1932

Abstract

Mitochondria are central to energy production, metabolism and signaling, and apoptosis. To make new mitochondria from preexisting mitochondria, the cell needs to import mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondria with the aid of translocators in the mitochondrial membranes. The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex, an outer membrane translocator, functions as an entry gate for most mitochondrial proteins. Although high-resolution structures of the receptor subunits of the TOM complex were deposited in the early 2000s, those of entire TOM complexes became available only in 2019. The structural details of these TOM complexes, consisting of the dimer of the β-barrel import channel Tom40 and four α-helical membrane proteins, revealed the presence of several distinct paths and exits for the translocation of over 1,000 different mitochondrial precursor proteins. High-resolution structures of TOM complexes now open up a new era of studies on the structures, functions, and dynamics of the mitochondrial import system.

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2022-06-21
2024-06-20
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