1932

Abstract

Our article reviews and celebrates Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's remarkable contributions to psychological and clinical science, focusing on her vast body of theoretical and empirical work and her influence on colleagues and students. Susan spent her career trying to understand how and why a style of regulating emotions called rumination increases vulnerability to depression and exacerbates and perpetuates negative moods. More broadly, we describe research by Susan and her colleagues on the predictors of depression in childhood and adolescence; gender differences in depression and rumination in adolescence and adulthood; roots, correlates, and adverse consequences of ruminative response styles; and rumination as a transdiagnostic risk factor for not only depression but also a host of psychological disorders, including anxiety, substance abuse, and eating disorders. Susan's intellectual legacy is evident in her impressive publication and citation record, the clinical applications of her work, and the flourishing careers of the students she mentored.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112733
2015-03-28
2024-06-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/11/1/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112733.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112733&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abela JR, Hankin BL. 2011. Rumination as a vulnerability factor to depression during transition from early to middle adolescence: a multiwave longitudinal study. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 120:259–71 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2012. When are adaptive strategies most predictive of psychopathology?. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 121:276–81 [Google Scholar]
  3. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2013. One versus many: capturing the use of multiple emotion regulation strategies in response to an emotion-eliciting stimulus. Cogn. Emot. 27:753–60 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Schweizer S. 2010. Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 30:217–37 [Google Scholar]
  5. Amenson CS, Lewinsohn PM. 1981. An investigation into the observed sex differences in prevalence of unipolar depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 90:1–13 [Google Scholar]
  6. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Assoc, 4th. ed., text rev. [Google Scholar]
  7. Aymanns P, Filipp SH, Klauer T. 1995. Family support and coping with cancer: some determinants and adaptive correlates. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 34:107–24 [Google Scholar]
  8. Broderick PC, Korteland C. 2004. A prospective study of rumination and depression in early adolescence. Clin. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 9:383–94 [Google Scholar]
  9. Butler LD, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1994. Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample. Sex Roles 30:331–46 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cadoret R, Winokur G. 1974. Depression in alcoholism. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 23:34–39 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ciesla JA, Roberts JE. 2002. Self-directed thought and response to treatment for depression: a preliminary investigation. J. Cogn. Psychother. 16:435–53 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cohen N, Mor N, Henik A. 2014. Linking executive control and emotional response: a training procedure to reduce rumination. Clin. Psychol. Sci. doi: 10.1177/216770261453011 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cole DA, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus J, Paul G. 2006. Stress exposure and stress generation in child and adolescent depression: a latent trait-state-error approach to longitudinal analyses. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 115:40–51 [Google Scholar]
  14. Collins K, Bell R. 1997. Personality and aggression: the Dissipation-Rumination Scale. Personal. Individ. Differ. 22:751–55 [Google Scholar]
  15. Flett GL, Madorsky D, Hewitt PL, Heisel MJ. 2002. Perfectionism cognitions, rumination, and psychological distress. J. Ration. Emot. Cogn. Behav. Ther. 20:33–47 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fredrickson BL, Mancuso RA, Branigan C, Tugade MM. 2000a. The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motiv. Emot. 24:237–58 [Google Scholar]
  17. Fredrickson BL, Maynard KE, Helms MJ, Haney TL, Seigler IC, Barefoot JC. 2000b. Hostility predicts magnitude and duration of blood pressure response to anger. J. Behav. Med. 23:229–43 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fredrickson BL, Roberts T-A. 1997. Objectification theory: toward understanding women's lived experience and mental health risks. Psychol. Women Q. 21:173–206 [Google Scholar]
  19. Fresco DM, Frankel AN, Mennin DS, Turk CL, Heimberg RG. 2002. Distinct and overlapping features of rumination and worry: the relationship of cognitive production to negative affective states. Cogn. Ther. Res. 26:179–88 [Google Scholar]
  20. Gorski J, Young MA. 2002. Sociotropy/autonomy, self-construal, response style, and gender in adolescents. Personal. Individ. Differ. 32:463–78 [Google Scholar]
  21. Greenberg J, Pyszczynski T, Burling J, Tibbs K. 1992. Depression, self-focused attention, and the self-serving attributional bias. Personal. Individ. Differ. 13:959–65 [Google Scholar]
  22. Hilt LM, Cha CB, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2008. Non-suicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: moderators of the distress-function relationship. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 76:63–71 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hilt LM, McLaughlin KA, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2010. Examination of the response styles theory in a community sample of young adolescents. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 38:545–56 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hilt LM, Pollak SD. 2012. Getting out of rumination: comparison of three brief interventions in a sample of youth. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 40:1157–65 [Google Scholar]
