1932

Abstract

Antecedents of personality disorder in childhood and adolescence have been a neglected area in official taxonomies of mental disorders such as the or the different editions of the . An evolving research field, however, underscores the importance of antecedents for understanding psychopathology and personality pathology in adulthood. The current article summarizes the history, updates reviews, and incorporates new research findings into an integrative scheme for conceptualizing personality pathology in childhood and adolescence. Implications of this model for assessment, future research, and intervention are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153634
2014-03-28
2024-06-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/10/1/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153634.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153634&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Achenbach TM. 1991. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 Profile Burlington: Univ. Vt. Dep. Psychiatry [Google Scholar]
  2. Aelterman N, Decuyper M, De Fruyt F. 2010. Understanding obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in adolescence: a dimensional personality perspective. J. Psychopathol. Behav. Assess. 32:4467–78 [Google Scholar]
  3. Allport GW. 1951. Personality—A Psychological Interpretation London: Constable [Google Scholar]
  4. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. (APA) 1980. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ, 3rd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  5. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. (APA) 1987. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ, 3rd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  6. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. (APA) 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ, 4th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  7. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. (APA) 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ, 4th. ed., text rev. [Google Scholar]
  8. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc. (APA) 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Arlington, VA: Am. Psychiatr. Publ, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  9. Asendorpf JB, van Aken MAG. 1999. Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes in childhood: Replicability, predictive power, and the trait-type issue. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 77:4815–32 [Google Scholar]
  10. Ashton MC, Lee K, Perugini M, Szarota P, de Vries RE. et al. 2004. A six-factor structure of personality-descriptive adjectives: Solutions from psycholexical studies in seven languages. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 86:2356–66 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bastiaansen L, De Fruyt F, Rossi G, Schotte C, Hofmans J. 2014. Personality disorder dysfunction versus traits: structural and conceptual issues. Personal. Disord. Theory Res. Treat. 44293–303 [Google Scholar]
  12. Belsky J, Pluess M. 2009. Beyond diathesis stress: differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychol. Bull. 135:6885–908 [Google Scholar]
  13. Block J, Block JH. 1980. The California Child Q-Set Palo Alto, CA: Consult. Psychol. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Bornovalova MA, Hicks BM, Iacono WG, McGue M. 2009. Stability, change, and heritability of borderline personality disorder traits from adolescence to adulthood: a longitudinal twin study. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:1335–53 [Google Scholar]
  15. Broeren S, Muris P, Diamantopoulou S, Baker JR. 2013. The course of childhood anxiety symptoms: developmental trajectories and child-related factors in normal children. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 41:81–95 [Google Scholar]
  16. Burke JD, Pardini DA, Loeber R. 2008. Reciprocal relationships between parenting behavior and disruptive psychopathology from childhood through adolescence. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 36:679–92 [Google Scholar]
  17. Buss AH, Plomin R. 1975. A Temperament Theory of Personality Development New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  18. Canli T. 2008. Toward a neurogenetic theory of neuroticism. Molecular and Biophysical Mechanisms of Arousal, Alertness, and Attention DW Pfaff, BL Kieffer 1129153–74 Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  19. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J. et al. 2002. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297:851–54 [Google Scholar]
