [Google Scholar]
  233. Rugheimer S, Kaltenegger L, Zsom A. et al. 2013. Astrobiology 13:251–69 [Google Scholar]
  234. Rugheimer S, Segura A, Kaltenegger L. et al. 2015b. Ap. J. 806:1137 [Google Scholar]
  235. Rushby AJ, Claire MW, Osborn H, Watson AJ. 2013. Astrobiology 13:9833–49 [Google Scholar]
  236. Sagan C, Mullen G. 1972. Science 177:52–56 [Google Scholar]
  237. Sagan C, Thompson WR, Carlson R. et al. 1993. Nature 365:6448715–21 [Google Scholar]
  238. Sanromá E, Pallé E, Parenteau MN. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 780:152 [Google Scholar]
  239. Sartoretti P, Schneider J. 1999. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134:553 [Google Scholar]
  240. Scalo J, Kaltenegger L, Segura A. et al. 2007. Astrobiology 7:185–166 [Google Scholar]
  241. Schaefer L, Fegley B Jr. 2009. Ap. J. 703:113 [Google Scholar]
  242. Schaefer L, Sasselov D. 2015. Ap. J. 801:140 [Google Scholar]
  243. Scharf CA. 2006. Ap. J. 648:1196 [Google Scholar]
  244. Schindler TL, Kasting JF. 2000. Icarus 145:262–71 [Google Scholar]
  245. Schwartz JC, Sekowski C, Haggard HM. et al. 2016. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 457:1926–38 [Google Scholar]
  246. Schwieterman EW, Meadows VS, Domagal-Goldman SD. et al. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 819:1L13 [Google Scholar]
  247. Seager S, Bains W, Hu R. 2013. Ap. J. 777:295 [Google Scholar]
  248. Seager S, Bains W, Petkowski JJ. 2016. Astrobiology 16:6465–85 [Google Scholar]
  249. Seager S, Deming D. 2010. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 48:631–72 [Google Scholar]
  250. Seager S, Turner EL, Schafer J, Ford EB. 2005. Astrobiology 5:372–90 [Google Scholar]
  251. Segura A, Kasting JF, Meadows V. et al. 2005. Astrobiology 5:706–25 [Google Scholar]
  252. Segura A, Krelove K, Kasting JF. et al. 2003. Astrobiology 3:4689–708 [Google Scholar]
  253. Segura A, Meadows VS, Kasting JF,. et al. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 472:2665–79 [Google Scholar]
  254. Segura A, Walkowicz LM, Meadows V. et al. 2010. Astrobiology 10:7751–71 [Google Scholar]
  255. Selsis F. 2000. In Darwin and Astronomy—The Infrared Space Interferometer. Proc. Int. Symp., Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 17–19, 1999 ESA SP-451 133–42 Noordwijk, Neth.: ESA [Google Scholar]
  256. Selsis F. 2004. Extrasolar Planets: Today and Tomorrow ed. J-P Beaulier, A Lecavelier des Etangs, C Terquen ASP Conf. Ser. 321170–82 San Francisco: ASP [Google Scholar]
  257. Selsis F, Despois D, Parisot J. 2002. Astron. Astrophys. 388:3985–1003 [Google Scholar]
  258. Selsis F, Kaltenegger L, Paillet J. 2008. Phys. Scr. T130:014032 [Google Scholar]
  259. Selsis F, Kasting JF, Levrard B. et al. 2007. Astron. Astrophys. 476:1373–87 [Google Scholar]
  260. Selsis F, Wordsworth R, Forget F. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 532:14 [Google Scholar]
  261. Senanayake SD, Idriss H. 2006. PNAS 103:51194–98 [Google Scholar]
  262. Shields AL, Ballard S, Johnson JA. 2016. Phys. Rep. 663:1–38 [Google Scholar]
  263. Shields AL, Meadows VS, Bitz CM. et al. 2013. Astrobiology 13:715 [Google Scholar]
  264. Silburt A, Gaidos E, Wu Y. 2015. Ap. J. 799:180 [Google Scholar]
  265. Simon A, GyM Szabo, Szatmary K. 2009. Earth Moon Planets 105:385 [Google Scholar]
  266. Snellen I, de Kok R, Le Poole R. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 764:182 [Google Scholar]
  267. Southam G, Westall F. 2007. Treatise on Geophysics 10:421–37 [Google Scholar]
  268. Spiegel DS, Menou K, Scharf CA. 2009. Ap. J. 691:1596–610 [Google Scholar]
  269. Stamenković V, Noack L, Breuer D, Spohn T. 2012. Ap. J. 748:41 [Google Scholar]
  270. Stern SA. 2003. Astrobiology 3:2317–21 [Google Scholar]
  271. Sullivan PW, Winn JN, Berta-Thompson ZK. et al. 2015. Ap. J. 809:177 [Google Scholar]
  272. Szabo GyM, Szatmary K, Diveki Z, Simon A. 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 450:395 [Google Scholar]
  273. Tackley PJ, Ammann M, Brodholt JP. et al. 2013. Icarus 225:150–61 [Google Scholar]
  274. Tevini M. 1993. UV-B Radiation and Ozone Depletion: Effects on Humans, Animals, Plants, Microorganisms, and Materials Boca Raton, FL: Lewis [Google Scholar]
  275. Tian F. 2015. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 43:459–76 [Google Scholar]
  276. Tian F, France K, Linsky JL. 2014. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 385:22–27 [Google Scholar]
  277. Tian F, Ida S. 2015. Nat. Geosci. 8:3177–80 [Google Scholar]
  278. Tinetti G, Rashby N, Yung Y. 2006. Ap. J. Lett. 644:L129–32 [Google Scholar]
  279. Traub WA. 2003. Scientific Frontiers in Research on Extrasolar Planets D Deming, S Seager ASP Conf. Ser. 294595–602 San Francisco: ASP [Google Scholar]
  280. Traub WA. 2011. Ap. J. 745:20 [Google Scholar]
