1932

Abstract

The dark energy plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model has been a demonstrably successful framework for predicting and explaining the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution with time. Yet on length scales smaller than ∼1 Mpc and mass scales smaller than ∼1011M, the theory faces a number of challenges. For example, the observed cores of many dark matter–dominated galaxies are both less dense and less cuspy than naïvely predicted in ΛCDM. The number of small galaxies and dwarf satellites in the Local Group is also far below the predicted count of low-mass dark matter halos and subhalos within similar volumes. These issues underlie the most well-documented problems with ΛCDM: cusp/core, missing satellites, and too-big-to-fail. The key question is whether a better understanding of baryon physics, dark matter physics, or both is required to meet these challenges. Other anomalies, including the observed planar and orbital configurations of Local Group satellites and the tight baryonic/dark matter scaling relations obeyed by the galaxy population, have been less thoroughly explored in the context of ΛCDM theory. Future surveys to discover faint, distant dwarf galaxies and to precisely measure their masses and density structure hold promising avenues for testing possible solutions to the small-scale challenges going forward. Observational programs to constrain or discover and characterize the number of truly dark low-mass halos are among the most important, and achievable, goals in this field over the next decade. These efforts will either further verify the ΛCDM paradigm or demand a substantial revision in our understanding of the nature of dark matter.

Associated Article

There are media items related to this article:
Small-Scale Challenges to the ΛCDM Paradigm: Figure 7b

[Erratum, Closure]

An erratum has been published for this article:
Erratum: Small-Scale Challenges to the CDM Paradigm
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-091916-055313
2017-08-18
2024-04-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/astro/55/1/annurev-astro-091916-055313.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-091916-055313&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aaronson M. 1983. Ap. J. Lett. 266:L11–15
  2. Abazajian K. 2006. Phys. Rev. D 73:063506
  3. Ackermann M, Albert A, Anderson B. et al. 2015. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115:231301
  4. Adhikari R, Agostini M, Ky NA. et al. 2017. J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 2017:025
  5. Ahmed SH, Brooks AM, Christensen CR. 2017. MNRAS 466:3119–32
  6. Alam SMK, Bullock JS, Weinberg DH. 2002. Ap. J. 572:34–40
  7. Anderhalden D, Schneider A, Macciò AV, Diemand J, Bertone G. 2013. J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 3:014
  8. Arraki KS, Klypin A, More S, Trujillo-Gomez S. 2014. MNRAS 438:1466–82
  9. Bahl H, Baumgardt H. 2014. MNRAS 438:2916–23
  10. Baldry IK, Driver SP, Loveday J. et al. 2012. MNRAS 421:621–34
