Interstellar polarization at optical-to-infrared wavelengths is known to arise from asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. This effect provides a potentially powerful probe of magnetic field structure and strength if the details of the grain alignment can be reliably understood. Theory and observations have recently converged on a quantitative, predictive description of interstellar grain alignment based on radiative processes. The development of a general, analytical model for this radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory has allowed specific, testable predictions for realistic interstellar conditions. We outline the theoretical and observational arguments in favor of RAT alignment, as well as reasons the “classical” paramagnetic alignment mechanism is unlikely to work, except possibly for the very smallest grains. With further detailed characterization of the RAT mechanism, grain alignment and polarimetry promise to not only better constrain the interstellar magnetic field but also provide new information on the dust characteristics.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abbas MM, Craven PD, Spann JF. et al. 2004. Ap. J. 614:781 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alves FO, Frau P, Girart JM. et al. 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 569:L1 Erratum. 2015 Astron. Astrophys. 574:C4 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson CM, Weitenbeck AJ, Code AD. et al. 1996. Astron. J. 112:2726 [Google Scholar]
  4. Andersson B-G, Piirola V, De Buizer J. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 775:84 [Google Scholar]
  5. Andersson B-G, Pintado O, Potter SB, Straižys V, Charcos-Llorens M. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 534:A19 [Google Scholar]
  6. Andersson B-G, Potter SB. 2005. MNRAS 356:1088 [Google Scholar]
  7. Andersson B-G, Potter SB. 2007. Ap. J. 665:369 [Google Scholar]
  8. Andersson B-G, Potter SB. 2010. Ap. J. 720:1045 [Google Scholar]
  9. Arce HG, Goodman AA, Bastien P, Manset N, Sumner M. 1998. Ap. J. 499:L93 [Google Scholar]
  10. Balbus SA. 1986. Ap. J. 304:787 [Google Scholar]
  11. Battistelli ES, Rebolo R, Rubiño-Martín JA. et al. 2006. Ap. J. 645:141 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bethell TJ, Chepurnov A, Lazarian A, Kim J. 2007. Ap. J. 663:1055 [Google Scholar]
  13. Boogert ACA, Perakines GA, Whittet DCB. 2015. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 53:541–81 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bradley JP. 1994. Science 265:925 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bradley JP. 1995. Meteoritics 30:491 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bradley JP, Keller LP, Flynn GJ, Sitko ML. 2000. Thermal Emission Spectroscopy and Analysis of Dust, Disks, and Regoliths ASP Conf. Ser. 196119 San Francisco: ASP [Google Scholar]
  17. Burke BF, Graham-Smith F. 1997. An Introduction to Radio Astronomy New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  18. Carrasco-González C, Rodríguez LF, Anglada G. et al. 2010. Science 330:1209 [Google Scholar]
  19. Carrasco-González C, Rodríguez LF, Osorio M. et al. 2011. Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. Conf. Ser. 40:229–30 [Google Scholar]