  25. Johnson MK, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Mitchell KJ, Levin Y. 2009. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection, and depression. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 4:313–27 [Google Scholar]
  26. Johnson MK, Raye CL, Mitchell KJ, Touryan SR, Greene EJ, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2006. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 1:56–64 [Google Scholar]
  27. Joorman J. 2004. Attentional bias in dysphoria: the role of inhibitory processes. Cogn. Emot. 18:125–47 [Google Scholar]
  28. Just N, Alloy LB. 1997. The response styles theory of depression: tests and an extension of the theory. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 106:221–29 [Google Scholar]
  29. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D. et al. 2003. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289:3095–105 [Google Scholar]
  30. King DA, Buchwald AM. 1982. Sex differences in subclinical depression: administration of the Beck Depression Inventory in public and private disclosure situations. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 42:963–69 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kuehner C, Weber I. 1999. Responses to depression in unipolar depressed patients: an investigation of Nolen-Hoeksema's response styles theory. Psychol. Med. 29:1323–33 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lam D, Smith N, Checkley S, Rijsdijk F, Sham P. 2003. Effect of neuroticism, response style and information processing on depression severity in a clinically depressed sample. Psychol. Med. 33:469–79 [Google Scholar]
  33. Layous K, Chancellor J, Lyubomirsky S. 2014. Positive activities as protective factors against mental health conditions. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123:3–12 [Google Scholar]
  34. Lyubomirsky S. 2001. Why are some people happier than others? The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being. Am. Psychol. 56:239–49 [Google Scholar]
  35. Lyubomirsky S, Boehm JK, Kasri F, Zehm K. 2011. The cognitive and hedonic costs of dwelling on achievement-related negative experiences: implications for enduring happiness and unhappiness. Emotion 11:1152–67 [Google Scholar]
  36. Lyubomirsky S, Caldwell ND, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1998. Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 75:166–77 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lyubomirsky S, Kasri F, Chang O, Chung I. 2006a. Ruminative response styles and delay of seeking diagnosis for breast cancer symptoms. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 25:276–304 [Google Scholar]
  38. Lyubomirsky S, Layous K. 2013. How do simple positive activities increase well-being?. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22:57–62 [Google Scholar]
  39. Lyubomirsky S, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1993. Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 65:339–49 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lyubomirsky S, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1995. Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 69:176–90 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lyubomirsky S, Sheldon KM, Schkade D. 2005. Pursuing happiness: the architecture of sustainable change. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 9:111–31 [Google Scholar]
  42. Lyubomirsky S, Sousa L, Dickerhoof R. 2006b. The costs and benefits of writing, talking, and thinking about life's triumphs and defeats. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 90:692–708 [Google Scholar]
  43. Lyubomirsky S, Tkach C. 2004. The consequences of dysphoric rumination. Rumination: Nature, Theory, and Treatment of Negative Thinking in Depression C Papageorgiou, A Wells 21–41 Chichester, UK: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  44. Lyubomirsky S, Tucker KL, Caldwell ND, Berg K. 1999. Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 77:1041–60 [Google Scholar]
  45. Mandell D, Siegle GJ, Shutt L, Feldmiller J, Thase ME. 2014. Neural substrates of trait ruminations in depression. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123:35–48 [Google Scholar]
  46. Martin LL, Tesser A. 1989. Toward a motivational and structural theory of ruminative thought. Unintended Thought JS Uleman, JA Bargh 306–26 New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  47. Martin LL, Tesser A. 1996. Some ruminative thoughts. Ruminative Thoughts. Advances in Social Cognition RS Wyer 91–47 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  48. McCullough ME, Bellah CG, Kilpatrick SD, Johnson JL. 2001. Vengefulness: relationships with forgiveness, rumination, well-being, and the Big Five. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 27:601–10 [Google Scholar]
  49. McFarland C, Buehler R. 1998. The impact of negative affect on autobiographical memory: the role of self-focused attention to moods. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 75:1424–40 [Google Scholar]
  50. McLaughlin KA, Aldao A, Wisco BE, Hilt LM. 2014. Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor underlying transitions between internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior in early adolescents. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123:13–23 [Google Scholar]
  51. McLaughlin KA, Hatzenbuehler ML, Mennin DS, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2011. Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: a prospective study. Behav. Res. Ther. 49:544–54 [Google Scholar]
  52. McLaughlin KA, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2012. Interpersonal stress generation as a mechanism linking rumination to internalizing symptoms in early adolescents. J. Clin. Child. Adolesc. Psychol. 41:584–97 [Google Scholar]
  53. Michl LC, McLaughlin KA, Shepherd K, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2013. Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:339–52 [Google Scholar]