  11. Behroozi PS, Wechsler RH, Conroy C. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 762L31
  12. Benítez-Llambay A, Navarro JF, Abadi MG. et al. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 763L41
  13. Benson AJ, Bower RG, Frenk CS. et al. 2003. Ap. J. 599:38–49
  14. Benson AJ, Lacey CG, Baugh CM, Cole S, Frenk CS. 2002. MNRAS 333:156–76
  15. Bernardi M, Meert A, Sheth RK. et al. 2013. MNRAS 436:697–704
  16. Bertschinger E. 2006. Phys. Rev. D 74:063509
  17. Bland-Hawthorn J, Gerhard O. 2016. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 54:529–96
  18. Blitz L, Spergel DN, Teuben PJ, Hartmann D, Burton WB. 1999. Ap. J. 514:818–43
  19. Blumenthal GR, Faber SM, Primack JR, Rees MJ. 1984. Nature 311:517–25
  20. Bode P, Ostriker JP, Turok N. 2001. Ap. J. 556:93–107
  21. Bond JR, Cole S, Efstathiou G, Kaiser N. 1991. Ap. J. 379:440–60
  22. Bosma A. 1978. The distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen in spiral galaxies of various morphological types PhD Thesis, Univ. Groningen, Groningen
  23. Bovill MS, Ricotti M. 2009. Ap. J. 693:1859–70
  24. Boyarsky A, Ruchayskiy O, Iakubovskyi D, Franse J. 2014. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:251301
  25. Boylan-Kolchin M, Bullock JS, Kaplinghat M. 2011. MNRAS 415:L40–44
  26. Boylan-Kolchin M, Bullock JS, Kaplinghat M. 2012. MNRAS 422:1203–18
  27. Boylan-Kolchin M, Springel V, White SDM, Jenkins A. 2010. MNRAS 406:896–912
  28. Bozek B, Boylan-Kolchin M, Horiuchi S. et al. 2016. MNRAS 459:1489–504
  29. Brook CB, Di Cintio A. 2015. MNRAS 450:3920–34
  30. Brook CB, Santos-Santos I, Stinson G. 2016. MNRAS 459:638–45
  31. Brooks A. 2014. Ann. Phys. 526:294–308
  32. Brooks AM, Papastergis E, Christensen CR. et al. 2017. arXivv:1701.07835
  33. Brooks AM, Zolotov A. 2014. Ap. J. 786:87
  34. Bryan GL, Norman ML. 1998. Ap. J. 495:80–99
  35. Buck T, Dutton AA, Macciò AV. 2016. MNRAS 460:44348–65
  36. Bulbul E, Markevitch M, Foster A. et al. 2014. Ap. J. 789:13
  37. Bullock JS, Kolatt TS, Sigad Y. et al. 2001. MNRAS 321:559–75
  38. Bullock JS, Kravtsov AV, Weinberg DH. 2000. Ap. J. 539:517–21
  39. Burkert A. 1995. Ap. J. Lett. 447:L25–28
  40. Calore F, De Romeri V, Di Mauro M, Donato F, Marinacci F. 2016. J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. Submitted arXiv:1611.03503
  41. Carlberg RG. 2009. Ap. J. Lett. 705:L223–26
  42. Carlin JL, Sand DJ, Price P. et al. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 828:L5
  43. Carlson ED, Machacek ME, Hall LJ. 1992. Ap. J. 398:43–52
  44. Chan TK, Kereš D, Oñorbe J. et al. 2015. MNRAS 454:2981–3001
  45. Cole S. 1991. Ap. J. 367:45–53
  46. Conn AR, Lewis GF, Ibata RA. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 766:120
  47. Conroy C, Wechsler RH, Kravtsov AV. 2006. Ap. J. 647:201–14
  48. Creasey P, Sameie O, Sales LV. et al. 2017. MNRAS 468:2283–95
  49. Crnojević D, Sand DJ, Zaritsky D. et al. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 824:L14
  50. Cyr-Racine FY, Sigurdson K, Zavala J. et al. 2016. Phys. Rev. D 93:123527