  20. Caspi A, Roberts BW, Shiner RL. 2005. Personality development: stability and change. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 56:453–84 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chanen AM, Kaess M. 2012. Developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 14:145–53 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chmielewski M, Watson D. 2008. The heterogeneous structure of schizotypal personality disorder: item-level factors of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and their associations with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, dissociative tendencies, and normal personality. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 117:2364–76 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cicchetti D, Crick NR. 2009. Precursors and diverse pathways to personality disorder in children and adolescents. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:3683–85This editorial introduces a special issue compiling a set of challenging papers on precursors and pathways to PD in preadulthood. [Google Scholar]
  24. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. 1996. Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Dev. Psychopathol. 8:597–600 [Google Scholar]
  25. Clark LA. 1993. Manual for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press [Google Scholar]
  26. Clark LA. 2007. Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder: perennial issues and an emerging reconceptualization. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 58:227–57 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cohen P. 2008. Child development and personality disorder. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am. 31:3477–96 [Google Scholar]
  28. Cohen P, Cohen J. 1996. Life Values and Adolescent Mental Health Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  29. Cohen P, Crawford T. 2005. Developmental issues. Textbook of Personality Disorders JM Oldham, AE Skodol, DS Bendler 171–85 Arlington, VA: Am. Psychiatr. Publ. [Google Scholar]
  30. Cohen P, Crawford TN, Johnson JG, Kasen S. 2005. The children in the community study of developmental course of personality disorder. J. Personal. Disord. 19:5466–86Provides an informative introduction to the landmark Children in the Community Study. [Google Scholar]
  31. Costa PT, McCrae RR. 1992. Revised NEO Personality Inventory and Five-Factor Inventory Professional Manual Odessa, FL: Psychol. Assess. Resour. [Google Scholar]
  32. Costello AJ, Edelbrock CS, Dulcan MK, Kalas R, Klaric SH. 1984. Testing of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) in a Clinical Population: Final Rep. Cent. Epidemiol. Stud., Natl. Inst. Mental Health. Pittsburgh, PA: Univ. Pittsburgh [Google Scholar]
  33. Crawford TN, Cohen P, Johnson JG, Kasen S, First MB. et al. 2005. Self-reported personality disorder in the children in the community sample: convergent and prospective validity in late adolescence and adulthood. J. Personal. Disord. 19:130–52 [Google Scholar]
  34. Deal JE, Halverson CF, Martin RP, Victor J, Baker S. 2007. The inventory of children's individual differences: development and validation of a short version. J. Personal. Assess. 89:2162–66 [Google Scholar]
  35. De Bolle M, Beyers W, De Clercq B, De Fruyt F. 2012. General personality and psychopathology in referred and nonreferred children and adolescents: an investigation of continuity, pathoplasty, and complication models. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 121:4958–70 [Google Scholar]
  36. De Bolle M, De Clercq B, Van Leeuwen K, Decuyper M, Rosseel Y, De Fruyt F. 2009. Personality and psychopathology in Flemish referred children: five perspectives of continuity. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 40:2269–85 [Google Scholar]
  37. De Clercq B, Aelterman N, De Pauw S, De Bolle M, Decuyper M, Tackett JL. 2010. Delineating childhood autism spectrum symptoms from a maladaptive trait perspective. J. Psychopathol. Behav. Assess. 32:4529–36 [Google Scholar]
  38. De Clercq B, Decuyper M, De Caluwé E. 2014a. Developmental manifestations of borderline personality pathology from an age-specific dimensional personality disorder trait framework. Handbook of Borderline Disorder in Children and Adolescents JL Tackett, C Sharp New York: Springer. In press [Google Scholar]
  39. De Clercq B, De Fruyt F. 2003. Personality disorder symptoms in adolescence: a five-factor model perspective. J. Personal. Disord. 17:4269–92 [Google Scholar]
  40. De Clercq B, De Fruyt F. 2012. A five-factor model framework for understanding childhood personality disorder antecedents. J. Personal. 80:61533–63 [Google Scholar]