  281. Traub WA. 2016. Ap. J. Submitted arXiv:1605.02255 [Google Scholar]
  282. Traub WA, Jucks K. 2002. Atmospheres in the Solar System: Comparative Aeronomy, Vol. 130, Geophys. Monogr. Ser M Mendillo, A Nagy, JH Waite 369–80 Washington, DC: Am. Geophys. Union [Google Scholar]
  283. Trenberth KE, Fasullo JT. 2009. Meteorol. Z. 18:4369–77 [Google Scholar]
  284. Turbet M, Leconte J, Selsis F. et al. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 596:A112 [Google Scholar]
  285. Turnbull MC, Traub WA, Jucks KW. et al. 2006. Ap. J. 644:551–59 [Google Scholar]
  286. Udry S, Santos NC. 2007. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 45:397–439 [Google Scholar]
  287. Valencia D, O'Connell RJ. 2009. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 286:3–4492–502 [Google Scholar]
  288. Valencia D, O'Connell RJ, Sasselov DD. 2007. Ap. J. Lett. 670:L45–48 [Google Scholar]
  289. van Heck HJ, Tackley PJ. 2011. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 310:252–61 [Google Scholar]
  290. Vidal-Madjar A, Arnold A, Ehrenreich D. et al. 2010. Astron. Astrophys. 523:A57 [Google Scholar]
  291. Villaver E, Livio M. 2007. Ap. J. 661:1192–201 [Google Scholar]
  292. Vladilo G, Murante G, Silva L. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 767:65 [Google Scholar]
  293. Voet D, Gratzer WB, Cox RA, Doty P. 1963. Biopolymers 1:193 [Google Scholar]
  294. von Braun K, Boyajian TS, Kane SR. et al. 2011. Ap. J. Lett. 729:2L26 [Google Scholar]
  295. von Paris P, Selsis F, Kitzmann D, Rauer H. 2013. Astrobiology 13:899 [Google Scholar]
  296. Walker JCG. 1977. Evolution of the Atmosphere New York: Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  297. Walker JCG, Hays PB, Kasting JF. 1981. J. Geophys. Res. 86:9776–82 [Google Scholar]
  298. Ward WR. 1982. Icarus 50:444–48 [Google Scholar]
  299. Weiss LM, Marcy GW. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 783:1L6 [Google Scholar]
  300. West AA, Morgan DP, Bochanski JJ. et al. 2011. Astronom. J. 141:97 [Google Scholar]
  301. Williams DM, Gaidos E. 2008. Icarus 195:2927–37 [Google Scholar]
  302. Williams DM, Kasting J. 1997. Icarus 129:254–67 [Google Scholar]
  303. Williams DM, Pollard D. 2002. The Evolving Sun and Its Influence on Planetary Environments B Montesinos, A Gimenez, EF Guinan ASP Conf. Ser. 269201–13 San Francisco: ASP [Google Scholar]
  304. Williams JP, Cieza LA. 2011. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49:67–117 [Google Scholar]
  305. Winn JN, Fabrycky DC. 2015. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 53:409–77 [Google Scholar]
  306. Wolf ET, Toon OB. 2014. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41:167–72 [Google Scholar]
  307. Wolf ET, Toon OB. 2015. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres 120:5775 [Google Scholar]
  308. Wolfgang A, Rogers LA, Ford EB. 2016. Ap. J. 825:119 [Google Scholar]
  309. Woolf NJ, Smith PS, Traub WA, Jucks KW. 2002. Ap. J. 574:430–42 [Google Scholar]
  310. Wordsworth R. 2012. Icarus 219:1267–73 [Google Scholar]
  311. Wordsworth R, Kalugina Y, Lokshtanov S. et al. 2017. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44:665–71 [Google Scholar]
  312. Wordsworth R, Pierrehumbert R. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 785:L20 [Google Scholar]
  313. Wordsworth RD, Pierrehumbert RT. 2013. Ap. J. 778:154 [Google Scholar]
  314. Wright SA, Barton EJ, Larkin JE. et al. 2010. Groundbased and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy III IS McLean, SK Ramsay, H Takami Proc. SPIE Conf. Ser 773577357P. Bellingham, WA: SPIE [Google Scholar]
  315. Yang J, Boue G, Fabrycky DC, Abbot DS. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 787:1L2 [Google Scholar]
  316. Yang J, Cowan NB, Abbot DS. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 771:L45 [Google Scholar]
  317. Youngblood A, France K, Parke Loyd RO. et al. 2016. Ap. J. 824:101 [Google Scholar]
  318. Zahnle K, Arndt N, Cockell C. et al. 2007. Space Sci. Rev. 129:1–335–78 [Google Scholar]
  319. Zahnle K, Haberle RM, Catling DC, Kasting JF. 2008. J. Geophys. Res. Planets 113:E11004 [Google Scholar]
  320. Zendejas J, Segura A, Raga AC. 2010. Icarus 210:539–44 [Google Scholar]
  321. Zeng L, Sasselov DD. 2013. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 125:925227–39 [Google Scholar]
  322. Zeng L, Sasselov DD, Jacobsen SB. 2016. Ap. J. 819:2127 [Google Scholar]
  323. Zsom A. 2015. Ap. J. 813:9 [Google Scholar]
  324. Zsom A, Kaltenegger L, Goldblatt C. 2012. Icarus 221:2603–16 [Google Scholar]
  325. Zsom A, Seager S, de Wit J, Stamenkovic V. 2014. Ap. J. 778:109 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-082214-122238
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-082214-122238
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error