  51. Dalcanton JJ, Spergel DN, Gunn JE, Schmidt M, Schneider DP. 1997. Astron. J. 114:635–54
  52. Davis M, Efstathiou G, Frenk CS, White SDM. 1985. Ap. J. 292:371–94
  53. de Blok WJG, Walter F, Brinks E. et al. 2008. Astron. J. 136:2648–719
  54. Del Popolo A, Le Delliou M. 2016. arXiv:1606.07790
  55. Di Cintio A, Brook CB, Macciò AV. et al. 2014. MNRAS 437:415–23
  56. Diemand J, Kuhlen M, Madau P. et al. 2008. Nature 454:735–38
  57. Diemer B, Kravtsov AV. 2015. Ap. J. 799:108
  58. Dodelson S, Widrow LM. 1994. Phys. Rev. Lett. 72:17–20
  59. D'Onghia E, Springel V, Hernquist L, Keres D. 2010. Ap. J. 709:1138–47
  60. Drlica-Wagner A, Bechtol K, Rykoff ES. et al. 2015. Ap. J. 813:109
  61. Dubinski J, Carlberg RG. 1991. Ap. J. 378:496–503
  62. Dutton AA, Macciò AV. 2014. MNRAS 441:3359–74
  63. Dutton AA, Macciò AV, Frings J. et al. 2016. MNRAS 457:L74–78
  64. Efstathiou G. 1992. MNRAS 256:43P–47P
  65. Einasto J. 1965. Trudy Astrofizicheskogo Inst. Alma-Ata 5:87–100
  66. Elbert OD, Bullock JS, Garrison-Kimmel S. et al. 2015. MNRAS 453:29–37
  67. Elbert OD, Bullock JS, Kaplinghat M. et al. 2016. MNRAS Submitted arXiv:1609.08626
  68. Faber SM, Lin DNC. 1983. Ap. J. Lett. 266:L17–20
  69. Feng JL. 2010. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 48:495–545
  70. Feng JL, Kumar J. 2008. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101:231301
  71. Ferrero I, Abadi MG, Navarro JF, Sales LV, Gurovich S. 2012. MNRAS 425:2817–23
  72. Fitts A, Boylan-Kolchin M, Elbert OD. et al. 2016. MNRAS Submitted arXiv:1611.02281
  73. Flores RA, Primack JR. 1994. Ap. J. Lett. 427:L1–4
  74. Freeman KC. 1970. Ap. J. 160:811
  75. Frenk CS, White SDM. 2012. Ann. Phys. 524:507–34
  76. Frenk CS, White SDM, Davis M, Efstathiou G. 1988. Ap. J. 327:507–25
  77. Fry AB, Governato F, Pontzen A. et al. 2015. MNRAS 452:1468–79
  78. Gao L, Navarro JF, Cole S. et al. 2008. MNRAS 387:536–44
  79. Garrison-Kimmel S, Boylan-Kolchin M, Bullock JS, Lee K. 2014. MNRAS 438:2578–96
  80. Garrison-Kimmel S, Bullock JS, Boylan-Kolchin M, Bardwell E. 2017a. MNRAS 464:3108–20
  81. Garrison-Kimmel S, Wetzel AR, Bullock JS. et al. 2017b. MNRAS Submitted arXiv:1701.03792
  82. Ghigna S, Moore B, Governato F. et al. 1998. MNRAS 300:146–62
  83. Gillet N, Ocvirk P, Aubert D. et al. 2015. Ap. J. 800:34
  84. Giovanelli R, Haynes MP, Adams EAK. et al. 2013. Astron. J. 146:15
  85. Gnedin OY, Zhao H. 2002. MNRAS 333:299–306
  86. Governato F, Zolotov A, Pontzen A. et al. 2012. MNRAS 422:1231–40
  87. Green AM, Hofmann S, Schwarz DJ. 2004. MNRAS 353:L23–27
  88. Griffen BF, Ji AP, Dooley GA. et al. 2016. Ap. J. 818:10
  89. Gunn JE, Gott JRI. 1972. Ap. J. 176:1
  90. Guo H, Zheng Z, Behroozi PS. et al. 2016. MNRAS 459:3040–58
  91. Hargis JR, Willman B, Peter AHG. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 795:L13
  92. Hezaveh Y, Dalal N, Holder G. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 767:9
  93. Hezaveh YD, Dalal N, Marrone DP. 2016. Ap. J. 823:37
  94. Hofmann S, Schwarz DJ, Stöcker H. 2001. Phys. Rev. D 64:083507
