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Abstract

Subcellular compartmentalization is a defining feature of all cells. In prokaryotes, compartmentalization is generally achieved via protein-based strategies. The two main classes of microbial protein compartments are bacterial microcompartments and encapsulin nanocompartments. Encapsulins self-assemble into proteinaceous shells with diameters between 24 and 42 nm and are defined by the viral HK97-fold of their shell protein. Encapsulins have the ability to encapsulate dedicated cargo proteins, including ferritin-like proteins, peroxidases, and desulfurases. Encapsulation is mediated by targeting sequences present in all cargo proteins. Encapsulins are found in many bacterial and archaeal phyla and have been suggested to play roles in iron storage, stress resistance, sulfur metabolism, and natural product biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that they share a common ancestor with viral capsid proteins. Many pathogens encode encapsulins, and recent evidence suggests that they may contribute toward pathogenicity. The existing information on encapsulin structure, biochemistry, biological function, and biomedical relevance is reviewed here.

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2022-06-21
2024-06-21
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