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Abstract

Transcription-coupled repair (TCR), discovered as preferential nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers located in transcribed mammalian genes compared to those in nontranscribed regions of the genome, is defined as faster repair of the transcribed strand versus the nontranscribed strand in transcribed genes. The phenomenon, universal in model organisms including , yeast, , mice, and humans, involves a translocase that interacts with both RNA polymerase stalled at damage in the transcribed strand and nucleotide excision repair proteins to accelerate repair. , a notable exception, exhibits TCR but lacks an obvious TCR translocase. Mutations inactivating TCR genes cause increased damage-induced mutagenesis in and severe neurological and UV sensitivity syndromes in humans. To date, only TCR has been reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. Detailed investigations of TCR using genome-wide next-generation sequencing methods, cryo–electron microscopy, single-molecule analysis, and other approaches have revealed fascinating mechanisms.

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2023-06-20
2024-06-23
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