  95. Hopkins PF, Keres D, Oñorbe J. et al. 2014. MNRAS 445:581–603
  96. Hopkins PF, Wetzel A, Keres D. et al. 2017. MNRAS Submitted arXiv:1702.06148
  97. Horiuchi S, Humphrey PJ, Oñorbe J. et al. 2014. Phys. Rev. D 89:025017
  98. Ibata RA, Famaey B, Lewis GF, Ibata NG, Martin N. 2015. Ap. J. 805:67
  99. Ibata RA, Lewis GF, Conn AR. et al. 2013. Nature 493:62–65
  100. Ibata RA, Lewis GF, Irwin MJ, Quinn T. 2002. MNRAS 332:915–20
  101. Impey C, Bothun G, Malin D. 1988. Ap. J. 330:634–60
  102. Jethwa P, Erkal D, Belokurov V. 2016. MNRAS 461:2212–33
  103. Jing YP. 2000. Ap. J. 535:30–36
  104. Jungman G, Kamionkowski M, Griest K. 1996. Phys. Rep. 267:195–373
  105. Kang X, Mao S, Gao L, Jing YP. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 437:383–88
  106. Kaplinghat M, Tulin S, Yu HB. 2016. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116:041302
  107. Kawasaki M, Nakayama K. 2013. Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 63:69–95
  108. Keller BW, Wadsley JW. 2017. Ap. J. Lett. 835:L17
  109. Kirby EN, Bullock JS, Boylan-Kolchin M, Kaplinghat M, Cohen JG. 2014. MNRAS 439:1015–27
  110. Klypin A, Gottlöber S, Kravtsov AV, Khokhlov AM. 1999a. Ap. J. 516:530–51
  111. Klypin A, Karachentsev I, Makarov D, Nasonova O. 2015. MNRAS 454:1798–810
  112. Klypin A, Kravtsov AV, Valenzuela O, Prada F. 1999b. Ap. J. 522:82–92
  113. Klypin A, Yepes G, Gottlöber S, Prada F, Heß S. 2016. MNRAS 457:4340–59
  114. Koda J, Yagi M, Yamanoi H, Komiyama Y. 2015. Ap. J. Lett. 807:L2
  115. Kolb EW, Turner MS. 1994. Frontiers in Physics 69 Boulder, CO: Westview
  116. Koposov SE, Belokurov V, Torrealba G, Evans NW. 2015. Ap. J. 805:130
  117. Kormendy J, Freeman KC. 2016. Ap. J. 817:84
  118. Kravtsov AV. 2013. Ap. J. Lett. 764:L31
  119. Kravtsov AV, Berlind AA, Wechsler RH. et al. 2004. Ap. J. 609:35–49
  120. Kroupa P, Theis C, Boily CM. 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 431:517–21
  121. Kuhlen M, Madau P, Silk J. 2009. Science 325:970–73
  122. Kuhlen M, Vogelsberger M, Angulo R. 2012. Phys. Dark Univ. 1:50–93
  123. Kunkel WE, Demers S. 1976. The Galaxy and the Local Group RJ Dickens, JE Perry, FG Smith, IR King R. Greenwich Obs. Bull. 182:241
  124. Kuzio de Naray R, McGaugh SS, de Blok WJG. 2008. Ap. J. 676:920–43
  125. Libeskind NI, Frenk CS, Cole S, Jenkins A, Helly JC. 2009. MNRAS 399:550–58
  126. Libeskind NI, Hoffman Y, Tully RB. et al. 2015. MNRAS 452:1052–59
  127. Lin DNC, Faber SM. 1983. Ap. J. Lett. 266:L21–25
  128. Livermore RC, Finkelstein SL, Lotz JM. 2017. Ap. J. Lett. 835:L113
  129. Lovell MR, Eke VR, Frenk CS, Jenkins A. 2011. MNRAS 413:3013–21
  130. Lovell MR, Frenk CS, Eke VR. et al. 2014. MNRAS 439:300–17
  131. Ludlow AD, Bose S, Angulo RE. et al. 2016. MNRAS 460:1214–32
  132. Lynden-Bell D. 1976. MNRAS 174:695–710
  133. Macciò AV, Udrescu SM, Dutton AA. et al. 2016. MNRAS 463:L69–73
  134. Madau P, Shen S, Governato F. 2014. Ap. J. Lett. 789:L17
  135. Marchesini D, D'Onghia E, Chincarini G. et al. 2002. Ap. J. 575:801–13