  20. Casali MM. 1995. MNRAS 277:1385 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cashman LR, Clemens DP. 2014. Ap. J. 793:126 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chandrasekhar S, Fermi E. 1953. Ap. J. 118:113 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chiar JE, Adamson AJ, Whittet DCB. et al. 2006. Ap. J. 651:268 [Google Scholar]
  24. Chiar JE, Tielens AGGM, Adamson AJ, Ricca A. 2013. Ap. J. 770:78 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cho J, Lazarian A. 2005. Ap. J. 631:361 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cho J, Lazarian A. 2007. Ap. J. 669:1085 [Google Scholar]
  27. Chrysostomou A, Hough JH, Whittet DCB. et al. 1996. Ap. J. 465:L61 [Google Scholar]
  28. Clayton GC, Anderson CM, Magalhaes AM. et al. 1992. Ap. J. 385:L53 [Google Scholar]
  29. Clayton GC, Wolff MJ, Allen RG, Lupie OL. 1995. Ap. J. 445:947 [Google Scholar]
  30. Clayton GC, Wolff MJ, Sofia UJ, Gordon KD, Misselt KA. 2003. Ap. J. 588:871 [Google Scholar]
  31. Clemens DP, Pinnick AF, Pavel MD, Taylor BW. 2012. Astron. J. Suppl. 200:19 [Google Scholar]
  32. Clemens DP, Sarcia D, Grabau A. et al. 2007. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119:1385 [Google Scholar]
  33. Codina-Landaberry S, Magalhães AM. 1976. Astron. Astrophys. 49:407 [Google Scholar]
  34. Compiègne M, Verstraete L, Jones A. et al. 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 525:103 [Google Scholar]
  35. Cortes PC, Crutcher RM, Matthews BC. 2006. Ap. J. 650:246 [Google Scholar]
  36. Crutcher RM. 2004. Astrophys. Space Sci. 292:225 [Google Scholar]
  37. Crutcher RM, Hakobian N, Troland TH. 2009. Ap. J. 692:844 [Google Scholar]
  38. Crutcher RM, Nutter DJ, Ward-Thompson D, Kirk JM. 2004. Ap. J. 600:279 [Google Scholar]
  39. Cudlip W, Furniss I, King KJ, Jennings RE. 1982. MNRAS 200:1169 [Google Scholar]
  40. Davis L Jr. 1951. Phys. Rev. 81:890 [Google Scholar]
  41. Davis L Jr, Greenstein JL. 1951. Ap. J. 114:206 [Google Scholar]
  42. Désert F-X, Boulanger F, Puget JL. 1990. Astron. Astrophys. 237:215 [Google Scholar]
  43. Dober B, Ade PAR, Ashton P. et al. 2014. Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy VII WS Holland, J Zmuidzinas Proc. SPIE Conf. Ser. 915391530H Bellingham, WA: SPIE [Google Scholar]
  44. Dolginov AZ, Mytrophanov IG. 1976. Ap. Space Sci. 43:291 [Google Scholar]
  45. Dotson JL, Davidson J, Dowell CD, Schleuning DA, Hildebrand RH. 2000. Astron. J. Suppl. 128:335 [Google Scholar]
  46. Dotson JL, Vaillancourt JE, Kirby L. et al. 2010. Astron. J. Suppl. 186:406 [Google Scholar]
  47. Dowell CD, Cook BT, Harper DA. et al. 2010. Ground-Based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy III IS McLean, SK Ramsay, H Takami. Proc. SPIE Conf. Ser. 773577356H Bellingham, WA: SPIE [Google Scholar]
  48. Draine BT. 2003. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 41:241 [Google Scholar]
  49. Draine BT. 2011. Physics of the Interstellar and Intergalactic Medium Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  50. Draine BT, Anderson N. 1985. Ap. J. 292:494 [Google Scholar]
  51. Draine BT, Flatau PJ. 1994. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11:1491 [Google Scholar]
  52. Draine BT, Fraisse AA. 2009. Ap. J. 696:1 [Google Scholar]
  53. Draine BT, Hensley B. 2012. Ap. J. 757:103 [Google Scholar]
  54. Draine BT, Lazarian A. 1998a. Ap. J. 494:L19 [Google Scholar]
  55. Draine BT, Lazarian A. 1998b. Ap. J. 508:157 [Google Scholar]