  54. Mitchell J. 1974. Psychoanalysis and Feminism New York: Random House [Google Scholar]
  55. Mor N, Winquist J. 2002. Self-focused attention and negative affect: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 128:638–62 [Google Scholar]
  56. Morrow J, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1990. Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 58:519–27 [Google Scholar]
  57. Moulds ML, Kandris E, Starr S, Wong ACM. 2007. The relationship between rumination, avoidance and depression in a non-clinical sample. Behav. Res. Ther. 45:251–61 [Google Scholar]
  58. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1987. Sex differences in unipolar depression: evidence and theory. Psychol. Bull. 101:259–82 [Google Scholar]
  59. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1991. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 100:569–82 [Google Scholar]
  60. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1994. An interactive model for the emergence of gender differences in depression in adolescence. J. Res. Adolesc. 4:519–34 [Google Scholar]
  61. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2000. The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 109:504–11 [Google Scholar]
  62. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2001. Gender differences in depression. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 10:173–76 [Google Scholar]
  63. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2003. Women Who Think Too Much: How to Break Free of Overthinking and Reclaim Your Life New York: Holt [Google Scholar]
  64. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2005. Eating, Drinking, Overthinking: The Toxic Triangle of Food, Alcohol, and Depression—And How Women Can Break Free New York: Holt [Google Scholar]
  65. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2010. The Power of Women New York: Times Books [Google Scholar]
  66. Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2012. Emotion regulation and psychopathology: the role of gender. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 8:161–87 [Google Scholar]
  67. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Aldao A. 2011. Gender and age differences in emotion regulation strategies and their relationship to depressive symptoms. Personal. Individ. Differ. 51:704–8 [Google Scholar]
  68. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Davis CG. 1999. “Thanks for sharing that”: ruminators and their social support networks. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 77:801–14 [Google Scholar]
  69. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus JS. 1994. The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychol. Bull. 115:424–43 [Google Scholar]
  70. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus JS, Seligman MEP. 1986. Learned helplessness in children: a longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 51:435–42 [Google Scholar]
  71. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus JS, Seligman MEP. 1991. Sex differences in depression and explanatory style in children. J. Youth Adolesc. 20:233–45 [Google Scholar]
  72. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus JS, Seligman MEP. 1992. Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 101:405–22 [Google Scholar]
  73. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Harrell ZA. 2002. Rumination, depression, and alcohol use: tests of gender differences. J. Cogn. Psychother. 16:391–403 [Google Scholar]
  74. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Hilt L. 2006. Possible contributors to the gender differences in alcohol use and problems. J. Gen. Psychol. 133:357–74 [Google Scholar]
  75. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Jackson B. 2001. Mediators of the gender difference in rumination. Psychol. Women Q. 25:37–47 [Google Scholar]
  76. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Larson J. 1999. Coping with Loss. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  77. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Larson J, Grayson C. 1999. Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 77:1061–72 [Google Scholar]
  78. Nolen-Hoeksema S, McBride A, Larson J. 1997. Rumination and psychological distress among bereaved partners. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 72:855–62 [Google Scholar]
  79. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow J. 1991. A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 61:115–21 [Google Scholar]
  80. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow J. 1993. Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood. Cogn. Emot. 7:561–70 [Google Scholar]
  81. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow J, Fredrickson BL. 1993. Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 102:20–28 [Google Scholar]
  82. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Mumme D, Wolfson A, Guskin K. 1995. Helplessness in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Dev. Psychol. 31:377–87 [Google Scholar]
  83. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Parker L, Larson J. 1994. Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 67:92–104 [Google Scholar]
  84. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Stice E, Wade E, Bohon C. 2007. Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 116:198–207 [Google Scholar]
  85. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Watkins ER. 2011. A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 6:589–609 [Google Scholar]
  86. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. 2008. Rethinking rumination. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 3:400–24 [Google Scholar]
  87. Papageorgiou C, Wells A. 2001. Metacognitive beliefs about rumination in recurrent major depression. Cogn. Behav. Pract. 8:160–64 [Google Scholar]
  88. Papageorgiou C, Wells A. 2003. An empirical test of a clinical metacognitive model of rumination and depression. Cogn. Ther. Res. 27:261–73 [Google Scholar]