  136. Mashchenko S, Wadsley J, Couchman HMP. 2008. Science 319:174–77
  137. Massey P, Olsen KAG, Hodge PW. et al. 2007. Astron. J. 133:2393–417
  138. McConnachie AW. 2012. Astron. J. 144:4
  139. McGaugh SS. 2012. Astron. J. 143:40
  140. McGaugh SS. 2015. Can. J. Phys. 93:250–59
  141. McGaugh SS, Lelli F, Schombert JM. 2016. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117:201101
  142. McGaugh SS, Rubin VC, de Blok WJG. 2001. Astron. J. 122:2381–95
  143. McQuinn M. 2016. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 54:313–62
  144. Menci N, Grazian A, Castellano M, Sanchez NG. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 825:L1
  145. Merle A, Schneider A. 2015. Phys. Lett. B 749:283–88
  146. Metz M, Kroupa P, Jerjen H. 2007. MNRAS 374:1125–45
  147. Metz M, Kroupa P, Jerjen H. 2009. MNRAS 394:2223–28
  148. Milgrom M. 2002. New Astron. Rev. 46:741–53
  149. Milgrom M. 2016. arXiv:1610.07538
  150. Mo H, van den Bosch FC, White S. 2010. Galaxy Formation and Evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  151. Moore B. 1994. Nature 370:629–31
  152. Moore B, Ghigna S, Governato F. et al. 1999. Ap. J. Lett. 524:L19–22
  153. More S, Diemer B, Kravtsov AV. 2015. Ap. J. 810:36
  154. Moster BP, Somerville RS, Maulbetsch C. et al. 2010. Ap. J. 710:903–23
  155. Munshi F, Governato F, Brooks AM. et al. 2013. Ap. J. 766:56
  156. Nambu Y, Sasaki M. 1990. Phys. Rev. D 42:3918–24
  157. Navarro JF, Benítez-Llambay A, Fattahi A. et al. 2016. MNRAS Submitted arXiv:1612.06329
  158. Navarro JF, Eke VR, Frenk CS. 1996. MNRAS 283:L72–78
  159. Navarro JF, Frenk CS, White SDM. 1997. Ap. J. 490:493–508
  160. Navarro JF, Hayashi E, Power C. et al. 2004. MNRAS 349:1039–51
  161. Navarro JF, Ludlow A, Springel V. et al. 2010. MNRAS 402:21–34
  162. Oh SH, Hunter DA, Brinks E. et al. 2015. Astron. J. 149:180
  163. Oman KA, Navarro JF, Fattahi A. et al. 2015. MNRAS 452:3650–65
  164. Oñorbe J, Boylan-Kolchin M, Bullock JS. et al. 2015. MNRAS 454:2092–106
  165. Papastergis E, Giovanelli R, Haynes MP, Shankar F. 2015. Astron. Astrophys. 574:A113
  166. Papastergis E, Ponomareva AA. 2017. Astron. Astrophys. 601:A1
  167. Papastergis E, Shankar F. 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 591:A58
  168. Pawlowski MS. 2016. MNRAS 456:448–58
  169. Pawlowski MS, Famaey B, Merritt D, Kroupa P. 2015a. Ap. J. 815:19
  170. Pawlowski MS, Kroupa P. 2013. MNRAS 435:2116–31
  171. Pawlowski MS, McGaugh SS, Jerjen H. 2015b. MNRAS 453:1047–61
  172. Pawlowski MS, Pflamm-Altenburg J, Kroupa P. 2012. MNRAS 423:1109–26
  173. Peebles PJE. 1982. Ap. J. Lett. 263:L1–5
  174. Peebles PJE. 2012. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 50:1–28
  175. Peter AHG, Rocha M, Bullock JS, Kaplinghat M. 2013. MNRAS 430:105–20
  176. Phillips JI, Cooper MC, Bullock JS, Boylan-Kolchin M. 2015. MNRAS 453:3839–47
  177. Ade PAR, Aghanim N, Arnaud M, Ashdown M. Planck Collab. et al. 2016. Astron. Astrophys 594:A13
  178. Polisensky E, Ricotti M. 2011. Phys. Rev. D 83:043506
  179. Pontzen A, Governato F. 2012. MNRAS 421:3464–71