  56. Draine BT, Lazarian A. 1999. Ap. J. 512:740 [Google Scholar]
  57. Draine BT, Li A. 2007. Ap. J. 657:810 [Google Scholar]
  58. Draine BT, Roberge WG, Dalgarno A. 1983. Ap. J. 264:485 [Google Scholar]
  59. Draine BT, Weingartner JC. 1996. Ap. J. 470:551 [Google Scholar]
  60. Draine BT, Weingartner JC. 1997. Ap. J. 480:633 [Google Scholar]
  61. Egan MP, Price SD, Kraemer KE. et al. 2003. VizieR Online Data Cat. 5114:0 [Google Scholar]
  62. Federman SR, Glassgold AE, Kwan J. 1979. Ap. J. 227:466 [Google Scholar]
  63. Field GB, Somerville WB, Dressler K. 1966. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 4:207 [Google Scholar]
  64. Fox AJ, Wakker BP, Savage BD. et al. 2005. Ap. J. 630:332 [Google Scholar]
  65. France K, Andersson B-G, McCandliss SR, Feldman PD. 2005. Ap. J. 628:750 [Google Scholar]
  66. Franco GAP, Alves FO, Girart JM. 2010. Ap. J. 723:146 [Google Scholar]
  67. Gerakines PA, Whittet DCB, Lazarian A. 1995. Ap. J. 455:L171 [Google Scholar]
  68. Gold T. 1952a. MNRAS 112:215 [Google Scholar]
  69. Gold T. 1952b. Nature 169:322 [Google Scholar]
  70. Goodman AA, Jones TJ, Lada EA, Myers PC. 1992. Ap. J. 399:108 [Google Scholar]
  71. Goodman AA, Jones TJ, Lada EA, Myers PC. 1995. Ap. J. 448:748 [Google Scholar]
  72. Goodman AA, Whittet DCB. 1995. Ap. J. 455:L181 [Google Scholar]
  73. Greenberg JM. 1968. Nebulae and Interstellar Matter BM Middlehurst, LH Aller 221 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  74. Hall JS. 1949. Science 109:166 [Google Scholar]
  75. Hildebrand RH. 1988. Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 29:327 [Google Scholar]
  76. Hildebrand RH, Davidson JA, Dotson JL. et al. 2000. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112:1215 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hildebrand RH, Dotson JL, Dowell CD, Schleuning DA, Vaillancourt JE. 1999. Ap. J. 516:834 [Google Scholar]
  78. Hildebrand RH, Dragovan M. 1995. Ap. J. 450:663 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hiltner WA. 1949a. Ap. J. 109:471 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hiltner WA. 1949b. Science 109:165 [Google Scholar]
  81. Hoang T, Lazarian A. 2008. MNRAS 388:117 [Google Scholar]
  82. Hoang T, Lazarian A. 2009a. Ap. J. 695:1457 [Google Scholar]
  83. Hoang T, Lazarian A. 2009b. Ap. J. 697:1316 [Google Scholar]
  84. Hoang T, Lazarian A. 2012. Adv. Astron. 2012:id.208159 [Google Scholar]
  85. Hoang T, Lazarian A, Martin PG. 2013. Ap. J. 779:152 [Google Scholar]
  86. Hoang T, Lazarian A, Martin PG. 2014. Ap. J. 790:6 [Google Scholar]
  87. Hoang T, Lazarian A, Schlickeiser R. 2012. Ap. J. 747:54 [Google Scholar]
  88. Hollenbach D, Kaufman MJ, Bergin EA, Melnick GJ. 2009. Ap. J. 690:1497 [Google Scholar]
  89. Houde M, Vaillancourt JE, Hildebrand RH, Chitsazzadeh S, Kirby L. 2009. Ap. J. 706:1504 [Google Scholar]
  90. Hough JH, Aitken DK, Whittet DCB, Adamson AJ, Chrysostomou A. 2008. MNRAS 387:797 [Google Scholar]
  91. Hough JH, Sato S, Tamura M. et al. 1988. MNRAS 230:107 [Google Scholar]
  92. Huggins PJ, Gillespie AR, Sollner TCL, Phillips TG. 1977. Astron. Astrophys. 54:955 [Google Scholar]
  93. Jackson JD. 1975. Classical Electrodynamics New York: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  94. Jansen DJ, van Dishoeck EF, Black JH. 1994. Astron. Astrophys. 282:605 [Google Scholar]