  41. De Clercq B, De Fruyt F, De Bolle M, Van Hiel A, Krueger RF, Markon KE. 2014b. Unfolding the dimensional structure of DSM-5 personality traits in adolescence. J. Personal. In press [Google Scholar]
  42. De Clercq B, De Fruyt F, Van Leeuwen K. 2004. A “little-five” lexically based perspective on personality disorder symptoms in adolescence. J. Personal. Disord. 18:5479–99 [Google Scholar]
  43. De Clercq B, De Fruyt F, Van Leeuwen K, Mervielde I. 2006. The structure of maladaptive personality traits in childhood: a step toward an integrative developmental perspective for DSM-V. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 115:4639–57Describes the development of the first bottom-up constructed taxonomy of maladaptive traits in childhood. [Google Scholar]
  44. De Clercq B, De Fruyt F, Widiger TA. 2009a. Integrating a developmental perspective in dimensional models of personality disorders. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29:2154–62 [Google Scholar]
  45. De Clercq B, Van Leeuwen K, Van Den Noortgate W, De Bolle M, De Fruyt F. 2009b. Childhood personality pathology: dimensional stability and change. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:853–69 [Google Scholar]
  46. Decuyper M, De Pauw S, De Fruyt F, De Bolle M, De Clercq BJ. 2009. A meta-analysis of psychopathy-, antisocial PD- and FFM associations. Eur. J. Personal. 23:7531–65 [Google Scholar]
  47. De Fruyt F, Bartels M, Van Leeuwen KG, De Clercq B, Decuyper M, Mervielde I. 2006. Five types of personality continuity in childhood and adolescence. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 91:3538–52 [Google Scholar]
  48. De Fruyt F, De Bolle M, McCrae RR, Terracciano A, Costa PT. 2009a. Assessing the universal structure of personality in early adolescence: the NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 cultures. Assessment 16:3301–11 [Google Scholar]
  49. De Fruyt F, De Clercq B. 2012. Childhood antecedents of personality disorders. The Oxford Handbook of Personality Disorders TA Widiger 166–85 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  50. De Fruyt F, De Clercq B. 2013. Childhood antecedents of personality disorder: a five-factor model perspective. Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model of Personality TA Widiger, PT Costa Jr 43–60 Washington, DC: APA [Google Scholar]
  51. De Fruyt F, De Clercq B, De Bolle M, Wille B, Markon K, Krueger RF. 2013. General and maladaptive traits in a five-factor framework for DSM-5 in a university student sample. Assessment 20:3295–307 [Google Scholar]
  52. De Fruyt F, De Clercq BJ, Miller J, Rolland JP, Jung SC. et al. 2009b. Assessing personality at risk in personnel selection and development. Eur. J. Personal. 23:151–69 [Google Scholar]
  53. De Pauw SSW, Mervielde I, Van Leeuwen KG. 2009. How are traits related to problem behavior in preschoolers? Similarities and contrasts between temperament and personality. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 37:3309–25 [Google Scholar]
  54. De Raad B, Barelds DPH, Levert E, Ostendorf F, Mlacic B. et al. 2010. Only three factors of personality description are fully replicable across languages: a comparison of 14 trait taxonomies. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 98:1160–73 [Google Scholar]
  55. Dick DM. 2011. Gene-environment interaction in psychological traits and disorders. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 7:383–409 [Google Scholar]
  56. Digman JM. 1963. Principal dimensions of child personality as inferred from teachers' judgements. Child Dev. 34:43–60 [Google Scholar]
  57. Dishion TJ, Tipsord M. 2011. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 62:189–214 [Google Scholar]
  58. Eaton NR, Krueger RF, South SC, Simms LJ, Clark LA. 2011. Contrasting prototypes and dimensions in the classification of personality pathology: evidence that dimensions, but not prototypes, are robust. Psychol. Med. 41:61151–63 [Google Scholar]
  59. Ellis BJ, Boyce WT, Belsky J, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH. 2011. Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary-neurodevelopmental theory. Dev. Psychopathol. 23:17–28 [Google Scholar]
  60. Ferguson CJ. 2010. A meta-analysis of normal and disordered personality across the life span. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 98:659–67Provides a comprehensive meta-analysis looking at the stability of general and disordered personality across the life span, as well as in patient samples, taking into account measurement error. [Google Scholar]