  180. Porter TA, Johnson RP, Graham PW. 2011. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49:155–94
  181. Press WH, Schechter P. 1974. Ap. J. 187:425–38
  182. Primack JR. 2012. Ann. Phys. 524:535–44
  183. Read JI. 2014. J. Phys. G Nucl. Phys. 41:063101
  184. Read JI, Agertz O, Collins MLM. 2016. MNRAS 459:2573–90
  185. Rees MJ, Ostriker JP. 1977. MNRAS 179:541–59
  186. Richardson JC, Irwin MJ, McConnachie AW. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 732:76
  187. Rocha M, Peter AHG, Bullock JS. et al. 2013. MNRAS 430:81–104
  188. Rodríguez-Puebla A, Behroozi P, Primack J. et al. 2016. MNRAS 462:893–916
  189. Rubin VC, Ford WK Jr., Thonnard N. 1980. Ap. J. 238:471–87
  190. Rubin VC, Thonnard N, Ford WK Jr. 1978. Ap. J. Lett. 225:L107–11
  191. Sales LV, Navarro JF, Kallivayalil N, Frenk CS. 2017. MNRAS 465:1879–88
  192. Sand DJ, Crnojević D, Bennet P. et al. 2015a. Ap. J. 806:95
  193. Sand DJ, Spekkens K, Crnojević D. et al. 2015b. Ap. J. Lett. 812:L13
  194. Sawala T, Frenk CS, Fattahi A. et al. 2016. MNRAS 457:1931–43
  195. Schaye J, Crain RA, Bower RG. et al. 2015. MNRAS 446:521–54
  196. Schneider A, Smith RE, Macciò AV, Moore B. 2012. MNRAS 424:684–98
  197. Schneider A, Trujillo-Gomez S, Papastergis E, Reed DS, Lake G. 2016. MNRAS Submitted arXiv:1611.09362
  198. Schultz C, Oñorbe J, Abazajian KN, Bullock JS. 2014. MNRAS 442:1597–609
  199. Sheth RK, Mo HJ, Tormen G. 2001. MNRAS 323:1–12
  200. Shi X, Fuller GM. 1999. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82:2832–35
  201. Simon JD, Bolatto AD, Leroy A, Blitz L, Gates EL. 2005. Ap. J. 621:757–76
  202. Simon JD, Geha M, Minor QE. et al. 2011. Ap. J. 733:46
  203. Skillman ED, Monelli M, Weisz DR. et al. 2016. arXiv:1606.01207
  204. Somerville RS, Davé R. 2015. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 53:51–113
  205. Spergel DN, Steinhardt PJ. 2000. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84:3760–63
  206. Springel V, Wang J, Vogelsberger M. et al. 2008. MNRAS 391:1685–711
  207. Stadel J, Potter D, Moore B. et al. 2009. MNRAS 398:L21–25
  208. Strigari LE. 2013. Phys. Rep. 531:1–88
  209. Strigari LE, Bullock JS, Kaplinghat M. et al. 2008. Nature 454:1096–97
  210. Tollerud EJ, Boylan-Kolchin M, Bullock JS. 2014. MNRAS 440:3511–19
  211. Tollerud EJ, Bullock JS, Strigari LE, Willman B. 2008. Ap. J. 688:277–89
  212. Tollerud EJ, Geha MC, Grcevich J. et al. 2016. Ap. J. 827:89
  213. Tollet E, Macciò AV, Dutton AA. et al. 2016. MNRAS 456:3542–52
  214. Tomozeiu M, Mayer L, Quinn T. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 827:L15
  215. Tremaine S, Gunn JE. 1979. Phys. Rev. Lett. 42:407–10
  216. Trujillo-Gomez S, Schneider A, Papastergis E, Reed DS, Lake G. 2016. MNRAS Submitted arXiv:1610.09335
  217. Tully RB, Libeskind NI, Karachentsev ID. et al. 2015. Ap. J. Lett. 802:L25
  218. van Dokkum PG, Abraham R, Merritt A. et al. 2015. Ap. J. Lett. 798:L45
  219. Vegetti S, Koopmans LVE, Bolton A, Treu T, Gavazzi R. 2010. MNRAS 408:1969–81