  95. Jansen DJ, van Dishoeck EF, Black JH, Spaans M, Sosin C. 1995. Astron. Astrophys. 302:223 [Google Scholar]
  96. Jones RV, Spitzer L. 1967. Ap. J. 147:943 [Google Scholar]
  97. Jones TJ. 1989. Ap. J. 346:728 [Google Scholar]
  98. Jones TJ, Bagley M, Krejny M, Andersson B-G, Bastien P. 2015. Astron. J. 149:31 [Google Scholar]
  99. Jones TJ, Hyland AR, Bailey J. 1984. Ap. J. 282:675 [Google Scholar]
  100. Jones TJ, Klebe D, Dickey JM. 1992. Ap. J. 389:602 [Google Scholar]
  101. Kato S, Mizuno N, Asayama S-I. et al. 1999. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 51:883 [Google Scholar]
  102. Kim S-H, Martin PG. 1994. Ap. J. 431:783 [Google Scholar]
  103. Kim S-H, Martin PG. 1995. Ap. J. 444:293 [Google Scholar]
  104. Kim S-H, Martin PG, Hendry PD. 1994. Ap. J. 422:164 [Google Scholar]
  105. Klare G, Neckel Th, Schnur G. 1972. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 5:239 [Google Scholar]
  106. Kogut A, Fixsen DJ, Levin SM. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 734:4 [Google Scholar]
  107. Lada CJ, Muench AA, Lada EA, Alves JF. 2004. Astron. J. 128:1254 [Google Scholar]
  108. Lazarian A. 1994. Astrophys. Space Sci. 216:235 [Google Scholar]
  109. Lazarian A. 1995. Ap. J. 451:660 [Google Scholar]
  110. Lazarian A. 1997. Ap. J. 483:296 [Google Scholar]
  111. Lazarian A. 2003. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 79:881 [Google Scholar]
  112. Lazarian A. 2007. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 106:225 [Google Scholar]
  113. Lazarian A, Andersson B-G, Hoang T. 2015. Polarimetry of Stars and Planetary Systems L Kolokolova, J Hough, A-Ch Levasseur-Regourd 81–113 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  114. Lazarian A, Draine BT. 1997. Ap. J. 487:248 [Google Scholar]
  115. Lazarian A, Draine BT. 1999a. Ap. J. 516:L37 [Google Scholar]
  116. Lazarian A, Draine BT. 1999b. Ap. J. 520:L67 [Google Scholar]
  117. Lazarian A, Draine BT. 2000. Ap. J. 536:L15 [Google Scholar]
  118. Lazarian A, Efroimsky M. 1996. Ap. J. 466:274 [Google Scholar]
  119. Lazarian A, Efroimsky M. 1999. MNRAS 303:673 [Google Scholar]
  120. Lazarian A, Efroimsky M, Ozik J. 1996. Ap. J. 472:240 [Google Scholar]
  121. Lazarian A, Hoang T. 2007a. MNRAS 378:910 [Google Scholar]
  122. Lazarian A, Hoang T. 2007b. Ap. J. 669:L77 [Google Scholar]
  123. Lazarian A, Hoang T. 2008. Ap. J. 676:L25 [Google Scholar]
  124. Lazarian A, Hoang T. 2011. Astronomical Polarimetry 2008: Science From Small to Large Telescopes ASP Conf. Ser. 449116 San Francisco: ASP [Google Scholar]
  125. Lazarian A, Roberge WG. 1997a. Ap. J. 484:230 [Google Scholar]
  126. Lazarian A, Roberge WG. 1997b. MNRAS 287:941 [Google Scholar]
  127. Lee HM, Draine BT. 1985. Ap. J. 290:211 [Google Scholar]
  128. Léger A. 1988. Polarized Radiation of Circumstellar Origin GV Coyne, AFJ Moffat, S Tapia, AM Magalhaes, RE Schulte-Ladbeck, NC Wickramasinghe 769 Vatican City State/Tucson: Vatican Obs./Univ. Ariz. Press [Google Scholar]
  129. Léger A, Puget JL. 1984. Astron. Astrophys. 137:L5 [Google Scholar]
  130. Lorenz EN. 1993. The Essence of Chaos Seattle: Univ. Wash. Press [Google Scholar]
  131. Luhman ML, Jaffe DT, Sternberg A, Herrmann F, Poglitsch A. 1997. Ap. J. 482:298 [Google Scholar]
  132. Martin PG. 1974. Ap. J. 187:461 [Google Scholar]
  133. Martin PG, Adamson AJ, Whittet DCB. et al. 1992. Ap. J. 392:691 [Google Scholar]