  61. First MB, Gibbon M, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Benjamin LS. 1997. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ. [Google Scholar]
  62. Frances AJ, Widiger T. 2012. Psychiatric diagnosis: lessons from the DSM-IV past and cautions for the DSM-5 future. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 8:109–30Provides an authoritative review on what can be learned from the DSM-past for future developments. [Google Scholar]
  63. Frick PJ, Nigg JT. 2012. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 8:77–107 [Google Scholar]
  64. Goldberg LR. 1990. An alternative description of personality—the Big-5 factor structure. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 59:61216–29 [Google Scholar]
  65. Goldsmith HH, Campos JJ. 1982. Toward a theory of infant temperament. The Development of Attachment and Affiliative Systems RN Emde, RJ Harmon 161–93 New York: Plenum [Google Scholar]
  66. Goldsmith HH, Lemery KS, Essex MJ. 2004. Roles for temperament in the liability to psychopathology in childhood. Behavior Genetic Principles: Development, Personality and Psychopathology L DiLalla 9–19 Washington, DC: APA [Google Scholar]
  67. Gore WL, Widiger TA. 2013. The DSM-5 dimensional trait model and five-factor models of general personality. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:816–21 [Google Scholar]
  68. Graziano WG, Eisenberg NH. 1997. Agreeableness: a dimension of personality. Handbook of Personality Psychology R Hogan, J Johnson, S Briggs 795–824 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  69. Halverson CF, Havill VL, Deal J, Baker SR, Victor JB. et al. 2003. Personality structure as derived from parental ratings of free descriptions of children: the Inventory of Child Individual Differences. J. Personal. 71:6995–1026 [Google Scholar]
  70. Herr NR, Hammen C, Brennan PA. 2008. Maternal borderline personality disorder symptoms and adolescent psychosocial functioning. J. Personal. Disord. 22:5451–65 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hoekstra HA, Ormel J, De Fruyt F. 1996. NEO-PI-R/NEO-FFI: Big Five Persoonlijkheidsvragenlijst [NEO-PI-R/NEO-FFI: Big Five Personality Inventory] Lisse, The Neth: Swets & Zeitlinger [Google Scholar]
  72. John OP, Caspi A, Robins RW, Moffitt TE, Stouthamer-Loeber M. 1994. The “little five”—exploring the nomological network of the five-factor model of personality in adolescent boys. Child Dev. 65:1160–78 [Google Scholar]
  73. Johnson JG, Cohen P, Kasen S, Skodol AE, Hamagami F, Brook JS. 2000. Age-related change in personality disorder trait levels between early adolescence and adulthood: a community-based longitudinal investigation. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 102:265–75 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kogan LS, Smith J, Jenkins S. 1977. Ecological validity of indicator data as predictors of survey findings. J. Soc. Sci. Res. 1:117–32 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kohnstamm GA, Halverson CF Jr, Mervielde I, Havill VL. 1998. Parental Descriptions of Child Personality. Developmental Antecedents of the Big Five? Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  76. Konu AI, Lintonen TP, Rimpelä MK. 2002. Factors associated with schoolchildren's general subjective well-being. Health Educ. Res. 17:155–65 [Google Scholar]
  77. Krueger RF. 2005. Continuity of Axes I and II: toward a unified model of personality, personality disorders, and clinical disorders. J. Personal. Disord. 19:3233–61 [Google Scholar]
  78. Krueger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE. 2012. Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5. Psychol. Med. 42:91879–90Describes the construction of the trait model proposed in DSM-5 section III for further evaluation and research. [Google Scholar]
  79. Laceulle OM, Nederhof E, Karreman A, Ormel J, Van Aken MAG. 2012. Stressful events and temperament change during early and middle adolescence: the TRAILS study. Eur. J. Personal. 26:3276–84 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lahey BB, Applegate B, Chronis AM, Jones HA, Williams SH. et al. 2008. Psychometric characteristics of a measure of emotional dispositions developed to test a developmental propensity model of conduct disorder. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 37:4794–807 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lahey BB, Van Hulle CA, Singh AL, Waldman ID, Rathouz PJ. 2011. Higher-order genetic and environmental structure of prevalent forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 68:2181–89 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lenzenweger MF. 1999. Stability and change in personality disorder features: the longitudinal study of personality disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56:1009–15 [Google Scholar]