  89. Pyszczynski T, Hamilton JC, Herring FH, Greenberg J. 1989. Depression, self-focused attention, and the negative memory bias. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 57:351–57 [Google Scholar]
  90. Radloff L. 1975. Sex differences in depression: the effects of occupation and marital status. Sex Roles 1:249–65 [Google Scholar]
  91. Roberts T-A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1989. Sex differences in reactions to evaluative feedback. Sex Roles 21:725–47 [Google Scholar]
  92. Roberts T-A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1994. Gender comparisons in responsiveness to others' evaluations in achievement settings. Psychol. Women Q. 18:221–40 [Google Scholar]
  93. Robinson LA, Alloy LB. 2003. Negative cognitive styles and stress-reactive rumination interact to predict depression: a prospective study. Cogn. Ther. Res. 27:275–92 [Google Scholar]
  94. Rood L, Roelofs J, Bögels SM, Nolen-Noeksema S, Schouten E. 2009. The influence of emotion-focused rumination and distraction on depressive symptoms in non-clinical youth: a meta-analytic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29:607–16 [Google Scholar]
  95. Sarin S, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2010. The dangers of dwelling: an examination of the relationship between rumination and consumptive coping in survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Cogn. Emot. 24:71–85 [Google Scholar]
  96. Segerstrom SC, Stanton AL, Alden LE, Shortridge BE. 2003. A multidimensional structure for repetitive thought: What's on your mind, and how, and how much?. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 85:909–21 [Google Scholar]
  97. Selby EA, Anestis MD, Joiner TE. 2008. Understanding the relationship between emotional and behavioral dysregulation: emotional cascades. Behav. Res. Ther. 46:593–611 [Google Scholar]
  98. Seligman MEP. 1975. Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death San Francisco: Freeman [Google Scholar]
  99. Seligman MEP. 2014. The real mental illnesses: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959–2013) in memoriam. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123:1–2 [Google Scholar]
  100. Seligman MEP, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Thornton N, Thornton KM. 1990. Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance. Psychol. Sci. 1:143–46 [Google Scholar]
  101. Sethi S, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 1997. Gender differences in internal and external focusing among adolescents. Sex Roles 37:687–700 [Google Scholar]
  102. Spasojevic J, Alloy LB. 2001. Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk to depression. Emotion 1:25–37 [Google Scholar]
  103. Spasojevic J, Alloy LB. 2002. Who becomes a depressive ruminator? Developmental antecedents of ruminative response style. J. Cogn. Psychother. 16:405–19 [Google Scholar]
  104. Trapnell PD, Campbell JD. 1999. Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 76:284–304 [Google Scholar]
  105. Treynor W, Gonzalez R, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2003. Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. Cogn. Ther. Res. 27:247–59 [Google Scholar]
  106. Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. 2004. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 86:320–33 [Google Scholar]
  107. Twenge JM, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2002. Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort differences on the Children's Depression Inventory: a meta-analysis. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 111:578–88 [Google Scholar]
  108. Ward A, Lyubomirsky S, Sousa L, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2003. Can't quite commit: rumination and uncertainty. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 29:96–107 [Google Scholar]
  109. Watkins ER. 2004. Appraisals and strategies associated with rumination and worry. Personal. Individ. Differ. 37:679–94 [Google Scholar]
  110. Watkins ER. 2008. Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychol. Bull. 134:163–206 [Google Scholar]
  111. Watkins ER, Moulds M, Mackintosh B. 2005. Comparisons between rumination and worry in a non-clinical population. Behav. Res. Ther. 43:1577–85 [Google Scholar]
  112. Watkins ER, Mullan E, Wingrove J, Rimes K, Steiner H. et al. 2011. Rumination-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for residual depression: Phase II randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Psychiatry 199:317–22 [Google Scholar]
  113. Watkins ER, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2014. A habit-goal framework of depressive rumination. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123:24–34 [Google Scholar]
  114. Watkins ER, Taylor RS, Byng R, Baeyens C, Read R. et al. 2012. Guided self-help concreteness training as an intervention for major depression in primary care: a Phase II randomized controlled trial. Psychol. Med. 42:1359–71 [Google Scholar]
  115. Wenzlaff RM, Luxton DD. 2003. The role of thought suppression in depressive rumination. Cogn. Ther. Res. 22:293–308 [Google Scholar]
  116. Wenzlaff RM, Wegner DM, Roper DW. 1988. Depression and mental control: the resurgence of unwanted negative thoughts. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 55:882–92 [Google Scholar]
  117. Wisco BE, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2010a. Interpretation bias and depressive symptoms: the role of self-relevance. Behav. Res. Ther. 48:1113–22 [Google Scholar]
  118. Wisco BE, Nolen-Hoeksema S. 2010b. Valence of autobiographical memories: the role of mood, cognitive reappraisal, and suppression. Behav. Res. Ther. 48:335–40 [Google Scholar]
  119. Wood W, Neal DT. 2007. A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface. Psychol. Rev. 114:843–63 [Google Scholar]
  120. Woody ML, McGeary JE, Gibb BE. 2014. Brooding rumination and heart rate variability in women at high and low risk for depression: group differences and moderation by COMT genotype. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123:61–67 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112733
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error