  134. Martin PG, Angel JRP. 1976. Ap. J. 207:126 [Google Scholar]
  135. Martin PG, Clayton GC, Wolff MJ. 1999. Ap. J. 510:905 [Google Scholar]
  136. Mathis JS. 1979. Ap. J. 232:747 [Google Scholar]
  137. Mathis JS. 1986. Ap. J. 308:281 [Google Scholar]
  138. Mathis JS, Mezger PG, Panagia N. 1983. Astron. Astrophys. 128:212 [Google Scholar]
  139. Mathis JS, Rumpl W, Nordsieck KH. 1977. Ap. J. 217:425 [Google Scholar]
  140. Matsumura M, Kameura Y, Kawabata KS. et al. 2011. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 63:L43 [Google Scholar]
  141. Matthews BC, McPhee CA, Fissel LM, Curran RL. 2009. Astron. J. Suppl. 182:143 [Google Scholar]
  142. Morata O, Herbst E. 2008. MNRAS 390:1549 [Google Scholar]
  143. Murakawa K, Tamura M, Nagata T. 2000. Astron. J. Suppl. 128:603 [Google Scholar]
  144. Netzer N, Elitzur M. 1993. Ap. J. 410:701 [Google Scholar]
  145. Ominato Y, Koshino M. 2012. Phys. Rev. B 85:165454 [Google Scholar]
  146. Planck Collab. XX 2011. Astron. Astrophys. 536:A20 [Google Scholar]
  147. Planck Collab. XV 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 565:A103 [Google Scholar]
  148. Planck Collab. XIX 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 576:A104 [Google Scholar]
  149. Planck Collab. XXII 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 576:A107 [Google Scholar]
  150. Plaszczynski S, Montier L, Levrier F, Tristram M. 2014. MNRAS 439:4048 [Google Scholar]
  151. Polehampton ET, Wyrowski F, Schilke P. 2005. High resolution observations of clumpy structure in IC63. Presented at Astrochemistry throughout the Universe: Recent Successes & Current Challenges, IAU Symp. 231, Monterey, CA [Google Scholar]
  152. Price SD, Egan MP, Carey SJ, Mizuno DR, Kuchar TA. 2001. Astron. J. 121:2819 [Google Scholar]
  153. Purcell EM. 1979. Ap. J. 231:404 [Google Scholar]
  154. Quinn JL. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 538:A65 [Google Scholar]
  155. Rao R, Crutcher RM, Plambeck RL, Wright MCH. 1998. Ap. J. 502:L75 [Google Scholar]
  156. Richtmyer RD, Teller E. 1949. Phys. Rev. 75:1729 [Google Scholar]
  157. Roberge WG. 1996. Polarimetry of the Interstellar Medium WG Roberge, DCB Whittet. ASP Conf. Ser. 97401 San Francisco: ASP [Google Scholar]
  158. Roberge WG, Hanany S, Messinger DW. 1995. Ap. J. 453:238 [Google Scholar]
  159. Roberge WG, Lazarian A. 1999. MNRAS 305:615 [Google Scholar]
  160. Rubiño-Martín JA, López-Caraballo CH, Génova-Santos R, Rebolo R. 2012. Adv. Astron. 2012:351836 [Google Scholar]
  161. Salgado F, Berné O, Adams JD. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 749:L21 [Google Scholar]
  162. Schleuning DA, Vaillancourt JE, Hildebrand RH. et al. 2000. Ap. J. 535:913 [Google Scholar]
  163. Sellgren K, Rouan D, Léger A. 1988. Astron. Astrophys. 196:252 [Google Scholar]
  164. Serkowski K. 1973. Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, ed. JM Greenberg, HC van de Hulst. IAU Symp. 52145 Dordrect, Neth: Kluwer [Google Scholar]
  165. Serkowski K, Mathewson DS, Ford VL. 1975. Ap. J. 196:261 [Google Scholar]
  166. Sironi L, Draine BT. 2009. Ap. J. 698:1292 [Google Scholar]
  167. Slavin JD. 1989. Ap. J. 346:718 [Google Scholar]
  168. Smith CH, Wright CM, Aitken DK, Roche PF, Hough JH. 2000. MNRAS 312:327 [Google Scholar]
  169. Sorrell WH. 1995. MNRAS 273:169 [Google Scholar]
