The exponential rise in the number of functional brain connectivity studies, particularly those examining intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) at rest, and the promises of this work for unraveling the ontogeny of functional neural systems motivate this review. Shortly before this explosion in functional connectivity research, developmental neuroscientists had proposed theories based on neural systems models to explain behavioral changes, particularly in adolescence. The current review presents recent advances in imaging in brain connectivity research, which provides a unique tool for the study of neural systems. Understanding the potential of neuroimaging for refining neurodevelopmental models of brain function requires a description of various functional connectivity approaches. In this review, we describe task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analytic strategies, but we focus on iFC findings from resting-state data to describe general developmental trajectories of brain network organization. Finally, we use the example of drug addiction to frame a discussion of psychopathology that emerges in adolescence.


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