  220. Vegetti S, Lagattuta DJ, McKean JP. et al. 2012. Nature 481:341–43
  221. Venumadhav T, Cyr-Racine FY, Abazajian KN, Hirata CM. 2016. Phys. Rev. D 94:043515
  222. Viel M, Becker GD, Bolton JS, Haehnelt MG. 2013. Phys. Rev. D 88:043502
  223. Viel M, Lesgourgues J, Haehnelt MG, Matarrese S, Riotto A. 2005. Phys. Rev. D 71:063534
  224. Vogelsberger M, Genel S, Springel V. et al. 2014. MNRAS 444:1518–47
  225. Vogelsberger M, Zavala J, Cyr-Racine FY. et al. 2016. MNRAS 460:1399–416
  226. Vogelsberger M, Zavala J, Loeb A. 2012. MNRAS 423:3740–52
  227. Walker MG, Mateo M, Olszewski EW. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 704:1274–87
  228. Walker MG, Peñarrubia J. 2011. Ap. J. 742:20
  229. Wechsler RH, Bullock JS, Primack JR, Kravtsov AV, Dekel A. 2002. Ap. J. 568:52–70
  230. Weinberg DH, Bullock JS, Governato F, Kuzio de Naray R, Peter AHG. 2015. PNAS 112:12249–55
  231. Weinberg DH, Mortonson MJ, Eisenstein DJ. et al. 2013. Phys. Rep. 530:87–255
  232. Wetzel AR, Hopkins PF, Kim Jh. et al. 2016. Ap. J. Lett. 827:L23
  233. Wheeler C, Oñorbe J, Bullock JS. et al. 2015. MNRAS 453:1305–16
  234. White SDM, Frenk CS. 1991. Ap. J. 379:52–79
  235. White SDM, Frenk CS, Davis M. 1983. Ap. J. Lett. 274:L1–5
  236. White SDM, Rees MJ. 1978. MNRAS 183:341–58
  237. Willman B. 2010. Adv. Astron. 2010:285454
  238. Willman B, Strader J. 2012. Astron. J. 144:76
  239. Wolf J, Martinez GD, Bullock JS. et al. 2010. MNRAS 406:1220–37
  240. Wright AH, Robotham ASG, Driver SP. et al. 2017. MNRAS Accepted arXiv:1705.04074
  241. Yoon JH, Johnston KV, Hogg DW. 2011. Ap. J. 731:58
  242. Zavala J, Jing YP, Faltenbacher A. et al. 2009. Ap. J. 700:1779–93
  243. Zavala J, Springel V, Boylan-Kolchin M. 2010. MNRAS 405:593–612
  244. Zentner AR. 2007. Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 16:763–815
  245. Zentner AR, Kravtsov AV, Gnedin OY, Klypin AA. 2005. Ap. J. 629:219–32
  246. Zolotov A, Brooks AM, Willman B. et al. 2012. Ap. J. 761:71
  247. Zwicky F. 1933. Helv. Phys. Acta 6:110–27
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-091916-055313
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-astro-091916-055313
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

    The missing satellites problem: predicted ΛCDM substructure () versus known MW satellites (). Panel (by M. Pawlowski in collaboration with the authors) shows the current census of MW satellite galaxies, with galaxies discovered since 2015 in red. The Galactic disk is represented by a circle of radius 15 kpc at the center, and the outer sphere has a radius of 250 kpc. The 11 brightest (classical) MW satellites are labeled by name. Sizes of the symbols are not to scale but are rather proportional to the log of each satellite galaxy's stellar mass. Currently, there are ∼50 satellite galaxies known in the MW as compared to thousands of predicted subhalos with ≳107M. Abbreviations: dSph, dwarf spheroidal; LMC, Large Magellanic Cloud; MW, Milky Way; SMC, Small Magellanic Cloud.

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error