RAF family protein kinases are a key node in the RAS/RAF/MAP kinase pathway, the signaling cascade that controls cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival in response to engagement of growth factor receptors on the cell surface. Over the past few years, structural and biochemical studies have provided new understanding of RAF autoregulation, RAF activation by RAS and the SHOC2 phosphatase complex, and RAF engagement with HSP90–CDC37 chaperone complexes. These studies have important implications for pharmacologic targeting of the pathway. They reveal RAF in distinct regulatory states and show that the functional RAF switch is an integrated complex of RAF with its substrate (MEK) and a 14-3-3 dimer. Here we review these advances, placing them in the context of decades of investigation of RAF regulation. We explore the insights they provide into aberrant activation of the pathway in cancer and RASopathies (developmental syndromes caused by germline mutations in components of the pathway).

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 93 is June 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Supplemental Material

Supplemental Material

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error