  83. Linde JA, Stringer D, Simms LJ, Clark LA. 2013. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology. Assessment 20:4387–404 [Google Scholar]
  84. Livesley WJ. 1990. Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology—Basic Questionnaire Vancouver: Univ. B.C. [Google Scholar]
  85. Martel MM, Goth-Owens T, Martinez-Torteya C, Nigg JT. 2010. A person-centered personality approach to heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J. Abnorm. Psychol. 119:1186–96 [Google Scholar]
  86. McCrae RR, Costa PT Jr. 1996. Toward a new generation of personality theories: theoretical contexts for the five-factor model. The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Theoretical Perspectives JS Wiggins 51–87 New York/London: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  87. McCrae RR, Costa PT Jr, Terracciano A, Parker WD, Mills CJ. et al. 2002. Personality trait development from age 12 to age 18: longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cross-cultural analyses. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 83:61456–68 [Google Scholar]
  88. McCrae RR, Martin TA, Costa PT Jr. 2005. Age trends and age norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 in adolescents and adults. Assessment 12:4363–73 [Google Scholar]
  89. McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D'Alessio AC, Dymov S, Labonte B. et al. 2009. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat. Neurosci. 12:3342–48 [Google Scholar]
  90. Mervielde I, Asendorpf JB. 2000. Variable-centred and person-centred approaches to childhood personality. Advances in Personality Psychology SE Hampson 37–76 East Sussex, UK: Psychol. Press [Google Scholar]
  91. Mervielde I, Buyst V, De Fruyt F. 1995. The validity of the Big Five as a model for teachers' ratings of individual differences among children aged 4–12 years. Personal. Individ. Differ. 18:4525–34 [Google Scholar]
  92. Mervielde I, De Fruyt F. 1999. Construction of the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC). Personality Psychology in Europe, Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Personal. Psychol. I Mervielde, I Deary, F De Fruyt, F Ostendorf 107–27 Tilburg, The Neth.: Tilburg Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  93. Mervielde I, De Fruyt F, De Clercq B. 2009. Hiërarchische Persoonlijkheidsvragenlijst voor Kinderen: Handleiding [Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children: Manual] Amsterdam: Hogrefe [Google Scholar]
  94. Nederhof E, Bouma EMC, Riese H, Laceulle OM, Ormel J, Oldehinkel AJ. 2010. Evidence for plasticity genotypes in a gene-gene-environment interaction: the TRAILS study. Genes Brain Behav. 9:8968–73 [Google Scholar]
  95. Ormel J, Bastiaansen A, Riese H, Bos EH, Servaas M. et al. 2013. The biological and psychological basis of neuroticism: current status and future directions. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 37:59–72 [Google Scholar]
  96. Paris J. 2005. Neurobiological dimensional models of personality: a review of the models of Cloninger, Depue, and Siever. J. Personal. Disord. 19:156–70 [Google Scholar]
  97. Penney SR, Moretti MM. 2010. The roles of affect dysregulation and deficient affect in youth violence. Crim. Justice Behav. 37:709–31 [Google Scholar]
  98. Raine A, Mellingen K, Liu J, Venables P, Mednick SA. 2003. Effects of environmental enrichment at ages 3–5 years on schizotypal personality and antisocial behavior at ages 17 and 23 years. Am. J. Psychiatry 160:1627–35 [Google Scholar]
  99. Rettew DC. 2000. Avoidant personality disorder, generalized social phobia, and shyness: putting the personality back into personality disorders. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry 8:6283–97 [Google Scholar]
  100. Rettew DC. 2013. Child Temperament: New Thinking About the Boundary Between Traits and Illness. New York: NortonA challenging and innovative book on the temperamental substrates of behavior and psychopathology. [Google Scholar]
  101. Rothbart MK, Derryberry D. 1981. Development of individual differences in temperament. Advances in Developmental Psychology ME Lamb, AL Brown 137–86 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  102. Rudolph KD, Troop-Gordon W, Llewellyn N. 2013. Interactive contributions of self-regulation deficits and social motivation to psychopathology: unraveling divergent pathways to aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms. Dev. Psychopathol. 25:407–18 [Google Scholar]