  170. Spitzer L, McGlynn TA. 1979. Ap. J. 231:417 [Google Scholar]
  171. Spitzer L, Tukey JW. 1949. Science 109:461 [Google Scholar]
  172. Stecher TP, Williams DA. 1967. Ap. J. 149:L29 [Google Scholar]
  173. Steglich M, Bouwman J, Huisken F, Henning Th. 2011. Ap. J. 742:2 [Google Scholar]
  174. Stein W. 1966. Ap. J. 144:318 [Google Scholar]
  175. Tamura M, Nagata T, Sato S, Tanaka M. 1987. MNRAS 224:413 [Google Scholar]
  176. Tang Y-W, Ho PTP, Girart JM. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 695:1399 [Google Scholar]
  177. Tibbs CT, Paladini R, Compiègne M. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 754:94 [Google Scholar]
  178. Tielens AGGM. 2005. The Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  179. Tokunaga AT. 2000. Allen's Astrophysical Quantities AN Cox 143 New York: AIP [Google Scholar]
  180. Vaillancourt JE. 2002. Astron. J. Suppl. 142:53 [Google Scholar]
  181. Vaillancourt JE. 2006. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118:1340 [Google Scholar]
  182. Vaillancourt JE. 2007. Sky Polarisation at Far-Infrared to Radio Wavelengths: The Galactic Screen before the Cosmic Microwave Background F Boulanger, M-A Miville-Deschênes 147 EAS Publ. Ser. 23 Cambridge, UK: EDP Sci. [Google Scholar]
  183. Vaillancourt JE, Dowell CD, Hildebrand RH. et al. 2008. Ap. J. 679:L25 [Google Scholar]
  184. Vaillancourt JE, Matthews BC. 2012. Astron. J. Suppl. 201:13 [Google Scholar]
  185. Voshchinnikov NV, Henning T, Prokopjeva MS, Das HK. 2012. Astron. Astrophys. 541:A52 [Google Scholar]
  186. Weingartner JC, Draine BT. 2003. Ap. J. 589:289 [Google Scholar]
  187. Weingartner JC, Jordan ME. 2008. Ap. J. 672:382 [Google Scholar]
  188. Whittet DCB. 2003. Dust in the Galactic Environment. Bristol: Inst. Phys, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  189. Whittet DCB, Adamson AJ, Duley WW, Geballe TR, McFadzean AD. 1989. MNRAS 241:707 [Google Scholar]
  190. Whittet DCB, Gerakines PA, Hough JH, Shenoy SS. 2001. Ap. J. 547:872 [Google Scholar]
  191. Whittet DCB, Goldsmith PF, Pineda JL. 2010. Ap. J. 720:259 [Google Scholar]
  192. Whittet DCB, Hough JH, Lazarian A, Hoang T. 2008. Ap. J. 674:304 [Google Scholar]
  193. Whittet DCB, Martin PG, Hough JH. et al. 1992. Ap. J. 386:562 [Google Scholar]
  194. Whittet DCB, van Breda IG. 1978. Astron. Astrophys. 66:57 [Google Scholar]
  195. Wiebe DS, Watson WD. 2001. Ap. J. 549:L115 [Google Scholar]
  196. Wilking BA, Lebofsky MJ, Kemp JC, Martin PG, Rieke GH. 1980. Ap. J. 235:905 [Google Scholar]
  197. Wilking BA, Lebofsky MJ, Rieke GH. 1982. Astron. J. 87:695 [Google Scholar]
  198. Wolfire MG, Hollenbach D, McKee CF, Tielens AGGM, Bakes ELO. 1995. Ap. J. 443:152 [Google Scholar]
  199. Wynn-Williams CG. 1971. MNRAS 151:397 [Google Scholar]
  200. Yan H, Lazarian A. 2002. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89:281102 [Google Scholar]
  201. Yan H, Lazarian A. 2003. Ap. J. 592:L33 [Google Scholar]
  202. Yan H, Lazarian A. 2015. Magnetic Fields in Diffuse Media A Lazarian, EM de Gouveia Dal Pino, C Melioli 89 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  203. Ysard N, Abergel A, Ristorcelli I. et al. 2013. Astron. Astrophys. 559:A133 [Google Scholar]
  204. Zeng L, Bennett CL, Chapman NL. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 773:29 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error