  103. Rutter M. 2012. Gene-environment interdependence. Eur. J. Dev. Psychol. 9:4391–412 [Google Scholar]
  104. Samuel DB, Hopwood CJ, Krueger RF, Thomas KM, Ruggero CJ. 2013. Comparing methods for scoring personality disorder types using maladaptive traits in DSM-5. Assessment 20:3353–61 [Google Scholar]
  105. Samuel DB, Widiger TA. 2008. A meta-analytic review of the relationships between the five-factor model and DSM-IV-TR personality disorders: a facet level analysis. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 28:81326–42Reports a major meta-analysis showing how PDs are associated with FFM domain and facet traits. [Google Scholar]
  106. Saulsman LM, Page AC. 2004. The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: a meta-analytic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 23:81055–85 [Google Scholar]
  107. Schaeffer CM, Borduin CM. 2005. Long-term follow-up to a randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with serious and violent juvenile offenders. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 73:445–53 [Google Scholar]
  108. Schotte CKW, De Doncker DAM, Dmitruk D, Van Mulders I, D'Haenen H, Cosyns P. 2004. The ADP-IV questionnaire: differential validity and concordance with the semi-structured interview. J. Personal. Disord. 18:4405–19 [Google Scholar]
  109. Shiner RL. 2007. Personality disorders. Assessment of Childhood Disorders EJ Mash, RA Barkley 781–816 New York: Guilford, 4th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  110. Shiner RL. 2009. The development of personality disorders: perspectives from normal personality development in childhood and adolescence. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:3715–34 [Google Scholar]
  111. Simms LJ, Goldberg LR, Roberts JE, Watson D, Welte J, Rotterman JH. 2011. Computerized adaptive assessment of personality disorder: introducing the CAT-PD project. J. Personal. Assess. 93:4380–89 [Google Scholar]
  112. Skodol AE. 2012. Personality disorders in DSM-5. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 8:317–44 [Google Scholar]
  113. Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, Shea MT, McGlashan TH, Morey LC. et al. 2005. The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS): overview and implications. J. Personal. Disord. 19:487–504 [Google Scholar]
  114. Skodol AE, Siever LJ, Livesley WJ, Gunderson JG, Pfohl B, Widiger TA. 2002. The borderline diagnosis II: biology, genetics, and clinical course. Biol. Psychiatry 51:12951–63 [Google Scholar]
  115. Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. 1986. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II) New York: NY State Psychiatr. Inst. [Google Scholar]
  116. Stepp SD, Burke JD, Hipwell AE, Loeber R. 2012a. Trajectories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms as precursors of borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescent girls. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 40:7–20 [Google Scholar]
  117. Stepp SD, Whalen DJ, Pilkonis PA, Hipwell AE, Levine MD. 2012b. Children of mothers with borderline personality disorder: identifying parenting behaviors as potential targets of intervention. Personal. Disord. Theory Res. Treat. 3:76–91 [Google Scholar]
  118. Stepp SD, Yu L, Miller JD, Hallquist MN, Trull TJ, Pilkonis PA. 2012c. Integrating competing dimensional models of personality: linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO using item response theory. Personal. Disord. Theory Res. Treat. 3:2107–26Illustrates how overlap among different personality models can be examined and integrated to optimize personality assessment. [Google Scholar]
  119. Stoltz S, Prinzie P, De Haan A, Van Londen M, Orobio de Castro B, Dekovic M. 2013. Child personality as moderator of outcome in a school-based intervention for preventing externalising behavior. Eur. J. Personal. 27:271–79 [Google Scholar]
  120. Tackett JL. 2010. Measurement and assessment of child and adolescent personality pathology: introduction to the special issue. J. Psychopathol. Behav. Assess. 32:4463–66An editorial that introduces a special issue compiling a set of challenging papers on precursors and pathways to PD in preadulthood. [Google Scholar]
  121. Tackett JL, Balsis S, Oltmanns TF, Krueger RF. 2009. A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:3687–713 [Google Scholar]
  122. Tackett JL, Kushner SC, De Fruyt F, Mervielde I. 2014a. Mapping the terrain of personality traits in childhood and adolescence: associations across measures, temperament, and behavioral problems. Manuscr. submitted
  123. Tackett JL, Lahey BB, Van Hulle C, Waldman I, Krueger RF, Rathouz PJ. 2014b. Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 12241142–53 [Google Scholar]
  124. Tett RP, Burnett DD. 2003. A personality trait-based interactionist model of job performance. J. Appl. Psychol. 88:3500–17 [Google Scholar]
  125. Thomas A, Chess S. 1977. Temperament and Development New York: Brunner/Mazel [Google Scholar]
  126. Tromp NB, Koot HM. 2008. Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: psychometric properties of the DAPP-BQ-A. J. Personal. Disord. 22:6623–38 [Google Scholar]
  127. Tromp NB, Koot HM. 2009. Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: relations to DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms. J. Personal. Disord. 23:5514–27 [Google Scholar]
  128. Trull TJ, Vergés A, Wood PK, Sher KJ. 2013. The structure of DSM-IV-TR personality disorder diagnoses in NESARC: a reanalysis. J. Personal. Disord. 27:727–34 [Google Scholar]
  129. Tyrer P. 2012. DSM: a classification of personality disorders that has had its day. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 19:372–74 [Google Scholar]
  130. Tyrer P. 2013. The classification of personality disorders in ICD-11: implications for forensic psychiatry. Crim. Behav. Mental Health 23:1–5 [Google Scholar]
  131. Van Leeuwen K, De Fruyt F, Mervielde I. 2004a. A longitudinal study of the utility of the resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality types as predictors of children's and adolescents' problem behaviour. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 28:3210–20 [Google Scholar]
  132. Van Leeuwen KG, Mervielde I, Braet C, Bosmans G. 2004b. Child personality and parental behavior as moderators of problem behavior: variable- and person-centered approaches. Dev. Psychol. 40:61028–46 [Google Scholar]
  133. Verbeke L, De Clercq B. 2014. Integrating Childhood Oddity Traits in a Dimensional Model for Personality Pathology Precursors. Manuscr. submitted [Google Scholar]
  134. Warner MB, Morey LC, Finch JF, Gunderson JG, Skodol AE. et al. 2004. The longitudinal relationship of personality traits and disorders. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 113:2217–27 [Google Scholar]
  135. Widiger TA, Clark LA. 2000. Toward DSM-V and the classification of psychopathology. Psychol. Bull. 126:6946–63 [Google Scholar]
  136. Widiger TA, De Clercq B, De Fruyt F. 2009a. Childhood antecedents of personality disorder: an alternative perspective. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:3771–91 [Google Scholar]
  137. Widiger TA, Livesley WJ, Clark LA. 2009b. An integrative dimensional classification of personality disorder. Psychol. Assess. 21:3243–55 [Google Scholar]
  138. Widiger TA, Mullins-Sweatt SN. 2009. Five-factor model of personality disorder: a proposal for DSM-V. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 5:197–220 [Google Scholar]
  139. Widiger TA, Samuel DB. 2005. Diagnostic categories or dimensions? A question for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–fifth edition. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 114:4494–504 [Google Scholar]
  140. Widiger TA, Trull TJ, Clarkin JF, Sanderson C, Costa PT. 2002. A description of the DSM-IV personality disorders with the five-factor model of personality. Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model of Personality PT Costa, TA Widiger 89–99 Washington, DC: APA, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  141. Wilkinson PO, Trzaskowski M, Haworth CMA, Eley TC. 2013. The role of gene-environment correlations and interactions in middle childhood depressive symptoms. Dev. Psychopathol. 25:193–104 [Google Scholar]
  142. Wille B, De Fruyt F, De Clercq B. 2013. Expanding and reconceptualizing aberrant personality at work: validity of five-factor model aberrant personality tendencies to predict career outcomes. Pers. Psychol. 66:1173–223 [Google Scholar]
  143. World Health Organ. (WHO) 1994. The International Classification of Diseases Geneva: WHO [Google Scholar]
  144. World Health Organ. (WHO) 2010. The International Classification of Diseases Geneva: WHO [Google Scholar]
  145. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Hennen J, Reich DB, Silk KR. 2005. The McLean Study of Adult Development (MSAD): overview and implications of the first six years of prospective follow-up. J. Personal. Disord. 19:505–23 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153634
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153634
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error